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Psalms 22:1

New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995) [2]
— [[For the choir director; upon Aijeleth Hashshahar. A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why have You forsaken me? Far from my deliverance are the words of my groaning.
King James Version (KJV 1769) [2]
— [[To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?
English Revised Version (ERV 1885)
— [[For the Chief Musician; set to Aijeleth hash-Shahar. A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?
American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— [[For the Chief Musician; set to Aijeleth hash-Shahar. A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [Why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my groaning?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [[To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so far] from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [[To the chief Musician. Upon Aijeleth-Shahar. A Psalm of David.]] My *God, my *God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou] far from my salvation, from the words of my groaning?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [[To the Chief Musician. On "the Hind of the Dawn." A Melody of David.]] My GOD, my GOD, why hast thou forsaken me? Far from saving me, The words of my loud lamentation?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— To the Overseer, on 'The Hind of the Morning.'—A Psalm of David. My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me? Far from my salvation, The words of my roaring?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Unto the end, for the morning protection, a psalm for David. O God my God, look upon me: why hast thou forsaken me? Far from my salvation are the words of my sins.
Geneva Bible (GNV 1560)
— [[To him that excelleth vpon Aiieleth Hasshahar. A Psalme of Dauid.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, and art so farre from mine health, and from the wordes of my roaring?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [[To the chiefe Musician vpon Aijeleth Shahar. A Psalme of Dauid.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken mee? [why] art thou so far from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?
Lamsa Bible (1957)
— MY God, my God, why hast thou let me to live? and yet thou hast delayed my salvation from me, because of the words of my folly.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[For the end, concerning the morning aid, a Psalm of David.]] O God, my God, attend to me: why hast thou forsaken me? the account of my transgressions is far from my salvation.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [[To the chief Musician upon Ayyeleth Shachar, A Psalm of Dawid.]] My El, my El, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[[To the chief Musician 5329
{5329} Prime
A primitive root; properly to glitter from afar, that is, to be eminent (as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music); also (as denominative from H5331), to be permanent.
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
´Ayyeleŧ אַיֶּלֶת 365
{0365} Prime
The same as H0355; a doe.
Šaçar שַׁחַר, 7837
{7837} Prime
From H7836; dawn (literally, figuratively or adverbially).
A Psalm 4210
{4210} Prime
From H2167; properly instrumental music; by implication a poem set to notes.
of Däwiđ דָּוִד.]] 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
My ´Ël אֵל, 410
{0410} Prime
Shortened from H0352; strength; as adjective mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity).
my ´Ël אֵל, 410
{0410} Prime
Shortened from H0352; strength; as adjective mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity).
why x4100
(4100) Complement
A primitive particle; properly interrogitive what? (including how?, why? and when?); but also exclamations like what! (including how!), or indefinitely what (including whatever, and even relatively that which); often used with prefixes in various adverbial or conjugational senses.
hast thou forsaken 5800
{5800} Prime
A primitive root; to loosen, that is, relinquish, permit, etc.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
me? [why art thou so] far 7350
{7350} Prime
From H7368; remote, literally of figuratively, of place or time; specifically precious; often used adverbially (with preposition).
from helping 3444
{3444} Prime
Feminine passive participle of H3467; something saved, that is, (abstractly) deliverance; hence aid, victory, prosperity.
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
me, [and from] the words 1697
{1697} Prime
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
of my roaring? 7581
{7581} Prime
From H7580; a rumbling or moan.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 22:1

_ _ Psalms 22:1-31. The obscure words Aijeleth Shahar in this title have various explanations. Most interpreters agree in translating them by “hind of the morning.” But great difference exists as to the meaning of these words. By some they are supposed (compare Psalms 9:1) to be the name of the tune to which the words of the Psalm were set; by others, the name of a musical instrument. Perhaps the best view is to regard the phrase as enigmatically expressive of the subject — the sufferer being likened to a hind pursued by hunters in the early morning (literally, “the dawn of day”) — or that, while hind suggests the idea of a meek, innocent sufferer, the addition of morning denotes relief obtained. The feelings of a pious sufferer in sorrow and deliverance are vividly portrayed. He earnestly pleads for divine aid on the ground of his relation to God, whose past goodness to His people encourages hope, and then on account of the imminent danger by which he is threatened. The language of complaint is turned to that of rejoicing in the assured prospect of relief from suffering and triumph over his enemies. The use of the words of the first clause of Psalms 22:1 by our Savior on the cross, and the quotation of Psalms 22:18 by John (John 19:24), and of Psalms 22:22 by Paul (Hebrews 2:12), as fulfilled in His history, clearly intimate the prophetical and Messianic purport of the Psalm. The intensity of the grief, and the completeness and glory of the deliverance and triumph, alike appear to be unsuitable representations of the fortunes of any less personage. In a general and modified sense (see on Psalms 16:1), the experience here detailed may be adapted to the case of all Christians suffering from spiritual foes, and delivered by divine aid, inasmuch as Christ in His human nature was their head and representative.

