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Romans 8:10 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the spirit is life because of righteousness.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And if Christ [be] in you, the body [is] dead because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— If Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, yet the spirit is alive because of righteousness.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And if Christ [is] in you, the body [is] dead because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— but if Christ be in you, the body is dead on account of sin, but the Spirit life on account of righteousness.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, if Christ is in you, the body, indeed, is dead by reason of sin, whereas, the spirit, is life by reason of righteousness;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and if Christ [is] in you, the body, indeed, [is] dead because of sin, and the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And if Christ be in you, the body indeed is dead, because of sin: but the spirit liveth, because of justification.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And if Christ be in you, the body is dead because of sinne: but the spirit is life, because of righteousnesse.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And if the Meshiha be in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— But if Messiah is in you, the body is dead, in regard to sin; and the Spirit is alive in regard to righteousness.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
if 1487
{1487} Prime
εἰ
ei
{i}
A primary particle of conditionality; if, whether, that, etc.
Christ 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
[be] in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
you, 5213
{5213} Prime
ὑμῖν
humin
{hoo-min'}
Irregular dative case of G5210; to (with or by) you.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
body 4983
{4983} Prime
σῶμα
soma
{so'-mah}
From G4982; the body (as a sound whole), used in a very wide application, literally or figuratively.
y3303
[3303] Standard
μέν
men
{men}
A primary particle; properly indicative of affirmation or concession (in fact); usually followed by a contrasted clause with G1161 (this one, the former, etc.
[is] x3303
(3303) Complement
μέν
men
{men}
A primary particle; properly indicative of affirmation or concession (in fact); usually followed by a contrasted clause with G1161 (this one, the former, etc.
dead 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
because 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
of sin; 266
{0266} Prime
ἁμαρτία
hamartia
{ham-ar-tee'-ah}
From G0264; sin (properly abstract).
but 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
Spirit 4151
{4151} Prime
πνεῦμα
pneuma
{pnyoo'-mah}
From G4154; a current of air, that is, breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, that is, (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy spirit.
[is] life 2222
{2222} Prime
ζωή
zoe
{dzo-ay'}
From G2198; life (literally or figuratively).
because 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
of righteousness. 1343
{1343} Prime
δικαιοσύνη
dikaiosune
{dik-ah-yos-oo'-nay}
From G1342; equity (of character or act); specifically (Christian) justification.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 8:10-11

_ _ And if Christ be in you — by His indwelling Spirit in virtue of which we have one life with him.

_ _ the body — “the body indeed.”

_ _ is dead because of — “by reason of”

_ _ sin; but the spirit is life because — or, “by reason”

_ _ of righteousness — The word “indeed,” which the original requires, is of the nature of a concession — “I grant you that the body is dead ... and so far redemption is incomplete, but,” etc.; that is, “If Christ be in you by His indwelling Spirit, though your ‘bodies’ have to pass through the stage of ‘death’ in consequence of the first Adam’s ‘sin,’ your spirit is instinct with new and undying ‘life,’ brought in by the ‘righteousness’ of the second Adam” [Tholuck, Meyer, and Alford in part, but only Hodge entirely].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Romans 8:10-16

_ _ In these verses the apostle represents two more excellent benefits, which belong to true believers.

_ _ I. Life. The happiness is not barely a negative happiness, not to be condemned; but it is positive, it is an advancement to a life that will be the unspeakable happiness of the man (Romans 8:10, Romans 8:11): If Christ be in you. Observe, If the Spirit be in us, Christ is in us. He dwells in the heart by faith, Ephesians 3:17. Now we are here told what becomes of the bodies and souls of those in whom Christ is.

_ _ 1. We cannot say but that the body is dead; it is a frail, mortal, dying body, and it will be dead shortly; it is a house of clay, whose foundation is in the dust. The life purchased and promised does not immortalize the body in its present state. It is dead, that is, it is appointed to die, it is under a sentence of death: as we say one that is condemned is a dead man. In the midst of life we are in death: be our bodies ever so strong, and healthful, and handsome, they are as good as dead (Hebrews 11:12), and this because of sin. It is sin that kills the body. This effect the first threatening has (Genesis 3:19): Dust thou art. Methinks, were there no other argument, love to our bodies should make us hate sin, because it is such an enemy to our bodies. The death even of the bodies of the saints is a remaining token of God's displeasure against sin.

_ _ 2. But the spirit, the precious soul, that is life; it is now spiritually alive, nay, it is life. Grace in the soul is its new nature; the life of the saint lies in the soul, while the life of the sinner goes no further than the body. When the body dies, and returns to the dust, the spirit if life; not only living and immortal, but swallowed up of life. Death to the saints is but the freeing of the heaven-born spirit from the clog and load of this body, that it may be fit to partake of eternal life. When Abraham was dead, yet God was the God of Abraham, for even then his spirit was life, Matthew 22:31, Matthew 22:32. See Psalms 49:15. And this because of righteousness. The righteousness of Christ imputed to them secures the soul, the better part, from death; the righteousness of Christ inherent in them, the renewed image of God upon the soul, preserves it, and, by God's ordination, at death elevates it, and improves it, and makes it meet to partake of the inheritance of the saints in light. The eternal life of the soul consists in the vision and fruition of God, and both assimilating, for which the soul is qualified by the righteousness of sanctification. I refer to Psalms 17:15, I will behold thy face in righteousness.

