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Zechariah 3:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to be his adversary.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And he shewed me, Joshua the high priest, standing before the messenger of Yahweh,—and, the Accuser, standing at his right hand, to accuse him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And he sheweth me Joshua the high priest standing before the messenger of Jehovah, and the Adversary standing at his right hand, to be an adversary to him.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord shewed me Jesus the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord: and Satan stood on his right hand to be his adversary.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And he shewed me Ioshua the high Priest, standing before the Angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Lord shewed me Jeshua{gr.Jesus} the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and the Devil stood on his right hand to resist him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And he shewed me Yehoshua the high priest standing before the angel of Yahweh, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And he shewed 7200
{7200} Prime
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
me x853
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Yhu` יְהוֹשֻׁעַ 3091
{3091} Prime
From H3068 and H3467; Jehovah-saved; Jehoshua (that is, Joshua), the Jewish leader.
the high 1419
{1419} Prime
From H1431; great (in any sense); hence older; also insolent.
priest 3548
{3548} Prime
Active participle of H3547; literally one officiating, a priest; also (by courtesy) an acting priest (although a layman).
standing 5975
{5975} Prime
A primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literally and figuratively, intransitively and transitively).
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
before 6440
{6440} Prime
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
the angel 4397
{4397} Prime
From an unused root meaning to despatch as a deputy; a messenger; specifically of God, that is, an angel (also a prophet, priest or teacher).
of Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
and +n שָׂטָן 7854
{7854} Prime
From H7853; an opponent; especially (with the article prefixed) Satan, the arch enemy of good.
standing 5975
{5975} Prime
A primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literally and figuratively, intransitively and transitively).
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
at x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
his right hand 3225
{3225} Prime
From H3231; the right hand or side (leg, eye) of a person or other object (as the stronger and more dexterous); locally, the south.
to resist 7853
{7853} Prime
A primitive root; to attack, (figuratively) accuse.
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Zechariah 3:1

_ _ Zechariah 3:1-10. Fourth Vision. Joshua the high priest before the angel of Jehovah; accused by Satan, but justified by Jehovah through Messiah the coming Branch.

_ _ Joshua as high priest (Haggai 1:1) represents “Jerusalem” (Zechariah 3:2), or the elect people, put on its trial, and “plucked” narrowly “out of the fire.” His attitude, “standing before the Lord,” is that of a high priest ministering before the altar erected previously to the building of the temple (Ezra 3:2, Ezra 3:3, Ezra 3:6; Psalms 135:2). Yet, in this position, by reason of his own and his people’s sins, he is represented as on his and their trial (Numbers 35:12).

_ _ he showed me — “He” is the interpreting angel. Jerusalem’s (Joshua’s) “filthy garments” (Zechariah 3:3) are its sins which had hitherto brought down God’s judgments. The “change of raiment” implies its restoration to God’s favor. Satan suggested to the Jews that so consciously polluted a priesthood and people could offer no acceptable sacrifice to God, and therefore they might as well desist from the building of the temple. Zechariah encourages them by showing that their demerit does not disqualify them for the work, as they are accepted in the righteousness of another, their great High Priest, the Branch (Zechariah 3:8), a scion of their own royal line of David (Isaiah 11:1). The full accomplishment of Israel’s justification and of Satan the accuser’s being “rebuked” finally, is yet future (Revelation 12:10). Compare Revelation 11:8, wherein “Jerusalem,” as here, is shown to be meant primarily, though including the whole Church in general (compare Job 1:9).

_ _ Satan — the Hebrew term meaning “adversary” in a law court: as devil is the Greek term, meaning accuser. Messiah, on the other hand, is “advocate” for His people in the court of heaven’s justice (1 John 2:1).

_ _ standing at his right hand — the usual position of a prosecutor or accuser in court, as the left hand was the position of the defendant (Psalms 109:6). The “angel of the Lord” took the same position just before another high priest was about to beget the forerunner of Messiah (Luke 1:11), who supplants Satan from his place as accuser. Some hence explain Jude 1:9 as referring to this passage: “the body of Moses” being thus the Jewish Church, for which Satan contended as his by reason of its sins; just as the “body of Christ” is the Christian Church. However, Jude 1:9 plainly speaks of the literal body of Moses, the resurrection of which at the transfiguration Satan seems to have opposed on the ground of Moses’ error at Meribah; the same divine rebuke, “the Lord rebuke thee,” checked Satan in contending for judgment against Moses’ body, as checked him when demanding judgment against the Jewish Church, to which Moses’ body corresponds.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Zechariah 3:1-7

