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Zechariah 6:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And again I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains were mountains of brass.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains [were] mountains of brass.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now I lifted up my eyes again and looked, and behold, four chariots were coming forth from between the two mountains; and the mountains [were] bronze mountains.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And I turned, and lifted up my eyes, and looked, and behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains [were] mountains of brass.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And I lifted up mine eyes again, and saw, and behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains were mountains of brass.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And once again I lifted mine eyes, and looked, and lo! four chariots, coming forward from between two mountains,—now, the mountains, were mountains of copper.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And I turn back, and lift up mine eyes, and look, and lo, four chariots are coming forth from between two of the mountains, and the mountains [are] mountains of brass.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And I turned, and lifted up my eyes, and saw: and behold four chariots came out from the midst of two mountains: and the mountains were mountains of brass.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And I turned, and lift vp mine eyes, and looked, and beholde, there came foure charets out from betweene two mountaines, and the mountaines [were] mountaines of brasse.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, four chariots coming out from between two mountains; and the mountains were brazen mountains.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains [were] mountains of brass.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And I turned, 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and lifted up 5375
{5375} Prime
נָשָׂא
nasa'
{naw-saw'}
A primitive root; to lift, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, absolutely and relatively.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
mine eyes, 5869
{5869} Prime
עַיִן
`ayin
{ah'-yin}
Probably a primitive word; an eye (literally or figuratively); by analogy a fountain (as the eye of the landscape).
and looked, 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
and, behold, x2009
(2009) Complement
הִנֵּה
hinneh
{hin-nay'}
Prolonged for H2005; lo!.
there came y3318
[3318] Standard
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
four y702
[0702] Standard
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
chariots y4818
[4818] Standard
מֶרְכָּבָה
merkabah
{mer-kaw-baw'}
Feminine of H4817; a chariot.
out 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
x702
(0702) Complement
אַרְבַּע
'arba`
{ar-bah'}
The second form is the masculine form; from H7251; four.
x4818
(4818) Complement
מֶרְכָּבָה
merkabah
{mer-kaw-baw'}
Feminine of H4817; a chariot.
from between x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x996
(0996) Complement
בַּיִן
beyn
{bane}
(Sometimes in the plural masculine or feminine); properly the constructively contracted form of an otherwise unused noun from H0995; a distinction; but used only as a preposition, between (repeated before each noun, often with other particles); also as a conjugation, either... or.
two 8147
{8147} Prime
שְׁתַּיִם
sh@nayim
{shen-ah'-yim}
(The first form being dual of H8145; the second form being feminine); two; also (as ordinal) twofold.
mountains; 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
and the mountains 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
[were] mountains 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
of brass. 5178
{5178} Prime
נְחֹשֶׁת
n@chosheth
{nekh-o'-sheth}
For H5154; copper; hence, something made of that metal, that is, coin, a fetter; figuratively base (as compared with gold or silver).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Zechariah 6:1

_ _ Zechariah 6:1-8. Eighth Vision. The four chariots.

_ _ four chariots — symbolizing the various dispensations of Providence towards the Gentile nations which had been more or less brought into contact with Judea; especially in punishing Babylon. Compare Zechariah 6:8 (“the north country,” that is, Babylon); Zechariah 1:15; Zechariah 2:6. The number “four” is specified not merely in reference to the four quarters of the horizon (implying universal judgments), but in allusion to the four world kingdoms of Daniel.

_ _ from between two mountains — the valley of Jehoshaphat, between Moriah and Mount Olivet [Moore]; or the valley between Zion and Moriah, where the Lord is (Zechariah 2:10), and whence He sends forth His ministers of judgment on the heathen [Maurer]. The temple on Mount Moriah is the symbol of the theocracy; hence the nearest spot accessible to chariots in the valley below is the most suitable for a vision affecting Judah in relation to the Gentile world powers. The chariot is the symbol of war, and so of judgments.

_ _ of brass — the metal among the ancients representing hard solidity; so the immovable and resistless firmness of God’s people (compare Jeremiah 1:18). Calvin explains the “two mountains” thus: The secret purpose of God from eternity does not come forth to view before the execution, but is hidden and kept back irresistibly till the fit time, as it were between lofty mountains; the chariots are the various changes wrought in nations, which, as swift heralds, announce to us what before we knew not. The “two” may thus correspond to the number of the “olive trees” (Zechariah 4:3); the allusion to the “two mountains” near the temple is not necessarily excluded in this view. Henderson explains them to be the Medo-Persian kingdom, represented by the “two horns” (Daniel 8:3, Daniel 8:4), now employed to execute God’s purpose in punishing the nations; but the prophecy reaches far beyond those times.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Zechariah 6:1-8