_ _ 3. There is a life reserved too for the poor body at last: He shall also quicken your mortal bodies, Romans 8:11. The Lord is for the body; and though at death it is cast aside as a despised broken vessel, a vessel in which is no pleasure, yet God will have a desire to the work of his hands (Job 14:15), will remember his covenant with the dust, and will not lose a grain of it; but the body shall be reunited to the soul, and clothed with a glory agreeable to it. Vile bodies shall be newly fashioned, Philippians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 15:42. Two great assurances of the resurrection of the body are mentioned: — (1.) The resurrection of Christ: He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken. Christ rose as the head, and first-fruits, and forerunner of all the saints, 1 Corinthians 15:20. The body of Christ lay in the grave, under the sin of all the elect imputed, and broke through it. O grave, then, where is thy victory? It is in the virtue of Christ's resurrection that we shall rise. (2.) The indwelling of the Spirit. The same Spirit that raiseth the soul now will raise the body shortly: By his Spirit that dwelleth in you. The bodies of the saints are the temples of the Holy Ghost, 1 Corinthians 3:16; 1 Corinthians 6:19. Now, though these temples may be suffered for awhile to lie in ruins, yet they shall be rebuilt. The tabernacle of David, which has fallen down, shall be repaired, whatever great mountains may be in the way. The Spirit, breathing upon dead and dry bones, will make them live, and the saints even in their flesh shall see God. Hence the apostle by the way infers how much it is our duty to walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit, Romans 8:12, Romans 8:13. Let not our life be after the wills and motions of the flesh. Two motives he mentions here: — [1.] We are not debtors to the flesh, neither by relation, gratitude, nor any other bond or obligation. We owe no suit nor service to our carnal desires; we are indeed bound to clothe, and feed, and take care of the body, as a servant to the soul in the service of God, but no further. We are not debtors to it; the flesh never did us so much kindness as to oblige us to serve it. It is implied that we are debtors to Christ and to the Spirit: there we owe our all, all we have and all we can do, by a thousand bonds and obligations. Being delivered from so great a death by so great a ransom, we are deeply indebted to our deliverer. See 1 Corinthians 6:19, 1 Corinthians 6:20. [2.] Consider the consequences, what will be at the end of the way. Here are life and death, blessing and cursing, set before us. If you live after the flesh, you shall die; that is, die eternally. It is the pleasing, and serving, and gratifying, of the flesh, that are the ruin of souls; that is, the second death. Dying indeed is the soul's dying: the death of the saints is but a sleep. But, on the other hand, You shall live, live and be happy to eternity; that is the true life: If you through the Spirit mortify the deeds of the body, subdue and keep under all fleshly lusts and affections, deny yourselves in the pleasing and humouring of the body, and this through the Spirit; we cannot do it without the Spirit working it in us, and the Spirit will not do it without our doing our endeavour. So that in a word we are put upon this dilemma, either to displease the body or destroy the soul.

_ _ II. The Spirit of adoption is another privilege belonging to those that are in Christ Jesus, Romans 8:14-16.

_ _ 1. All that are Christ's are taken into the relation of Children to God, Romans 8:14. Observe, (1.) Their property: They are led by the Spirit of God, as a scholar in his learning is led by his tutor, as a traveller in his journey is led by his guide, as a soldier in his engagements is led by his captain; not driven as beasts, but led as rational creatures, drawn with the cords of a man and the bands of love. It is the undoubted character of all true believers that they are led by the Spirit of God. Having submitted themselves in believing to his guidance, they do in their obedience follow that guidance, and are sweetly led into all truth and all duty. (2.) Their privilege: They are the sons of God, received into the number of God's children by adoption, owned and loved by him as his children.

_ _ 2. And those that are the sons of God have the Spirit,

_ _ (1.) To work in them the disposition of children.

_ _ [1.] You have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, Romans 8:15. Understand it, First, Of that spirit of bondage which the Old Testament church was under, by reason of the darkness and terror of that dispensation. The veil signified bondage, 2 Corinthians 3:15. Compare Romans 8:17. The Spirit of adoption was not then so plentifully poured out as now; for the law opened the wound, but little of the remedy. Now you are not under that dispensation, you have not received that spirit. Secondly, Of that spirit of bondage which many of the saints themselves were under at their conversion, under the convictions of sin and wrath set home by the Spirit; as those in Acts 2:37, the jailer (Acts 16:30), Paul, Acts 9:6. Then the Spirit himself was to the saints a spirit of bondage: “But,” says the apostle, “with you this is over.” “God as a Judge,” says Dr. Manton, “by the spirit of bondage, sends us to Christ as Mediator, and Christ as Mediator, by the spirit of adoption, sends us back again to God as a Father.” Though a child of God may come under fear of bondage again, and may be questioning his sonship, yet the blessed Spirit is not again a spirit of bondage, for then he would witness an untruth.