_ _ There was a Joshua that was a principal agent in the first settling of Israel in Canaan; here is another of the same name very active in their second settlement there after the captivity; Jesus is the same name, and it signifies Saviour; and they were both figures of him that was to come, our chief captain and our chief priest. The angel that talked with Zechariah showed him Joshua the high priest; it is probable that the prophet saw him frequently, that he spoke to him, and that there was a great intimacy between them; but, in his common views, he only saw how he appeared before men; if he must know how he stands before the Lord, it must be shown him in vision; and so it is shown him. And men are really as they are with God, not as they appear in the eye of the world. He stood before the angel of the Lord, that is, before Christ, the Lord of the angels, to whom even the high priests themselves, of Aaron's order, were accountable. He stood before the angel of the Lord to execute his office, to minister to God under the inspection of the angels. He stood to consult the oracle on the behalf of Israel, for whom, as high priest, he was agent. Guilt and corruption are our two great discouragements when we stand before God. By the guilt of the sins committed by us we have become obnoxious to the justice of God; by the power of the sin that dwells in us we have become odious to the holiness of God. All God's Israel are in danger upon these two accounts. Joshua was so here, for the law made men priests that had infirmity, Hebrews 7:28. And, as to both, we have relief from Jesus Christ, who is made of God to us both righteousness and sanctification.

_ _ I. Joshua is accused as a criminal, but is justified. 1. A violent opposition is made to him. Satan stands at his right hand to resist him to be a Satan to him, a law-adversary. He stands at his right hand, as the prosecutor, or witness, at the right hand of the prisoner. Note, The devil is the accuser of the brethren, that accuses them before God day and night, Revelation 12:10. Some think the chief priest was accused for the sin of many of the inferior priests, in marrying strange wives, which they were much guilty of after their return out of captivity, Ezra 9:1, Ezra 9:2; Nehemiah 13:28. When God is about to reestablish the priesthood Satan objects the sins that were found among the priests, as rendering them unworthy the honour designed them. It is by our own folly that we give Satan advantage against us and furnish him with matter for reproach and accusation; and if any thing be amiss, especially with the priests, Satan will be sure to aggravate it and make the worst of it. He stood to resist him, that is, to oppose the service he was doing for the public good. He stood at his right hand, the hand of action, to discourage him, and raise difficulties in his way. Note, When we stand before God to minister to him, or stand up for God to serve his interests, we must expect to meet with all the resistance that Satan's subtlety and malice can give us. Let us then resist him that resists us and he shall flee from us. 2. A victorious defence is made for him (Zechariah 3:2): The Lord (that is, the Lord Christ) said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke thee. Note, It is the happiness of the saints that the Judge is their friend; the same that they are accused to is their patron and protector, and an advocate for them, and he will be sure to bring them off. (1.) Satan is here checked by one that has authority, that has conquered him, and many a time silenced him. The accuser of the brethren, of the ministers and the ministry, is cast out; his indictments are quashed, and his suggestions against them as well as his suggestions to them, are shown to be malicious, frivolous, and vexatious. The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan! The Lord said (that is, the Lord our Redeemer), The Lord rebuke thee, that is, the Lord the Creator. The power of God is engaged for the making of the grace of Christ effectual. “The Lord restrain thy malicious rage, reject thy malicious charge, and revenge upon thee thy enmity to a servant of his” Note, those that belong to Christ have him ready to appear vigorously for them when Satan appears most vehement against them. He does not parley with him, but stops his mouth immediately with this sharp reprimand: The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan! This is the best way of dealing with that furious enemy. Get thee behind me, Satan. (2.) Satan is here argued with. He resists the priest, but let him know that his resistance, [1.] Will be fruitless; it will be to no purpose to attempt any thing against Jerusalem, for the Lord has chosen it, and he will abide by his choice. Whatever is objected against God's people, God saw it; he foresaw it when he chose them and yet he chose them, and therefore that can be no inducement to him now to reject them; he knew the worst of them when he chose them; and his election shall obtain. [2.] It is unreasonable; for is not this a brand plucked out of the fire? Joshua is so, and the priesthood, and the people, whose representative he is. Christ has not that to say for them for which they are to be praised, but that for which they are to be pitied. Note, Christ is ready to make the best of his people, and takes notice of every thing that is pleadable in excuse of their infirmities, so far is he from being extreme to mark what they do amiss. They have been lately in the fire; no wonder that they are black and smoked, and have the smell of fire upon them, but they are therefore to be excused, not to be accused. One can expect no other than that those who but the other day were captives in Babylon should appear very mean and despicable. They have been lately brought out of great affliction; and is Satan so barbarous as to desire to have them thrown into affliction again? They have been wonderfully delivered out of the fire, that God might be glorified in them; and will he then cast them off and abandon them? No, he will not quench the smoking flax, the smoking fire-brand; for he snatched it out of the fire because he intended to make use of it. Note, Narrow escapes from imminent danger are happy presages and powerful pleas for more eminent favours. A converted soul is a brand plucked out of the fire by a miracle of free grace, and therefore shall not be left to be a prey to Satan.

