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Romans 9:5 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— whose are the fathers, and of whom is Christ as concerning the flesh, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— whose are the fathers, and from whom is the Christ according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Whose [are] the fathers, and from whom according to the flesh, Christ [came], who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— whose [are] the fathers; and of whom, as according to flesh, [is] the Christ, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Whose are the fathers, and of whom is the Christ—according to the flesh—he who is over all, God, blessed unto the ages. Amen.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— whose [are] the fathers, and of whom [is] the Christ, according to the flesh, who is over all, God blessed to the ages. Amen.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Whose are the fathers and of whom is Christ, according to the flesh, who is over all things, God blessed for ever. Amen.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], who is ouer all, God blessed for euer, Amen.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— and from whom appeared the Meshiha in the flesh, who is Aloha over all: his be praises and benedictions to the age of ages. Amen.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and from among whom, Messiah appeared in the flesh, who is God over all; to whom be praises and benediction, for ever and ever; Amen.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Whose 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
[are] the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
fathers, 3962
{3962} Prime
πατήρ
pater
{pat-ayr'}
Apparently a primary word; a 'father' (literally or figuratively, near or more remote).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
as concerning 2596
{2596} Prime
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
the flesh 4561
{4561} Prime
σάρξ
sarx
{sarx}
Probably from the base of G4563; flesh (as stripped of the skin), that is, (strictly) the meat of an animal (as food), or (by extension) the body (as opposed to the soul (or spirit), or as the symbol of what is external, or as the means of kindred, or (by implication) human nature (with its frailties (physically or morally) and passions), or (specifically) a human being (as such).
Christ 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
[came], who y5607
[5607] Standard
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
is x5607
(5607) Complement
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
over 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
all, 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
blessed 2128
{2128} Prime
εὐλογητός
eulogetos
{yoo-log-ay-tos'}
From G2127; adorable.
for y1519
[1519] Standard
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
ever. 165
{0165} Prime
αἰών
aion
{ahee-ohn'}
From the same as G0104; properly an age; by extension perpetuity (also past); by implication the world; specifically (Jewish) a Messianic period (present or future).
x1519
(1519) Complement
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
Amen. 281
{0281} Prime
ἀμήν
amen
{am-ane'}
Of Hebrew origin [H0543]; properly firm, that is, (figuratively) trustworthy; adverbially surely (often as interjection so be it).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 9:5

_ _ Whose are the fathers — here, probably, the three great fathers of the covenant — Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob — by whom God condescended to name Himself (Exodus 8:6, Exodus 8:13; Luke 20:37).

_ _ and — most exalted privilege of all, and as such, reserved to the last.

_ _ of whom as concerning the flesh — (See on Romans 1:3).

_ _ Christ came — or, “is Christ”

_ _ who is over all, God — rather, “God over all.”

_ _ blessed for ever. Amen — To get rid of the bright testimony here borne to the supreme divinity of Christ, various expedients have been adopted: (1) To place a period, either after the words “concerning the flesh Christ came,” rendering the next clause as a doxology to the Father — “God who is over all be blessed for ever”; or after the word “all” — thus, “Christ came, who is over all: God be blessed.“, etc. [Erasmus, Locke, Fritzsche, Meyer, Jowett, etc.]. But it is fatal to this view, as even Socinus admits, that in other Scripture doxologies the word “Blessed” precedes the name of God on whom the blessing is invoked (thus: “Blessed be God,” Psalms 68:35; “Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel,” Psalms 72:18). Besides, any such doxology here would be “unmeaning and frigid in the extreme”; the sad subject on which he was entering suggesting anything but a doxology, even in connection with Christ’s Incarnation [Alford]. (2) To transpose the words rendered “who is”; in which case the rendering would be, “whose (that is, the fathers’) is Christ according to the flesh” [Crellius, Whiston, Taylor, Whitby]. But this is a desperate expedient, in the face of all manuscript authority; as is also the conjecture of Grotius and others, that the word “God” should be omitted from the text. It remains then, that we have here no doxology at all, but a naked statement of fact, that while Christ is “of” the Israelitish nation “as concerning the flesh,” He is, in another respect, “God over all, blessed for ever.” (In 2 Corinthians 11:31 the very Greek phrase which is here rendered “who is,” is used in the same sense; and compare Romans 1:25, Greek). In this view of the passage, as a testimony to the supreme divinity of Christ, besides all the orthodox fathers, some of the ablest modern critics concur [Bengel, Tholuck, Stuart, Olshausen, Philippi, Alford, etc.]

