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Ruth 4:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Now this was [the custom] in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor; and this was the [manner of] attestation in Israel.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Now this [was the manner] in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave [it] to his neighbour: and this [was] a testimony in Israel.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now this was [the custom] in former times in Israel concerning the redemption and the exchange [of land] to confirm any matter: a man removed his sandal and gave it to another; and this was the [manner of] attestation in Israel.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Now this [was the manner] in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for confirming all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave [it] to his neighbor: and this [was] a testimony in Israel.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Now this [was the custom] in former time in Israel concerning redemption and concerning exchange, to confirm the whole matter: a man drew off his sandal, and gave it to his neighbour, and this was the [mode of] attestation in Israel.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Now, this aforetime, [was the way] in Israel, at a redeeming, and at an exchanging, to confirm every word: A man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour,—yea, this, was the way of taking to witness, in Israel.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And this [is] formerly in Israel for redemption and for changing, to establish anything: a man hath drawn off his sandal, and given [it] to his neighbour, and this [is] the testimony in Israel.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Now this in former times was the manner in Israel between kinsmen, that if at any time one yielded his right to another: that the grant might be sure, the man put off his shoe and gave it to his neighbour; this was a testimony of cession of right in Israel.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Now this was [the maner] in former time in Israel, concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirme all things: a man plucked off his shooe, and gaue it to his neighbour: and this [was] a testimonie in Israel.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And this [was] in former time the ordinance in Israel for redemption, and for a bargain, to confirm every word: A man loosed his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour that redeemed his right; and this was a testimony in Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Now this [was the manner] in former time in Yisrael concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave [it] to his neighbour: and this [was] a testimony in Yisrael.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Now this x2063
(2063) Complement
זֹאת
zo'th
{zothe'}
Irregular feminine of H2089; this (often used adverbially).
[was the manner] in former time 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
in Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
concerning x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
redeeming 1353
{1353} Prime
גְּאֻלָּה
g@ullah
{gheh-ool-law'}
Feminine passive participle of H1350; redemption (including the right and the object); by implication relationship.
and concerning x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
changing, 8545
{8545} Prime
תְּמוּרָה
t@muwrah
{tem-oo-raw'}
From H4171; barter, compensation.
for to confirm 6965
{6965} Prime
קוּם
quwm
{koom}
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
things; 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
a man 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
plucked off 8025
{8025} Prime
שָׁלַף
shalaph
{saw-laf'}
A primitive root; to pull out, up or off.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
his shoe, 5275
{5275} Prime
נַעַל
na`al
{nah'-al}
From H5274; properly a sandal tongue; by extension a sandal or slipper (sometimes as a symbol of occupancy, a refusal to marry, or of something valueless).
and gave 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[it] to his neighbour: 7453
{7453} Prime
רֵעַ
rea`
{ray'-ah}
From H7462; an associate (more or less close).
and this x2063
(2063) Complement
זֹאת
zo'th
{zothe'}
Irregular feminine of H2089; this (often used adverbially).
[was] a testimony 8584
{8584} Prime
תְּעוּדָה
t@`uwdah
{teh-oo-daw'}
From H5749; attestation, that is, a precept, usage.
in Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל. 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Ruth 4:7-8

_ _ a man plucked off his shoe — Where the kinsman refused to perform his duty to the family of his deceased relation, the widow was directed to pull off the shoe with some attendant circumstances of contemptuous disdain. But, as in this case, there was no refusal, the usual ignominy was spared; and the plucking off the shoe, the only ceremony observed, was a pledge of the transaction being completed.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Ruth 4:1-8.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Ruth 4:7

All things — That is, in all alienation of lands. So that it is no wonder if this ceremony differ a little from that, Deuteronomy 25:9, because that concerned only one case, but this is more general. Besides, he pleads not the command of God, but only ancient custom, for this practice. Gave it — He who relinquished his right to another, plucked off his own shoe and gave it to him. This was symbolical, and a significant and convenient ceremony, as if he said, take this shoe wherewith I used to go and tread upon my land, and in that shoe do thou enter upon it, and take possession of it. This was a testimony — This was admitted for sufficient evidence in all such cases.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Ruth 4:7

Now this [was the manner] in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirm all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave [it] to his neighbour: and this [was] a (e) testimony in Israel.

(e) That he had resigned his right, (Deuteronomy 25:9).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a man plucked off:
This custom does not refer to the law about refusing to marry a brother's widow, but was usual in the transfer of inheritances. For this relative was not a brother, but simply a kinsman; and the shoe was not pulled off by Ruth, but by the kinsman himself. The Targumist, instead of his shoe, renders "his right hand glove," it probably being the custom, in his time, to give that instead of a shoe. Jarchi says, "When we purchase anything new, it is customary to give, instead of a shoe, a handkerchief or veil."
Deuteronomy 25:7-10 And if the man like not to take his brother's wife, then let his brother's wife go up to the gate unto the elders, and say, My husband's brother refuseth to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel, he will not perform the duty of my husband's brother. ... And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe loosed.
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