_ _ II. Joshua appears as one polluted, but is purified; for he represents the Israel of God, who are all as an unclean thing, till they are washed and sanctified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God. Now observe here, 1. The impurity wherein Joshua appeared (Zechariah 3:3): He was clothed, not only in coarse, but in filthy garments, such as did very ill become the dignity of his office and the sanctity of his work. By the law of Moses the garments of the high priest were to be for glory and for beauty, Exodus 28:2. But Joshua's garments were a shame and reproach to him; yet in them he stood before the angel of the Lord; he had no clean linen wherein to minister and to do the duty of his place. Now this intimates, not only that the priesthood was poor and despised, and loaded with contempt, but that there was a great deal of iniquity cleaving to the holy things. The returned Jews were so taken up with their troubles that they thought they needed not complain of their sins, and were not aware that those were the great hindrances of the progress of God's work among them; because they were free from idolatry they thought themselves chargeable with no iniquity. But God showed them there were many things amiss in them, which retarded the advances of God's favours towards them. There were spiritual enemies warring against them, more dangerous than any of the neighbouring nations. The Chaldee paraphrase says, Joshua had sons who took unto them wives which were not lawful for the priests to take; and we find it was so, Ezra 10:18. And, no doubt, there were other things amiss in the priesthood, Malachi 2:1. Yet Joshua was permitted to stand before the angel of the Lord. Though his children did not as they should, yet the covenant of priesthood was not broken. Note, Christ bears with his people, whose hearts are upright with him, and admits them into communion with himself, notwithstanding their manifold infirmities. 2. The provision that was made for his cleansing. Christ gave orders to the angels that attended him, and were ready to do his pleasure, to put Joshua into a better state. Joshua presented himself before the Lord in his filthy garments, as an object of his pity; and Christ graciously looked upon him with compassion, and not, as justly he might have done, with indignation. Christ loathed the filthiness of Joshua's garments, yet did not put him away, but put them away. Thus God by his grace does with those whom he chooses to be priests to himself; he parts between them and their sins, and so prevents their sins parting between them and their God; he reconciles himself to the sinner, but not to the sin. Two things are here done for Joshua, representing a double work of divine grace wrought in and for believers: — (1.) His filthy garments are taken from him, Zechariah 3:4. The meaning of this is given us in what Christ said, and he said it as one having authority, Behold, I have caused thy iniquity to pass from thee. The guilt of it is taken away by pardoning mercy, the stench and stain of it by peace spoken to the conscience, and the power of it broken by renewing grace. When God forgives our sins he causes our iniquity to pass from us, that it may not appear against us, to condemn us; it passes from us as far as the east is from the west. When he sanctifies the nature he enables us to put off the old man, to cast away from us the filthy rags of our corrupt affections and lusts, as things we will never have any thing more to do with, will never gird to us or appear in. Thus Christ washes those from their sins in his own blood whom he makes to our God kings and priests, Revelation 1:5, Revelation 1:6. Either we must be cleansed from the pollutions of sin or we shall, as polluted, be put from that priesthood, Ezra 2:62. (2.) He is clothed anew, has not only the shame of his filthiness removed, but the shame of his nakedness covered: I will clothe thee with change of raiment. Joshua had no clean linen of his own, but Christ will provide for him, for he will not let a priesthood of his own instituting be lost, be either contemptible before men or unacceptable before God. The change of raiment here is rich costly raiment, such as is worn on high days. Joshua shall appear as lovely as ever he appeared loathsome. Those that minister in holy things shall not only cease to do evil, but learn to do well; God will make them wise, and humble, and diligent, and faithful, and examples of every thing that is good; and then Joshua is clothed with change of raiment. Thus those whom Christ makes spiritual priests are clothed with the spotless robe of his righteousness and appear before God in that, and with the graces of his Spirit, which are ornaments to them. The righteousness of saints, both imputed and implanted, is the fine linen, clean and white, with which the bride, the Lamb's wife, is arrayed, Revelation 19:8.

