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Zephaniah 1:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— and them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship, that swear to Jehovah and swear by Malcam;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship [and] that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “And those who bow down on the housetops to the host of heaven, And those who bow down [and] swear to the LORD and [yet] swear by Milcom,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And them that worship the host of heaven upon the house-tops; and them that worship [and] that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and them that bow down to the host of the heavens upon the housetops; and them that bow down to Jehovah, that swear by [him], and swear by Malcham;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And them who bow down upon the housetops to the host of the heavens,—and them who bow down—who swear to Yahweh, and swear by Milcom;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And those bowing themselves On the roofs to the host of the heavens, And those bowing themselves, Swearing to Jehovah, and swearing by Malcham,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And them that worship the host of heaven upon the tops of houses, and them that adore, and swear by the Lord, and swear by Melchom.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And them that worship the hoste of heauen vpon the house tops, & them that worship, [and] that sweare by the LORD, [and] that sweare by Malcham:
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— and them that worship the host of heaven upon the house-tops; and them that worship and swear by the Lord, and them that swear by their king;
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship [and] that swear by Yahweh, and that swear by Malkam;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And them that worship 7812
{7812} Prime
שָׁחָה
shachah
{shaw-khaw'}
A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God).
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
the host 6635
{6635} Prime
צָבָא
tsaba'
{tsaw-baw'}
From H6633; a mass of persons (or figurative things), especially regularly organized for war (an army); by implication a campaign, literally or figuratively (specifically hardship, worship).
of heaven 8064
{8064} Prime
שָׁמַיִם
shamayim
{shaw-mah'-yim}
The second form being dual of an unused singular; from an unused root meaning to be lofty; the sky (as aloft; the dual perhaps alluding to the visible arch in which the clouds move, as well as to the higher ether where the celestial bodies revolve).
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the housetops; 1406
{1406} Prime
גָּג
gag
{gawg}
Probably by reduplication from H1342; a roof; by analogy the top of an altar.
and them that worship 7812
{7812} Prime
שָׁחָה
shachah
{shaw-khaw'}
A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God).
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
[and] that swear 7650
{7650} Prime
שָׁבַע
shaba`
{shaw-bah'}
A primitive root; properly to be complete, but used only as a denominative from H7651; to seven oneself, that is, swear (as if by repeating a declaration seven times).
z8737
<8737> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 793
by Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
and that swear 7650
{7650} Prime
שָׁבַע
shaba`
{shaw-bah'}
A primitive root; properly to be complete, but used only as a denominative from H7651; to seven oneself, that is, swear (as if by repeating a declaration seven times).
z8737
<8737> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 793
by Malcm מַלכָּם; y4428
[4428] Standard
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
x4445
(4445) Complement
מַלְכָּם
Malkam
{mal-kawm'}
From H4428 for H4432; Malcam or Milcom, the national idol of the Ammonites.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Zephaniah 1:5

_ _ worship the host of heavenSaba: whence, in contrast to Sabeanism, Jehovah is called Lord of Sabaoth.

_ _ upon the housetops — which were flat (2 Kings 23:5, 2 Kings 23:6, 2 Kings 23:12; Jeremiah 19:13; Jeremiah 32:29).

_ _ swear by the Lord — rather, “swear to Jehovah” (2 Chronicles 15:14); solemnly dedicating themselves to Him (compare Isaiah 48:1; Hosea 4:15).

_ _ and — “and yet (with strange inconsistency, 1 Kings 18:21; Ezekiel 20:39; Matthew 6:24) swear by Malcham,” that is, “their king” [Maurer]: the same as Molech (see on Amos 5:25), and “Milcom the god of ... Ammon” (1 Kings 11:33). If Satan have half the heart, he will have all; if the Lord have but half offered to Him, He will have none.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Zephaniah 1:1-6.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Zephaniah 1:5

House — tops — On the flat roofs of their houses. And that swear — That mixt idol — worship, and the worship of the true God; that devote themselves to God, and Baal, or Malchim, that is, Moloch.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Zephaniah 1:5

And them that worship the host of heaven upon the housetops; and them that worship [and] that swear by the LORD, and that swear by (c) Malcham;

(c) He alludes to their idol Molech, which was forbidden; read (Leviticus 20:2), yet they called him their king, and made him as a god: therefore he here notes those that will both say they worship God, and yet will swear by idols and serve them: which faltering is here condemned, as in (Ezekiel 20:39; 1 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 17:33).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
worship:

2 Kings 23:12 And the altars that [were] on the top of the upper chamber of Ahaz, which the kings of Judah had made, and the altars which Manasseh had made in the two courts of the house of the LORD, did the king beat down, and brake [them] down from thence, and cast the dust of them into the brook Kidron.
Jeremiah 19:13 And the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled as the place of Tophet, because of all the houses upon whose roofs they have burned incense unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink offerings unto other gods.
Jeremiah 32:29 And the Chaldeans, that fight against this city, shall come and set fire on this city, and burn it with the houses, upon whose roofs they have offered incense unto Baal, and poured out drink offerings unto other gods, to provoke me to anger.

and them:

1 Kings 18:21 And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD [be] God, follow him: but if Baal, [then] follow him. And the people answered him not a word.
2 Kings 17:33 They feared the LORD, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away from thence.
2 Kings 17:41 So these nations feared the LORD, and served their graven images, both their children, and their children's children: as did their fathers, so do they unto this day.
Matthew 6:24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.

and that:

Deuteronomy 10:20 Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.
Isaiah 48:1 Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the LORD, and make mention of the God of Israel, [but] not in truth, nor in righteousness.
Jeremiah 4:2 And thou shalt swear, The LORD liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.
Hosea 4:15 Though thou, Israel, play the harlot, [yet] let not Judah offend; and come not ye unto Gilgal, neither go ye up to Bethaven, nor swear, The LORD liveth.

by the LORD[YHWH]:
or, to the Lord,
Isaiah 44:5 One shall say, I [am] the LORD'S; and another shall call [himself] by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe [with] his hand unto the LORD, and surname [himself] by the name of Israel.
Isaiah 45:23 I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth [in] righteousness, and shall not return, That unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.
Romans 14:11 For it is written, [As] I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.

swear by:

Joshua 23:7 That ye come not among these nations, these that remain among you; neither make mention of the name of their gods, nor cause to swear [by them], neither serve them, nor bow yourselves unto them:

Malcham:

1 Kings 11:33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do [that which is] right in mine eyes, and [to keep] my statutes and my judgments, as [did] David his father.
, Milcom,
Amos 5:26 But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves.
, Moloch.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 10:20. Jsh 23:7. 1K 11:33; 18:21. 2K 17:33, 41; 23:12. Is 44:5; 45:23; 48:1. Jr 4:2; 19:13; 32:29. Ho 4:15. Am 5:26. Mt 6:24. Ro 14:11.

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