_ _ A summary of the complaint. Desertion by God, when overwhelmed by distress, is the climax of the sufferer’s misery.

_ _ words of my roaring — shows that the complaint is expressed intelligently, though the term “roaring” is figurative, taken from the conduct of irrational creatures in pain.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 22:1-10

_ _ Some think they find Christ in the title of this psalm, upon Aijeleth ShaharThe hind of the morning. Christ is as the swift hind upon the mountains of spices (Song of Songs 8:14), as the loving hind and the pleasant roe, to all believers (Proverbs 5:19); he giveth goodly words like Naphtali, who is compared to a hind let loose, Genesis 49:21. He is the hind of the morning, marked out by the counsels of God from eternity, to be run down by those dogs that compassed him, Psalms 22:16. But others think it denotes only the tune to which the psalm was set. In these verses we have,

_ _ I. A sad complaint of God's withdrawings, Psalms 22:1, Psalms 22:2.

_ _ 1. This may be applied to David, or any other child of God, in the want of the tokens of his favour, pressed with the burden of his displeasure, roaring under it, as one overwhelmed with grief and terror, crying earnestly for relief, and, in this case, apprehending himself forsaken of God, unhelped, unheard, yet calling him, again and again, “My God,” and continuing to cry day and night to him and earnestly desiring his gracious returns. Note, (1.) Spiritual desertions are the saints' sorest afflictions; when their evidences are clouded, divine consolations suspended, their communion with God interrupted, and the terrors of God set in array against them, how sad are their spirits, and how sapless all their comforts! (2.) Even their complaint of these burdens is a good sign of spiritual life and spiritual senses exercised. To cry out, “My God, why am I sick? Why am I poor?” would give cause to suspect discontent and worldliness. But, Why has though forsaken me? is the language of a heart binding up its happiness in God's favour. (3.) When we are lamenting God's withdrawings, yet still we must call him our God, and continue to call upon him as ours. When we want the faith of assurance we must live by a faith of adherence. “However it be, yet God is good, and he is mine; though he slay me, yet I trust in him; though he do not answer me immediately, I will continue praying and waiting; though he be silent, I will not be silent.”

_ _ 2. But is must be applied to Christ: for, in the first words of this complaint, he poured out his soul before God when he was upon the cross (Matthew 27:46); probably he proceeded to the following words, and, some think, repeated the whole psalm, if not aloud (because they cavilled at the first words), yet to himself. Note, (1.) Christ, in his sufferings, cried earnestly to his Father for his favour and presence with him. He cried in the day-time, upon the cross, and in the night-season, when he was in agony in the garden. He offered up strong crying and tears to him that was able to save him, and with some fear too, Hebrews 5:7. (2.) Yet God forsook him, was far from helping him, and did not hear him, and it was this that he complained of more than all his sufferings. God delivered him into the hands of his enemies; it was by his determinate counsel that he was crucified and slain, and he did not give in sensible comforts. But, Christ having made himself sin for us, in conformity thereunto the Father laid him under the present impressions of his wrath and displeasure against sin. It pleased the Lord to bruise him and put him to grief, Isaiah 53:10. But even then he kept fast hold of his relation to his Father as his God, by whom he was now employed, whom he was now serving, and with whom he should shortly be glorified.