_ _ III. Joshua is in danger of being turned out of office; but, instead of that, he is reinstalled and established in his office. He not only has his sins pardoned, and is furnished with grace sufficient for himself, but, as rectus in curiaacquitted in court, he is restored to his former honours and trusts. 1. The crown of the priesthood is put upon him, Zechariah 3:5. This was done at the special instance and request of the prophet: I said, “Let them set a fair mitre upon his head, as a badge of his office. Now that he looks clean, let him also look great; let him be dressed up in all the garments of the high priest.” Note, When God designs the restoring or reviving of religion he stirs up his prophets and people to pray for it, and does it in answer to their prayers. Zechariah prayed that the angels might be ordered to set the mitre on Joshua's head, and they did it immediately, and clothed him with the priestly garments; for no man took this honour to himself, but he that was called of God to it. The angel of the Lord stood by, as having the oversight of the work which the created angels were employed in. He stood by, as one well pleased with it, and resolved to stand by the orders he had given for the doing of it and to continue his presence with that priesthood. 2. The covenant of the priesthood is renewed with him, which is called God's covenant of peace, Numbers 25:12. Mr. Pemble calls it the patent of his office, which is here declared and delivered to him before witnesses, Zechariah 3:6, Zechariah 3:7. The angel of the Lord, having taken care to make him fit for his office (and all that God calls to any office he either finds fit or makes so), invests him in it. And though he is not made a priest with an oath (that honour is reserved for him who is a priest after the order of Melchisedek, Hebrews 7:21), yet, being a type of him, he is inaugurated with a solemn declaration of the terms upon which he held his office. The angel of the Lord protested to Joshua that, if he would be sure to do the duty of his place, he should enjoy the dignity and reward of it. Now see, (1.) What the conditions are upon which he enters into his office. Let him know that he is upon his good behaviour; he must walk in God's ways, that is, he must live a good life and be holy in all manner of conversation; he must go before the people in the paths of God's commandments, and walk circumspectly. He must also keep God's charge, must carefully do all the services of the priesthood, and must see to it that the inferior priests performed the duties of their place decently and in order. He must take heed to himself, and to all the flock, Acts 20:28. Note, Good ministers must be good Christians; yet that is not enough: they have a trust committed to them, they are charged with it, and they must keep it with all possible care, that they may give up their account of it with joy, 1 Timothy 6:14. (2.) What the privileges are which we may expect, and be assured of, in the due discharge of his office. His patent runs, Quamdiu se bene gesseritDuring good behaviour. Let him be sure to do his part, and God will own him. [1.] “Thou shalt judge my house; thou shalt preside in the affairs of the temple, and the inferior priests shall be under thy direction.” Note, The power of the church, and of church rulers, is not a legislative, but only a judicial power. The high priest might not make any new laws for God's house, nor ordain any other rites of worship than what God had ordained; but he must judge God's house, that is, he must see to it that God's laws and ordinances were punctually observed, must protect and encourage those that did observe them, and enquire into and punish the violation of them. [2.] “Thou shalt also keep my courts; thou shalt have oversight of what is done in all the courts of the temple, and shalt keep them pure and in good order for the worship to be performed in them.” Note, Ministers are God's stewards, and they are to keep his courts, in honour of him who is the chief Lord and for the preserving of equity and good order among his tenants. [3.] “I will give thee places to walk among those that stand by, among these angels that are inspectors and assistants in this instalment.” They shall stand by while Joshua is at work for God, and shall be as a guard to him, or he shall be highly honoured and respected as an angel of God, Galatians 4:14. Ministers are called angels, Rev. 1. 20. Those that walk in God's ways may be said to walk among the angels themselves, for they do the will of God as the angels do it that are in heaven, and are their fellow-servants, Revelation 19:10. Some make it a promise of eternal life, and of a reward of his fidelity in the future state. Heaven is not only a palace, a place to repose in, but a paradise, a garden, a place to walk in; and there are walks among the angels, in society with that holy and glorious company. See Ezekiel 28:14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Zechariah 3:1

And he — The Lord represented to me in a vision. Standing — Ministering in his office. The angel — Christ.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Zechariah 3:1

And he showed me Joshua the high priest (a) standing before the angel of the LORD, and (b) Satan standing at his right hand to resist him.

