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Romans 9:22 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— What if God, willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [What] if God, willing to shew [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— What if God, although willing to demonstrate His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [What] if God, willing to show [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if God, minded to shew his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering vessels of wrath fitted for destruction;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, if God—wishing to shew his anger and to make known his power—bare, in much patience, with vessels of anger already fitted for destruction,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And if God, willing to shew the wrath and to make known His power, did endure, in much long suffering, vessels of wrath fitted for destruction,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— What if God, willing to shew his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much patience vessels of wrath, fitted for destruction,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— What if God, willing to shew his wrath, & to make his power knowen, indured with much long suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— BUT if Aloha, willing to reveal his wrath, and to make known his power, in his much patience bore with the vessels of wrath who were perfected for destruction,
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And if God, being disposed to exhibit his wrath and to make known his power, in abundance of long-suffering, brought wrath upon the vessels of wrath which were complete for destruction;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[What] x1161
(1161) Complement
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
if 1487
{1487} Prime
εἰ
ei
{i}
A primary particle of conditionality; if, whether, that, etc.
y1161
[1161] Standard
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
willing 2309
{2309} Prime
θέλω
thelo
{thel'-o}
In certain tenses θελέω [[theleo]], {thel-eh'-o}; and ἐθέλέω [[etheleo]], {eth-el-eh'-o}, which are otherwise obsolete; apparently strengthened from the alternate form of G0138; to determine (as an active voice option from subjective impulse; whereas G1014 properly denotes rather a passive voice acquiescence in objective considerations), that is, choose or prefer (literally or figuratively); by implication to wish, that is, be inclined to (sometimes adverbially gladly); impersonally for the future tense, to be about to; by Hebraism to delight in.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
to shew 1731
{1731} Prime
ἐνδείκνυμι
endeiknumi
{en-dike'-noo-mee}
From G1722 and G1166; to indicate (by word or act).
z5670
<5670> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Middle (See G5785)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 29
[his] wrath, 3709
{3709} Prime
ὀργή
orge
{or-gay'}
From G3713; properly desire (as a reaching forth or excitement of the mind), that is, (by analogy) violent passion (ire, or [justifiable] abhorrence); by implication punishment.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to make y1107
[1107] Standard
γνωρίζω
gnorizo
{gno-rid'-zo}
From a derivative of G1097; to make known; subjectively to know.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
his y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
power y1415
[1415] Standard
δυνατός
dunatos
{doo-nat-os'}
From G1410; powerful or capable (literally or figuratively); neuter possible.
known, 1107
{1107} Prime
γνωρίζω
gnorizo
{gno-rid'-zo}
From a derivative of G1097; to make known; subjectively to know.
z5658
<5658> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 516
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
x1415
(1415) Complement
δυνατός
dunatos
{doo-nat-os'}
From G1410; powerful or capable (literally or figuratively); neuter possible.
endured 5342
{5342} Prime
φέρω
phero
{fer'-o}
A primary verb (for which other and apparently not cognate ones are used in certain tenses only; namely οἴω [[oio]], {oy'-o}; and ἐνέγκω [[enegko]], {en-eng'-ko}); to 'bear' or carry (in a very wide application, literally and figuratively.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
with 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
much 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
longsuffering 3115
{3115} Prime
μακροθυμία
makrothumia
{mak-roth-oo-mee'-ah}
From the same as G3116; longanimity, that is, (objectively) forbearance or (subjectively) fortitude.
the vessels 4632
{4632} Prime
σκεῦος
skeuos
{skyoo'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a vessel, implement, equipment or apparatus (literally or figuratively [specifically a wife as contributing to the usefulness of the husband]).
of wrath 3709
{3709} Prime
ὀργή
orge
{or-gay'}
From G3713; properly desire (as a reaching forth or excitement of the mind), that is, (by analogy) violent passion (ire, or [justifiable] abhorrence); by implication punishment.
fitted 2675
{2675} Prime
καταρτίζω
katartizo
{kat-ar-tid'-zo}
From G2596 and a derivative of G0739; to complete thoroughly, that is, repair (literally or figuratively) or adjust.
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
to 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
destruction: 684
{0684} Prime
ἀπώλεια
apoleia
{ap-o'-li-a}
From a presumed derivative of G0622; ruin or loss (physical, spiritual or eternal).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 9:22-23

_ _ What if God, willing to show — “designing to manifest”

_ _ his wrath — His holy displeasure against sin.

_ _ and to make his power — to punish it

_ _ known endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath — that is, “destined to wrath”; just as “vessels of mercy,” in Romans 9:23, mean “vessels destined to mercy”; compare Ephesians 2:3, “children of wrath.”

