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Romans 9:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service [of God], and the promises;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Who are Israelites; to whom [pertaineth] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service [of God], and the promises;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons, and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the [temple] service and the promises,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Who are Israelites; to whom [pertain] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service [of God], and the promises;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— who are Israelites; whose [is] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the law-giving, and the service, and the promises;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Who, indeed, are Israelites, whose are the sonship, and the glory, and the covenants, and the legislation, and the divine service, and the promises,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— who are Israelites, whose [is] the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the lawgiving, and the service, and the promises,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Who are Israelites: to whom belongeth the adoption as of children and the glory and the testament and the giving of the law and the service of God and the promises:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Who are Israelites: to whom perteineth the adoption, and the glory, and the couenants, and the giuing of the Law, and the seruice [of God], and the promises:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— who are the sons of Israel, and whose was the adoption of sons, and the glory, and the covenants, and the law, and the ministry, and the promises, and the fathers;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— who are sons of Israel, to whom belonged the adoption of sons, and the glory, and the covenants, and the law, and the ministration, and the promises, and the fathers;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Who 3748
{3748} Prime
ὅστις
hostis
{hos'-tis}
From G3739 and G5100; which some, that is, any that; also (definitely) which same.
are 1526
{1526} Prime
εἰσί
eisi
{i-see'}
Third person plural present indicative of G1510; they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
Israelites; 2475
{2475} Prime
Ἰσραηλίτης
Israelites
{is-rah-ale-ee'-tace}
From G2474; an 'israelite', that is, descendant of Israel (literally or figuratively).
to whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
[pertaineth] the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
adoption, 5206
{5206} Prime
υἱοθεσία
huiothesia
{hwee-oth-es-ee'-ah}
From a presumed compound of G5207 and a derivative of G5087; the placing as a son, that is, adoption (figuratively Christian sonship in respect to God).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
glory, 1391
{1391} Prime
δόξα
doxa
{dox'-ah}
From the base of G1380; glory (as very apparent), in a wide application (literally or figuratively, objectively or subjectively).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
covenants, 1242
{1242} Prime
διαθήκη
diatheke
{dee-ath-ay'-kay}
From G1303; properly a disposition, that is, (specifically) a contract (especially a devisory will).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
giving of the law, 3548
{3548} Prime
νομοθεσία
nomothesia
{nom-oth-es-ee'-ah}
From G3550; legislation (specifically the institution of the Mosaic code).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
service 2999
{2999} Prime
λατρεία
latreia
{lat-ri'-ah}
From G3000; ministration of God, that is, worship.
[of God], and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
promises; 1860
{1860} Prime
ἐπαγγελία
epaggelia
{ep-ang-el-ee'-ah}
From G1861; an announcement (for information, assent or pledge; especially a divine assurance of good).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 9:4

_ _ Who are Israelites — See Romans 11:1; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Philippians 3:5.

_ _ to whom pertaineth — “whose is”

_ _ the adoption — It is true that, compared with the new economy, the old was a state of minority and pupilage, and so far that of a bond-servant (Galatians 4:1-3); yet, compared with the state of the surrounding heathen, the choice of Abraham and his seed was a real separation of them to be a Family of God (Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 32:6; Isaiah 1:2; Jeremiah 31:9; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6).

_ _ and the glory — that “glory of the Lord,” or “visible token of the Divine Presence in the midst of them,” which rested on the ark and filled the tabernacle during all their wanderings in the wilderness; which in Jerusalem continued to be seen in the tabernacle and temple, and only disappeared when, at the Captivity, the temple was demolished, and the sun of the ancient economy began to go down. This was what the Jews called the “Shekinah.

_ _ and the covenants — “the covenants of promise” to which the Gentiles before Christ were “strangers” (Ephesians 2:12); meaning the one covenant with Abraham in its successive renewals (see Galatians 3:16, Galatians 3:17).

_ _ and the giving of the law — from Mount Sinai, and the possession of it thereafter, which the Jews justly deemed their peculiar honor (Deuteronomy 26:18, Deuteronomy 26:19; Psalms 147:19, Psalms 147:20; Romans 2:17).

_ _ and the service of God — or, of the sanctuary, meaning the whole divinely instituted religious service, in the celebration of which they were brought so nigh unto God.

_ _ and the promises — the great Abrahamic promises, successively unfolded, and which had their fulfillment only in Christ; (see Hebrews 7:6; Galatians 3:16, Galatians 3:21; Acts 26:6, Acts 26:7).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 9:1-5.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 9:4

Whose is the adoption, &c. — He enumerates six prerogatives, of which the first pair respect God the Father, the second Christ, the third the Holy Ghost. The adoption and the glory — That is, Israel is the first — born child of God, and the God of glory is their God, Deuteronomy 4:7; Psalms 106:20. These are relative to each other. At once God is the Father of Israel, and Israel are the people of God. He speaks not here of the ark, or any corporeal thing. God himself is "the glory of his people Israel." And the covenants, and the giving of the law — The covenant was given long before the law. It is termed covenants, in the plural, because it was so often and so variously repeated, and because there were two dispositions of it, Galatians 4:24, frequently called two covenants; the one promising, the other exhibiting the promise. And the worship, and the promises — The true way of worshipping God; and all the promises made to the fathers.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 9:4

Who are Israelites; to whom [pertaineth] the adoption, and the (c) glory, and the (d) covenants, and the giving of the (e) law, and the (f) service [of God], and the (g) promises;

(c) The ark of the covenant, which was a token of God's presence.

(d) The tables of the covenant, and this is spoken by the figure of speech metonymy.

(e) Of the judicial law.

(f) The ceremonial law.