_ _ II. Encouragement taken, in reference hereunto, Psalms 22:3-5. Though God did not hear him, did not help him, yet, 1. He will think well of God: “But thou art holy, not unjust, untrue, nor unkind, in any of thy dispensations. Though thou dost not immediately come in to the relief of thy afflicted people, yet though lovest them, art true to thy covenant with them, and dost not countenance the iniquity of their persecutors, Habakkuk 1:13. And, as thou art infinitely pure and upright thyself, so thou delightest in the services of thy upright people: Thou inhabitest the praises of Israel; thou art pleased to manifest thy glory, and grace, and special presence with thy people, in the sanctuary, where they attend thee with their praises. There thou art always ready to receive their homage, and of the tabernacle of meeting thou hast said, This is my rest for ever.” This bespeaks God's wonderful condescension to his faithful worshippers — (that, though he is attended with the praises of angels, yet he is pleased to inhabit the praises of Israel), and it may comfort us in all our complaints — that, though God seem, for a while, to turn a deaf ear to them, yet he is so well pleased with his people's praises that he will, in due time, give them cause to change their note: Hope in God, for I shall yet praise him. Our Lord Jesus, in his sufferings, had an eye to the holiness of God, to preserve and advance the honour of that, and of his grace in inhabiting the praises of Israel notwithstanding the iniquities of their holy things. 2. He will take comfort from the experiences which the saints in former ages had of the benefit of faith and prayer (Psalms 22:4, Psalms 22:5): “Our fathers trusted in thee, cried unto thee, and thou didst deliver them; therefore thou wilt, in due time, deliver me, for never any that hoped in thee were made ashamed of their hope, never any that sought thee sought thee in vain. And thou art still the same in thyself and the same to thy people that ever thou wast. They were our fathers, and thy people are beloved for the fathers' sake,Romans 11:28. The entail of the covenant is designed for the support of the seed of the faithful. He that was our fathers' God must be ours, and will therefore be ours. Our Lord Jesus, in his sufferings, supported himself with this — that all the fathers who were types of him in his sufferings, Noah, Joseph, David, Jonah, and others, were in due time delivered and were types of his exaltation too; therefore he knew that he also should not be confounded, Isaiah 50:7.

_ _ III. The complaint renewed of another grievance, and that is the contempt and reproach of men. This complaint is by no means so bitter as that before of God's withdrawings; but, as that touches a gracious soul, so this a generous soul, in a very tender part, Psalms 22:6-8. Our fathers were honoured, the patriarchs in their day, first or last, appeared great in the eye of the world, Abraham, Moses, David; but Christ is a worm, and no man. It was great condescension that he became man, a step downwards, which is, and will be, the wonder of angels; yet, as if it were too much, too great, to be a man, he becomes a worm, and no man. He was Adama mean man, and Enosha man of sorrows, but lo Ishnot a considerable man: for he took upon him the form of a servant, and his visage was marred more than any man's, Isaiah 52:14. Man, at the best, is a worm; but he became a worm, and no man. If he had not made himself a worm, he could not have been trampled upon as he was. The word signifies such a worm as was used in dyeing scarlet or purple, whence some make it an allusion to his bloody sufferings. See what abuses were put upon him. 1. He was reproached as a bad man, as a blasphemer, a sabbath-breaker, a wine-bibber, a false prophet, an enemy to Caesar, a confederate with the prince of the devils. 2. He was despised of the people as a mean contemptible man, not worth taking notice of, his country in no repute, his relations poor mechanics, his followers none of the rulers, or the Pharisees, but the mob. 3. He was ridiculed as a foolish man, and one that not only deceived others, but himself too. Those that saw him hanging on the cross laughed him to scorn. So far were they from pitying him, or concerning themselves for him, that they added to his afflictions, with all the gestures and expressions of insolence upbraiding him with his fall. They make mouths at him, make merry over him, and make a jest of his sufferings: They shoot out the lip, they shake their head, saying, This was he that said he trusted God would deliver him; now let him deliver him. David was sometimes taunted for his confidence in God; but in the sufferings of Christ this was literally and exactly fulfilled. Those very gestures were used by those that reviled him (Matthew 27:39); they wagged their heads, nay, and so far did their malice make them forget themselves that they used the very words (Matthew 27:43), He trusted in God; let him deliver him. Our Lord Jesus, having undertaken to satisfy for the dishonour we had done to God by our sins, did it by submitting to the lowest possible instance of ignominy and disgrace.