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 9:5

To the preceding, St. Paul now adds two more prerogatives. Theirs are the fathers — The patriarchs and holy men of old, yea, the Messiah himself. Who is over all, God blessed for ever — The original words imply the self — existent, independent Being, who was, is, and is to come. Over all — The supreme; as being God, and consequently blessed for ever. No words can more dearly express his divine, supreme majesty, and his gracious sovereignty both over Jews and, gentiles.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 9:5

Whose [are] the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ [came], (2) who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

(2) Or, "who is God over all, blessed for ever." A most manifest testimony of the Godhead and divinity of Christ.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
are the fathers:

Romans 11:28 As concerning the gospel, [they are] enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, [they are] beloved for the fathers' sakes.
Deuteronomy 10:15 Only the LORD had a delight in thy fathers to love them, and he chose their seed after them, [even] you above all people, as [it is] this day.

of whom:

Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
Genesis 12:3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him [shall] the gathering of the people [be].
Isaiah 7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.
Isaiah 11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:
Matthew 1:1-17 The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. ... So all the generations from Abraham to David [are] fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon [are] fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ [are] fourteen generations.
Luke 3:23-38 And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was [the son] of Heli, ... Which was [the son] of Enos, which was [the son] of Seth, which was [the son] of Adam, which was [the son] of God.
2 Timothy 2:8 Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my gospel:
Revelation 22:16 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, [and] the bright and morning star.

who is:

Romans 10:12 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him.
Psalms 45:6 Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom [is] a right sceptre.
Psalms 103:19 The LORD hath prepared his throne in the heavens; and his kingdom ruleth over all.
Isaiah 9:6-7 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. ... Of the increase of [his] government and peace [there shall be] no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
Jeremiah 23:5-6 Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. ... In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this [is] his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
Micah 5:2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.
John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. ... All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
John 10:30 I and [my] Father are one.
Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
Philippians 2:6-11 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: ... And [that] every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ [is] Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
Colossians 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether [they be] thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:
1 Timothy 3:16 And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.
Hebrews 1:8-13 But unto the Son [he saith], Thy throne, O God, [is] for ever and ever: a sceptre of righteousness [is] the sceptre of thy kingdom. ... But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?
1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, [even] in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

blessed:

Romans 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
Psalms 72:19 And blessed [be] his glorious name for ever: and let the whole earth be filled [with] his glory; Amen, and Amen.
2 Corinthians 11:31 The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is blessed for evermore, knoweth that I lie not.
1 Timothy 6:15 Which in his times he shall shew, [who is] the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;

Amen:

Deuteronomy 27:15-26 Cursed [be] the man that maketh [any] graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and putteth [it] in [a] secret [place]. And all the people shall answer and say, Amen. ... Cursed [be] he that confirmeth not [all] the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say, Amen.
1 Kings 1:36 And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said, Amen: the LORD God of my lord the king say so [too].
1 Chronicles 16:36 Blessed [be] the LORD God of Israel for ever and ever. And all the people said, Amen, and praised the LORD.
Psalms 41:13 Blessed [be] the LORD God of Israel from everlasting, and to everlasting. Amen, and Amen.
Psalms 89:52 Blessed [be] the LORD for evermore. Amen, and Amen.
Psalms 106:48 Blessed [be] the LORD God of Israel from everlasting to everlasting: and let all the people say, Amen. Praise ye the LORD.
Jeremiah 28:6 Even the prophet Jeremiah said, Amen: the LORD do so: the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring again the vessels of the LORD'S house, and all that is carried away captive, from Babylon into this place.
Matthew 6:13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen.
1 Corinthians 14:16 Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest?
Revelation 1:18 I [am] he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Revelation 5:14 And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four [and] twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.
Revelation 22:20 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
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Gn 12:3; 49:10. Dt 10:15; 27:15. 1K 1:36. 1Ch 16:36. Ps 41:13; 45:6; 72:19; 89:52; 103:19; 106:48. Is 7:14; 9:6; 11:1. Jr 23:5; 28:6. Mi 5:2. Mt 1:1; 6:13; 28:20. Lk 3:23. Jn 1:1; 10:30. Ac 20:28. Ro 1:3, 25; 10:12; 11:28. 1Co 14:16. 2Co 11:31. Php 2:6. Col 1:16. 1Ti 3:16; 6:15. 2Ti 2:8. He 1:8. 1Jn 5:20. Rv 1:18; 5:14; 22:16, 20.

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