(g) Which were made to Abraham and to his posterity.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
are Israelites:

Romans 9:6 Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect. For they [are] not all Israel, which are of Israel:
Genesis 32:28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed.
Exodus 19:3-6 And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying, Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel; ... And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These [are] the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.
Deuteronomy 7:6 For thou [art] an holy people unto the LORD thy God: the LORD thy God hath chosen thee to be a special people unto himself, above all people that [are] upon the face of the earth.
Psalms 73:1 [[A Psalm of Asaph.]] Truly God [is] good to Israel, [even] to such as are of a clean heart.
Isaiah 41:8 But thou, Israel, [art] my servant, Jacob whom I have chosen, the seed of Abraham my friend.
Isaiah 46:3 Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are borne [by me] from the belly, which are carried from the womb:
John 1:47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!

the adoption:

Exodus 4:22 And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the LORD, Israel [is] my son, [even] my firstborn:
Deuteronomy 14:1 Ye [are] the children of the LORD your God: ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make any baldness between your eyes for the dead.
Jeremiah 31:9 They shall come with weeping, and with supplications will I lead them: I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble: for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim [is] my firstborn.
Jeremiah 31:20 [Is] Ephraim my dear son? [is he] a pleasant child? for since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still: therefore my bowels are troubled for him; I will surely have mercy upon him, saith the LORD.
Hosea 11:1 When Israel [was] a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.

and the glory:

Numbers 7:89 And when Moses was gone into the tabernacle of the congregation to speak with him, then he heard the voice of one speaking unto him from off the mercy seat that [was] upon the ark of testimony, from between the two cherubims: and he spake unto him.
1 Samuel 4:21-22 And she named the child Ichabod, saying, The glory is departed from Israel: because the ark of God was taken, and because of her father in law and her husband. ... And she said, The glory is departed from Israel: for the ark of God is taken.
1 Kings 8:11 So that the priests could not stand to minister because of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of the LORD.
Psalms 63:2 To see thy power and thy glory, so [as] I have seen thee in the sanctuary.
Psalms 78:61 And delivered his strength into captivity, and his glory into the enemy's hand.
Psalms 90:16 Let thy work appear unto thy servants, and thy glory unto their children.
Isaiah 60:19 The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the LORD shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.

covenants:
or, testaments,
Genesis 15:18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
Genesis 17:2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly.
Genesis 17:7 And I will establish my covenant between me and thee and thy seed after thee in their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee.
Genesis 17:10 This [is] my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.
Exodus 24:7-8 And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient. ... And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled [it] on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.
Exodus 34:27 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write thou these words: for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel.
Deuteronomy 29:1 These [are] the words of the covenant, which the LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of Israel in the land of Moab, beside the covenant which he made with them in Horeb.
Deuteronomy 31:16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Behold, thou shalt sleep with thy fathers; and this people will rise up, and go a whoring after the gods of the strangers of the land, whither they go [to be] among them, and will forsake me, and break my covenant which I have made with them.
Nehemiah 13:29 Remember them, O my God, because they have defiled the priesthood, and the covenant of the priesthood, and of the Levites.
Psalms 89:3 I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn unto David my servant,
Psalms 89:34 My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips.
Jeremiah 31:33 But this [shall be] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people.
Jeremiah 33:20-25 Thus saith the LORD; If ye can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season; ... Thus saith the LORD; If my covenant [be] not with day and night, [and if] I have not appointed the ordinances of heaven and earth;
Acts 3:25 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed.
Hebrews 8:6-10 But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises. ... For this [is] the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord; I will put my laws into their mind, and write them in their hearts: and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people:

the giving:

Romans 3:2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.
Nehemiah 9:13-14 Thou camest down also upon mount Sinai, and spakest with them from heaven, and gavest them right judgments, and true laws, good statutes and commandments: ... And madest known unto them thy holy sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant:
Psalms 147:19 He sheweth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and his judgments unto Israel.
Ezekiel 20:11-12 And I gave them my statutes, and shewed them my judgments, which [if] a man do, he shall even live in them. ... Moreover also I gave them my sabbaths, to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I [am] the LORD that sanctify them.
John 1:17 For the law was given by Moses, [but] grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

the service:

Exodus 12:25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the LORD will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service.
Isaiah 5:2 And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes.
Matthew 21:33 Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:
Hebrews 9:3 And after the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holiest of all;
Hebrews 9:10 [Which stood] only in meats and drinks, and divers washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed [on them] until the time of reformation.

promises:

Luke 1:54-55 He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of [his] mercy; ... As he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed for ever.
Luke 1:69-75 And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David; ... In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.
Acts 2:39 For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, [even] as many as the Lord our God shall call.
Acts 3:25-26 Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers, saying unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the kindreds of the earth be blessed. ... Unto you first God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities.
Acts 13:32-33 And we declare unto you glad tidings, how that the promise which was made unto the fathers, ... God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee.
Ephesians 2:12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
Hebrews 6:13-17 For when God made promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he sware by himself, ... Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed [it] by an oath:
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Gn 15:18; 17:2, 7, 10; 32:28. Ex 4:22; 12:25; 19:3; 24:7; 34:27. Nu 7:89. Dt 7:6; 14:1; 29:1; 31:16. 1S 4:21. 1K 8:11. Ne 9:13; 13:29. Ps 63:2; 73:1; 78:61; 89:3, 34; 90:16; 147:19. Is 5:2; 41:8; 46:3; 60:19. Jr 31:9, 20, 33; 33:20. Ezk 20:11. Ho 11:1. Mt 21:33. Lk 1:54, 69. Jn 1:17, 47. Ac 2:39; 3:25; 13:32. Ro 3:2; 9:6. Ep 2:12. He 6:13; 8:6; 9:3, 10.

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