_ _ IV. Encouragement taken as to this also (Psalms 22:9, Psalms 22:10): Men despise me, but thou art he that took me out of the womb. David and other good men have often, for direction to us, encouraged themselves with this, that God was not only the God of their fathers, as before (Psalms 22:4), but the God of their infancy, who began by times to take care of them, as soon as they had a being, and therefore, they hope, will never cast them off. He that did so well for us in that helpless useless state will not leave us when he has reared us and nursed us up into some capacity of serving him. See the early instances of God's providential care for us, 1. In the birth: He took us also out of the womb, else we had died there, or been stifled in the birth. Every man's particular time begins with this pregnant proof of God's providence, as time, in general, began with the creation, that pregnant proof of his being. 2. At the breast: “Then didst thou make me hope;” that is, “thou didst that for me, in providing sustenance for me and protecting me from the dangers to which I was exposed, which encourages me to hope in thee all my days.” The blessings of the breasts, as they crown the blessings of the womb, so they are earnests of the blessings of our whole lives; surely he that fed us then will never starve us, Job 3:12. 3. In our early dedication to him: I was cast upon thee from the womb, which perhaps refers to his circumcision on the eighth day; he was then by his parents committed and given up to God as his God in covenant; for circumcision was a seal of the covenant; and this encouraged him to trust in God. Those have reason to think themselves safe who were so soon, so solemnly, gathered under the wings of the divine majesty. 4. In the experience we have had of God's goodness to us all along ever since, drawn out in a constant uninterrupted series of preservations and supplies: Thou art my God, providing me and watching over me for good, from my mother's belly, that is, from my coming into the world unto this day. And if, as soon as we became capable of exercising reason, we put our confidence in God and committed ourselves and our way to him, we need not doubt but he will always remember the kindness of our youth and the love of our espousals, Jeremiah 2:2. This is applicable to our Lord Jesus, over whose incarnation and birth the divine Providence watched with a peculiar care, when he was born in a stable, laid in a manger, and immediately exposed to the malice of Herod, and forced to flee into Egypt. When he was a child God loved him and called him thence (Hosea 11:1), and the remembrance of this comforted him in his sufferings. Men reproached him, and discouraged his confidence in God; but God had honoured him and encouraged his confidence in him.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Psalms 22:1

My God — Who art my friend and father, though now thou frownest upon me. The repetition denotes, the depth of his distress, which made him cry so earnestly. Forsaken — Withdrawn the light of thy countenance, the supports and comforts of thy spirit, and filled me with the terrors of thy wrath: this was in part verified in David, but much more fully in Christ. Roaring — My out — cries forced from me, by my miseries.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 22:1

"To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David." My (a) God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my (b) roaring?

(a) Here appears that horrible conflict, which he sustained between faith and desperation.

(b) Being tormented with extreme anguish.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
my God:

Psalms 31:14-16 But I trusted in thee, O LORD: I said, Thou [art] my God. ... Make thy face to shine upon thy servant: save me for thy mercies' sake.
Psalms 43:1-5 Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man. ... Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why art thou disquieted within me? hope in God: for I shall yet praise him, [who is] the health of my countenance, and my God.
Matthew 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Mark 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
Luke 24:44 And he said unto them, These [are] the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and [in] the prophets, and [in] the psalms, concerning me.

why hast:

Psalms 26:9 Gather not my soul with sinners, nor my life with bloody men:
Psalms 37:28 For the LORD loveth judgment, and forsaketh not his saints; they are preserved for ever: but the seed of the wicked shall be cut off.
Psalms 71:11 Saying, God hath forsaken him: persecute and take him; for [there is] none to deliver [him].
1 Samuel 12:22 For the LORD will not forsake his people for his great name's sake: because it hath pleased the LORD to make you his people.
Hebrews 13:5 [Let your] conversation [be] without covetousness; [and be] content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.


Psalms 22:11 Be not far from me; for trouble [is] near; for [there is] none to help.
Psalms 16:1 [[Michtam of David.]] Preserve me, O God: for in thee do I put my trust.

Heb. my salvation,
Isaiah 46:13 I bring near my righteousness; it shall not be far off, and my salvation shall not tarry: and I will place salvation in Zion for Israel my glory.


Psalms 32:3-4 When I kept silence, my bones waxed old through my roaring all the day long. ... For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me: my moisture is turned into the drought of summer. Selah.
Psalms 38:8 I am feeble and sore broken: I have roared by reason of the disquietness of my heart.
Job 3:24 For my sighing cometh before I eat, and my roarings are poured out like the waters.
Isaiah 59:11 We roar all like bears, and mourn sore like doves: we look for judgment, but [there is] none; for salvation, [but] it is far off from us.
Luke 22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
Hebrews 5:7 Who in the days of his flesh, when he had offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death, and was heard in that he feared;
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Chain-Reference Bible SearchCross References with Concordance

1S 12:22. Jb 3:24. Ps 16:1; 22:11; 26:9; 31:14; 32:3; 37:28; 38:8; 43:1; 71:11. Is 46:13; 59:11. Mt 27:46. Mk 15:34. Lk 22:44; 24:44. He 5:7; 13:5.

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