(a) He prayed to Christ the Mediator for the state of the Church.

(b) Which declares that the faithful do not only war with flesh and blood, but with Satan himself, and spiritual wickedness; (Ephesians 6:12).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Zechariah 1:9 Then said I, O my lord, what [are] these? And the angel that talked with me said unto me, I will shew thee what these [be].
Zechariah 1:13 And the LORD answered the angel that talked with me [with] good words [and] comfortable words.
Zechariah 1:19 And I said unto the angel that talked with me, What [be] these? And he answered me, These [are] the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.
Zechariah 2:3 And, behold, the angel that talked with me went forth, and another angel went out to meet him,


Zechariah 3:8 Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee: for they [are] men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth my servant the BRANCH.
Zechariah 6:11 Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set [them] upon the head of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest;
Ezra 5:2 Then rose up Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and began to build the house of God which [is] at Jerusalem: and with them [were] the prophets of God helping them.
Haggai 1:1 In the second year of Darius the king, in the sixth month, in the first day of the month, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet unto Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and to Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, saying,
Haggai 1:12 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest, with all the remnant of the people, obeyed the voice of the LORD their God, and the words of Haggai the prophet, as the LORD their God had sent him, and the people did fear before the LORD.
Haggai 2:4 Yet now be strong, O Zerubbabel, saith the LORD; and be strong, O Joshua, son of Josedech, the high priest; and be strong, all ye people of the land, saith the LORD, and work: for I [am] with you, saith the LORD of hosts:


Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD, to stand before the LORD to minister unto him, and to bless in his name, unto this day.
Deuteronomy 18:15 The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;
1 Samuel 6:20 And the men of Bethshemesh said, Who is able to stand before this holy LORD God? and to whom shall he go up from us?
2 Chronicles 29:11 My sons, be not now negligent: for the LORD hath chosen you to stand before him, to serve him, and that ye should minister unto him, and burn incense.
Psalms 106:23 Therefore he said that he would destroy them, had not Moses his chosen stood before him in the breach, to turn away his wrath, lest he should destroy [them].
Jeremiah 15:19 Therefore thus saith the LORD, If thou return, then will I bring thee again, [and] thou shalt stand before me: and if thou take forth the precious from the vile, thou shalt be as my mouth: let them return unto thee; but return not thou unto them.
Ezekiel 44:11 Yet they shall be ministers in my sanctuary, [having] charge at the gates of the house, and ministering to the house: they shall slay the burnt offering and the sacrifice for the people, and they shall stand before them to minister unto them.
Ezekiel 44:15 But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of my sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from me, they shall come near to me to minister unto me, and they shall stand before me to offer unto me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD:
Luke 21:36 Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man.

the angel:

Genesis 48:16 The Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named on them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.
Exodus 3:2-6 And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush: and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush [was] not consumed. ... Moreover he said, I [am] the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.
Exodus 23:20-21 Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. ... Beware of him, and obey his voice, provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions: for my name [is] in him.
Hosea 12:4-5 Yea, he had power over the angel, and prevailed: he wept, and made supplication unto him: he found him [in] Bethel, and there he spake with us; ... Even the LORD God of hosts; the LORD [is] his memorial.
Malachi 3:1 Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.
Acts 7:30-38 And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him in the wilderness of mount Sina an angel of the Lord in a flame of fire in a bush. ... This is he, that was in the church in the wilderness with the angel which spake to him in the mount Sina, and [with] our fathers: who received the lively oracles to give unto us:

that is, an adversary,
Job 1:6-12 Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them. ... And the LORD said unto Satan, Behold, all that he hath [is] in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thine hand. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.
Job 2:1-8 Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD. ... And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself withal; and he sat down among the ashes.
Psalms 109:6 Set thou a wicked man over him: and let Satan stand at his right hand.
Luke 22:31 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired [to have] you, that he may sift [you] as wheat:
1 Peter 5:8 Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour:
Revelation 12:9-10 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him. ... And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.

resist him:
Heb. be his adversary,
Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.
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Gn 3:15; 48:16. Ex 3:2; 23:20. Dt 10:8; 18:15. 1S 6:20. 2Ch 29:11. Ezr 5:2. Jb 1:6; 2:1. Ps 106:23; 109:6. Jr 15:19. Ezk 44:11, 15. Ho 12:4. Hg 1:1, 12; 2:4. Zc 1:9, 13, 19; 2:3; 3:8; 6:11. Mal 3:1. Lk 21:36; 22:31. Ac 7:30. 1P 5:8. Rv 12:9.

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