_ _ fitted for destruction — It is well remarked by Stuart that the “difficulties which such statements involve are not to be got rid of by softening the language of one text, while so many others meet us which are of the same tenor; and even if we give up the Bible itself, so long as we acknowledge an omnipotent and omniscient God we cannot abate in the least degree from any of the difficulties which such texts make.” Be it observed, however, that if God, as the apostle teaches, expressly “designed to manifest His wrath, and to make His power (in the way of wrath) known,” it could only be by punishing some, while He pardons others; and if the choice between the two classes was not to be founded, as our apostle also teaches, on their own doings but on God’s good pleasure, the decision behooved ultimately to rest with God. Yet, even in the necessary punishment of the wicked, as Hodge observes, so far from proceeding with undue severity, the apostle would have it remarked that God “endures with much long-suffering” those objects of His righteous displeasure.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 9:14-24.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 9:22

What if God, being willing — Referring to Romans 9:18-19. That is, although it was now his will, because of their obstinate unbelief, To show his wrath — Which necessarily presupposes sin. And to make his power known — This is repeated from Romans 9:17. Yet endured — As he did Pharaoh. With much longsuffering — Which should have led them to repentance. The vessels of wrath — Those who had moved his wrath by still rejecting his mercy. Fitted for destruction — By their own wilful and final impenitence. Is there any injustice in this ?

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 9:22

(22) [What] if God, willing to shew [his] wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the (y) vessels of wrath fitted to (23) destruction:

(22) The second answer is this, that God, moreover and besides that he justly decrees whatever he decrees, uses that moderation in executing his decrees, as is declared his singular mercifulness even in the reprobate, in that he endures them a long time, and permits them to enjoy many and singular benefits, until at length he justly condemns them: and that to good end and purpose, that is, to show himself to be an enemy and avenger of wickedness, that it may appear what power he has by these severe judgments, and finally by comparison of contraries to set forth indeed, how great his mercy is towards the elect.

(y) By vessels, the Hebrews understand all types of instruments.

(23) Therefore again, we may say with Paul, that some men are made by God the creator for destruction.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
willing:

Romans 9:17 For the scripture saith unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth.
Romans 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness;
Romans 2:4-5 Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance? ... But after thy hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God;
Exodus 9:16 And in very deed for this [cause] have I raised thee up, for to shew [in] thee my power; and that my name may be declared throughout all the earth.
Psalms 90:11 Who knoweth the power of thine anger? even according to thy fear, [so is] thy wrath.
Proverbs 16:4 The LORD hath made all [things] for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.
Revelation 6:16-17 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb: ... For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

endured:

Numbers 14:11 And the LORD said unto Moses, How long will this people provoke me? and how long will it be ere they believe me, for all the signs which I have shewed among them?
Numbers 14:18 The LORD [is] longsuffering, and of great mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and by no means clearing [the guilty], visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth [generation].
Psalms 50:21-22 These [things] hast thou done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest that I was altogether [such an one] as thyself: [but] I will reprove thee, and set [them] in order before thine eyes. ... Now consider this, ye that forget God, lest I tear [you] in pieces, and [there be] none to deliver.
Ecclesiastes 8:11-12 Because sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil. ... Though a sinner do evil an hundred times, and his [days] be prolonged, yet surely I know that it shall be well with them that fear God, which fear before him:
Lamentations 3:22 [It is of] the LORD'S mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions fail not.
1 Peter 3:20 Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water.
2 Peter 2:3 And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.
2 Peter 2:9 The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished:
2 Peter 3:8-9 But, beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, that one day [is] with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. ... The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering to us-ward, not willing that any should perish, but that all should come to repentance.
2 Peter 3:15 And account [that] the longsuffering of our Lord [is] salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you;
Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
Revelation 6:9-11 And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word of God, and for the testimony which they held: ... And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should be killed as they [were], should be fulfilled.

the vessels:
The Apostle, by employing the appellation of the vessels of wrath, carries on the similitude of the potter, by which he had illustrated the sovereignty of God.
Romans 9:21 Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour?
1 Thessalonians 5:9 For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ,
2 Timothy 2:20 But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour.

fitted:
or, made up,
Genesis 15:16 But in the fourth generation they shall come hither again: for the iniquity of the Amorites [is] not yet full.
Matthew 23:31-33 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. ... [Ye] serpents, [ye] generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?
1 Thessalonians 2:16 Forbidding us to speak to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill up their sins alway: for the wrath is come upon them to the uttermost.
1 Peter 2:8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, [even to them] which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.
Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.
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Gn 15:16. Ex 9:16. Nu 14:11, 18. Ps 50:21; 90:11. Pv 16:4. Ec 8:11. Lm 3:22. Mt 23:31. Ro 1:18; 2:4; 9:17, 21. 1Th 2:16; 5:9. 2Ti 2:20. 1P 2:8; 3:20. 2P 2:3, 9; 3:8, 15. Jde 1:4. Rv 6:9, 16.

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