_ _ The prophet is forward to receive this vision, and, as if he expected it, he turned and lifted up his eyes and looked. Though this was the seventh vision he had had, yet he did not think he had had enough; for the more we know of God and his will, if we know it aright, the more desirous we shall be to get a further acquaintance with God. Now observe here the sight that the prophet had offour chariots drawn by horses of divers colours, together with the explication of the sight, Zechariah 6:1-5. He did not look long before he discovered that which was worth seeing, and which would serve very much for the encouraging of himself and his friends in this dark day. We are very much in the dark concerning the meaning of this vision. Some by the four chariots understand the four monarchies; and then they read (Zechariah 6:5), These are the four winds of the heavens, and suppose that therein reference is had to Daniel 7:2, where Daniel saw, in vision, the four winds of the heavens striving upon the great sea, representing the four monarchies. The Babylonian monarchy, they think, is here represented by the red horses, which are not afterwards mentioned, because that monarchy was now extinct. The second chariot with the black horses is the Persian monarchy, which went forth northward against the Babylonians, and quieted God's Spirit in the north country, by executing his judgments on Babylon and freeing the Jews from their captivity. The white, the Grecians, go forth after them in the north, for they overthrow the Persians. The grizzled, the Romans, who conquered the Grecian empire, are said to go forth towards the south country, because Egypt, which lay southward, was the last branch of the Grecian empire that was subdued by the Romans. The bay horses had been with the grizzled, but afterwards went forth by themselves; and by these they understand the Goths and Vandals, who with their victorious arms walked to and fro through the earth, or the Seleucidae and Lagidae, the two branches of the Grecian empire. Thus Grotius and others.

_ _ But I incline rather to understand this vision more generally, as designing to represent the administration of the kingdom of Providence in the government of this lower world. The angels are often called the chariots of God, as Psalms 68:17; Psalms 18:10. The various providences of God concerning nations and churches are represented by the different colours of horses, Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:8. And so we may observe here, 1. That the counsels and decrees of God are the spring and original of all events, and they are immovable, as mountains of brass. The chariots came from between the two mountains; for God performs the thing that is appointed for us: his appointments are the originals, and his performances are but copies from them; he does all according to the counsel of his will. We could as soon grasp the mountains in our arms as comprehend the divine counsels in our finite understandings, and as soon remove mountains of brass as alter any of God's purposes; for he is in one mind, and who can turn him? Whatever the providences of God are concerning us, as to public or private affairs, we should see them all coming from between the mountains of brass, and therefore see it as much our folly to quarrel with them as it is our duty to acquiesce in them. Who may say to God, What doest thou, or why doest thou so? Acts 2:23; Acts 4:28. 2. That God executes his decrees in the works of Providence, which are as chariots, in which he rides as a prince in an open chariot, to show his glory to the world, in which, as in chariots of war, he rides forth conquering and to conquer, and triumphing over all the enemies of his glory and government. God is great and terrible in his doings (Psalms 66:3), and in them we see the goings of our God, our King, Psalms 68:24. His providences move swiftly and strongly as chariots, but all directed and governed by his infinite wisdom and sovereign will, as chariots by their drivers. 3. That the holy angels are the ministers of God's providence, and are employed by him, as the armies of heaven, for the executing of his counsels among the inhabitants of the earth; they are the chariots, or, which comes all to one, they are the horses that draw the chariots, great in power and might, and who, like the horse that God himself describes (Job 39:19, etc.), are clothed with thunder, are terrible, but cannot be terrified nor made afraid; they are chariots of fire, and horses of fire, to carry one prophet to heaven and guard another on earth. They are as observant of and obsequious to the will of God as well-managed horses are to their rider or driver. Not that God needs them or their services, but he is pleased to make use of them, that he may put honour upon them, and encourage our trust in his providence. 4. That the events of Providence have different aspects and the face of the times often changes. The horses in the first chariot were red, signifying war and bloodshed, blood to the horse-bridles, Revelation 14:20. Those in the second chariot were black, signifying the dismal melancholy consequences of war; it puts all into mourning, lays all waste, introduces famines, and pestilences, and desolations, and makes whole lands to languish. Those in the third chariot were white, signifying the return of comfort, and peace, and prosperity, after these dark and dismal times: though God cause grief to the children of men, yet will he have compassion. Those in the fourth chariot were of a mixed colour, grizzled and bay; some speckled and spotted, and ash-coloured, signifying events of different complexions interwoven and counter-changed, a day of prosperity and a day of adversity set the one over-against the other. The cup of Providence in the hand of the Lord isfull of mixture, Psalms 75:8. 5. That all the instruments of Providence, and all the events of it, come from God, and from him they receive their commissions and instructions (Zechariah 6:5): These are the four spirits of heaven, the four winds (so some), which seem to blow as they list, from the various points of the compass; but God has them in his fists and brings them out of his treasuries. Or, rather, These are the angels that go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth, to attend upon him and minister to him, to behold his glory in the upper world, which is their blessedness, and to serve his glory in their blessedness, and to serve his glory in this lower world, which is their business. They stand before him as the Lord of the whole earth, to receive orders from him and give up their accounts to him concerning their services on this earth, for it is all within his jurisdiction. But, when he appoints, they go forth as messengers of his counsels and ministers of his justice and mercy. Those secret motions and impulses upon the spirits of men by which the designs of Providence are carried on, some think, are these four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from God and fulfil what he appoints, who is the God of the spirits of all flesh. 6. That there is an admirable beauty in Providence, and one event serves for a balance to another (Zechariah 6:6): The black horses went forth, carrying with them very dark and melancholy events, such as made every person and every thing look black; but presently the white went forth after them, carrying joy to those that mourned, and, by a new turn given to affairs, making them to look pleasant again. Such are God's dealings with his church and people: if the black horses go forth, the white ones presently go after them; for as affliction abounds consolation much more abounds. 7. That the common general aspect of providence is mixed and compounded. The grizzled and bay horses were both in the fourth chariot (Zechariah 6:3), and though they went forth, at first, towards the south country, yet afterwards they sought to walk to and fro through the earth and were directed to do so, Zechariah 6:7. If we go to and fro through the earth, we shall find the events of Providence neither all black nor all white, but ash-coloured, or gray, mixed of black and white. Such is the world we live in; that before us is unmixed. Here we are singing, at the same time, of mercy and judgment, and we must sing unto God of both (Psalms 101:1) and labour to accommodate ourselves to God's will and design in the mixtures of Providence, rejoicing in our comforts as though we rejoiced not, because they have their allays, and weeping for our afflictions as though we wept not, because there is so much mercy mixed with them. 8. That God is well-pleased with all the operations of his own providence (Zechariah 6:8): These have quieted my spirit, these black horses which denote extraordinary judgments, and the white ones which denote extraordinary deliverances, both which went towards the north country, while the common mixed providences went all the world over. These have quieted my spirit in the north-country, which had of late been the most remarkable scene of action with reference to the church; that is, by these uncommon appearances and actings of providence God's wrath is executed upon the enemies of the church, and his favours are conferred upon the church, both which had long been deferred, and in both God had fulfilled his will, accomplished his word, and so quieted his Spirit. The Lord is well-pleased for his righteousness' sake; and, as he speaks, Isaiah 1:24, made himself easy.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Zechariah 6:1

