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Romans 9:18 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will be hardeneth.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will [have mercy], and whom he will he hardeneth.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So then He has mercy on whom He desires, and He hardens whom He desires.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will [have mercy], and whom he will he hardeneth.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— So then, to whom he will he shews mercy, and whom he will he hardens.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Hence, then,—on whom he pleaseth, he hath mercy, and, whom he pleaseth, he doth harden.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— so, then, to whom He willeth, He doth kindness, and to whom He willeth, He doth harden.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will. And whom he will, he hardeneth.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Therefore hath hee mercie on whom hee will haue mercy, and whom he will, he hardeneth.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Then upon whom he willeth he is merciful, and whom he willeth he hardeneth.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Wherefore, he hath pity upon whom he pleaseth; and whom he pleaseth, he hardeneth.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Therefore 686
{0686} Prime
άρα
ara
{ar'-ah}
Probably from G0142 (through the idea of drawing a conclusion); a particle denoting an inference more or less decisive (as follows).
3767
{3767} Prime
οὖν
oun
{oon}
Apparently a primary word; (adverbially) certainly, or (conjugationally) accordingly.
hath he mercy 1653
{1653} Prime
ἐλεέω
eleeo
{el-eh-eh'-o}
From G1656; to compassionate (by word or deed, specifically by divine grace).
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
on whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
he will 2309
{2309} Prime
θέλω
thelo
{thel'-o}
In certain tenses θελέω [[theleo]], {thel-eh'-o}; and ἐθέλέω [[etheleo]], {eth-el-eh'-o}, which are otherwise obsolete; apparently strengthened from the alternate form of G0138; to determine (as an active voice option from subjective impulse; whereas G1014 properly denotes rather a passive voice acquiescence in objective considerations), that is, choose or prefer (literally or figuratively); by implication to wish, that is, be inclined to (sometimes adverbially gladly); impersonally for the future tense, to be about to; by Hebraism to delight in.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
[have mercy], and 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
whom 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
he will 2309
{2309} Prime
θέλω
thelo
{thel'-o}
In certain tenses θελέω [[theleo]], {thel-eh'-o}; and ἐθέλέω [[etheleo]], {eth-el-eh'-o}, which are otherwise obsolete; apparently strengthened from the alternate form of G0138; to determine (as an active voice option from subjective impulse; whereas G1014 properly denotes rather a passive voice acquiescence in objective considerations), that is, choose or prefer (literally or figuratively); by implication to wish, that is, be inclined to (sometimes adverbially gladly); impersonally for the future tense, to be about to; by Hebraism to delight in.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
he hardeneth. 4645
{4645} Prime
σκληρύνω
skleruno
{sklay-roo'-no}
From G4642; to indurate, that is, (figuratively) render stubborn.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 9:18

_ _ Therefore hath he — “So then he hath.” The result then is that He hath

_ _ mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth — by judicially abandoning them to the hardening influence of sin itself (Psalms 81:11, Psalms 81:12; Romans 1:24, Romans 1:26, Romans 1:28; Hebrews 3:8, Hebrews 3:13), and of the surrounding incentives to it (Matthew 24:12; 1 Corinthians 15:38; 2 Thessalonians 2:17).

_ _ Second objection to the doctrine of Divine Sovereignty:

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 9:14-24.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 9:18

So then — That is, accordingly he does show mercy on his own terms, namely, on them that believe. And whom he willeth — Namely, them that believe not. He hardeneth — Leaves to the hardness of their hearts.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 9:18

(15) Therefore hath he mercy on whom he (t) will [have mercy], and whom he will he hardeneth.

(15) A conclusion of the full answer to the first objection: therefore seeing that God does not save those whom he freely chose according to his good will and pleasure, but by justifying and sanctifying them by his grace, his counsels in saving them cannot seem unjust. And again, there is not injustice in the everlasting counsel of God, with regard to the destruction of those whom he lifts to destroy, because he hardens before he destroys: therefore the third answer for the maintenance of God's justice in the everlasting counsel of reprobation, consists in this word "hardening": which nonetheless he concealed in the former verse, because the history of Pharaoh was well known. But the force of the word is great, for hardening, which is set against "mercy", presupposes the same things that mercy did, that is, a voluntary corruption, in which the reprobate are hardened: and again, corruption presupposes a perfect state of creation. Moreover, this hardening also is voluntary, for God hardens in such a way, being offended with corruption, that he uses their own will whom he hardens, for the executing of that judgment. Then follow the fruits of hardening, that is, unbelief and sin, which are the true and proper causes of the condemnation of the reprobate. Why does he then appoint to destruction? Because he wishes: why does he harden? Because they are corrupt: why does he condemn? Because they are sinners. Where then is unrighteousness? Nay, if he would destroy all after this manner, to whom would he do injury?

(t) Whom it pleased him to appoint, to show his favour upon.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
hath:

Romans 9:15-16 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. ... So then [it is] not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.
Romans 5:20-21 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound: ... That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.
Ephesians 1:6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

will he:

Romans 1:24-28 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: ... And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
Romans 11:7-8 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded ... (According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.
Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said unto Moses, When thou goest to return into Egypt, see that thou do all those wonders before Pharaoh, which I have put in thine hand: but I will harden his heart, that he shall not let the people go.
Exodus 7:13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.
Deuteronomy 2:30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as [appeareth] this day.
Joshua 11:20 For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly, [and] that they might have no favour, but that he might destroy them, as the LORD commanded Moses.
Isaiah 63:17 O LORD, why hast thou made us to err from thy ways, [and] hardened our heart from thy fear? Return for thy servants' sake, the tribes of thine inheritance.
Matthew 13:14-15 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: ... For this people's heart is waxed gross, and [their] ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with [their] eyes, and hear with [their] ears, and should understand with [their] heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
Acts 28:26-28 Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive: ... Be it known therefore unto you, that the salvation of God is sent unto the Gentiles, and [that] they will hear it.
2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. ... That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 4:21; 7:13. Dt 2:30. Jsh 11:20. Is 63:17. Mt 13:14. Ac 28:26. Ro 1:24; 5:20; 9:15; 11:7. Ep 1:6. 2Th 2:10.

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