Four chariots — Angels who are sometimes styled chariots of God. These as employed in the affairs of church and empire, act their part in the revolution and changes of things, 'till the gospel be preached by the Messiah, and the apostles. Of brass — These denote the immoveable decrees of God, his steady execution of his counsels and the insuperable restraints upon all empires and countries, which God keeps within the barriers of such impregnable mountains.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Zechariah 6:1

And I turned, and lifted up my eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came four (a) chariots out from between (b) two mountains; and the mountains [were] mountains of brass.

(a) By chariots here, as by horses before, he means the swift messengers of God to execute and declare his will.

(b) By the mountains he means the external counsel and providence of God, by which he has from before all eternity declared what will come to pass, and that which neither Satan nor all the world can alter.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
I turned:

Zechariah 5:1 Then I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a flying roll.

four:

Zechariah 1:18-19 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. ... And I said unto the angel that talked with me, What [be] these? And he answered me, These [are] the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.
Daniel 2:38-40 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou [art] this head of gold. ... And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all [things]: and as iron that breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.
Daniel 7:3-7 And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another. ... After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns.
Daniel 8:22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.

and the:

1 Samuel 2:8 He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, [and] lifteth up the beggar from the dunghill, to set [them] among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth [are] the LORD'S, and he hath set the world upon them.
Job 34:29 When he giveth quietness, who then can make trouble? and when he hideth [his] face, who then can behold him? whether [it be done] against a nation, or against a man only:
Psalms 33:11 The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations.
Psalms 36:6 Thy righteousness [is] like the great mountains; thy judgments [are] a great deep: O LORD, thou preservest man and beast.
Proverbs 21:30 [There is] no wisdom nor understanding nor counsel against the LORD.
Isaiah 14:26-27 This [is] the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth: and this [is] the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations. ... For the LORD of hosts hath purposed, and who shall disannul [it]? and his hand [is] stretched out, and who shall turn it back?
Isaiah 43:13 Yea, before the day [was] I [am] he; and [there is] none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it?
Isaiah 46:10-11 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times [the things] that are not [yet] done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure: ... Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth my counsel from a far country: yea, I have spoken [it], I will also bring it to pass; I have purposed [it], I will also do it.
Daniel 4:15 Nevertheless leave the stump of his roots in the earth, even with a band of iron and brass, in the tender grass of the field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and [let] his portion [be] with the beasts in the grass of the earth:
Daniel 4:35 And all the inhabitants of the earth [are] reputed as nothing: and he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and [among] the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?
Acts 4:28 For to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done.
Ephesians 1:11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:
Ephesians 3:11 According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

1S 2:8. Jb 34:29. Ps 33:11; 36:6. Pv 21:30. Is 14:26; 43:13; 46:10. Dn 2:38; 4:15, 35; 7:3; 8:22. Zc 1:18; 5:1. Ac 4:28. Ep 1:11; 3:11.

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