_ _ [2.] But you have received the Spirit of adoption. Men may give a charter of adoption; but it is God's prerogative, when he adopts, to give a spirit of adoption — the nature of children. The Spirit of adoption works in the children of God a filial love to God as a Father, a delight in him, and a dependence upon him, as a Father. A sanctified soul bears the image of God, as the child bears the image of the father. Whereby we cry, Abba, Father. Praying is here called crying, which is not only an earnest, but a natural expression of desire; children that cannot speak vent their desires by crying. Now, the Spirit teaches us in prayer to come to God as a Father, with a holy humble confidence, emboldening the soul in that duty. Abba, Father. Abba is a Syriac word signifying father or my father; patēr, a Greek work; and why both, Abba, Father? Because Christ said so in prayer (Mark 14:36), Abba, Father: and we have received the Spirit of the Son. It denotes an affectionate endearing importunity, and a believing stress laid upon the relation. Little children, begging of their parents, can say little but Father, Father, and that is rhetoric enough. It also denotes that the adoption is common both to Jews and Gentiles: the Jews call him Abba in their language, the Greeks may call him patr in their language; for in Christ Jesus there is neither Greek nor Jew.

_ _ (2.) To witness to the relation of children, Romans 8:16. The former is the work of the Spirit as a Sanctifier; this as a Comforter. Beareth witness with our spirit. Many a man has the witness of his own spirit to the goodness of his state who has not the concurring testimony of the Spirit. Many speak peace to themselves to whom the God of heaven does not speak peace. But those that are sanctified have God's Spirit witnessing with their spirits, which is to be understood not of any immediate extraordinary revelation, but an ordinary work of the Spirit, in and by the means of comfort, speaking peace to the soul. This testimony is always agreeable to the written word, and is therefore always grounded upon sanctification; for the Spirit in the heart cannot contradict the Spirit in the word. The Spirit witnesses to none the privileges of children who have not the nature and disposition of children.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 8:10

Now if Christ be in you — Where the Spirit of Christ is, there is Christ. The body indeed is dead — Devoted to death. Because of sin — Heretofore committed. But the Spirit is life — Already truly alive. Because of righteousness — Now attained. From Romans 8:13, St. Paul, having finished what he had begun, Romans 6:1, describes purely the state of believers.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 8:10

(12) And if Christ [be] in you, the (n) body [is] dead because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness.

(12) He confirms the faithful against the relics of flesh and sin, granting that these things are yet (as appears by the corruption which is in them) having effects on one of their parts (which he calls the body, that is to say, a lump) which is not yet purged from this earthly filthiness in death: but in addition not wanting to doubt at all of the happy success of this combat, because even this little spark of the Spirit (that is, of the grace of regeneration), which is evidently in them as appears by the fruits of righteousness, is the seed of life.

(n) The flesh, or all that which as yet remains fast in the grips of sin and death.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
if Christ:

John 6:56 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.
John 14:20 At that day ye shall know that I [am] in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you.
John 14:23 Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.
John 15:5 I am the vine, ye [are] the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.
John 17:23 I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.
2 Corinthians 13:5 Examine yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves. Know ye not your own selves, how that Jesus Christ is in you, except ye be reprobates?
Ephesians 3:17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love,
Colossians 1:27 To whom God would make known what [is] the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory:

the body:

Romans 8:11 But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you.
Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
2 Corinthians 4:11 For we which live are alway delivered unto death for Jesus' sake, that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our mortal flesh.
2 Corinthians 5:1-4 For we know that if our earthly house of [this] tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. ... For we that are in [this] tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life.
1 Thessalonians 4:16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:
Hebrews 9:27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
2 Peter 1:13-14 Yea, I think it meet, as long as I am in this tabernacle, to stir you up by putting [you] in remembrance; ... Knowing that shortly I must put off [this] my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath shewed me.
Revelation 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed [are] the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them.

but:

John 4:14 But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
John 6:54 Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 11:25-26 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: ... And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?
John 14:19 Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also.
1 Corinthians 15:45 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam [was made] a quickening spirit.
2 Corinthians 5:6-8 Therefore [we are] always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord: ... We are confident, [I say], and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.
Philippians 1:23 For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:
Colossians 3:3-4 For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God. ... When Christ, [who is] our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory.
Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
Revelation 7:14-17 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. ... For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.

life:

Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.
2 Corinthians 5:21 For he hath made him [to be] sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
Philippians 3:9 And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:
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Jn 4:14; 6:54, 56; 11:25; 14:19, 20, 23; 15:5; 17:23. Ro 5:12, 21; 8:11. 1Co 15:45. 2Co 4:11; 5:1, 6, 21; 13:5. Ep 3:17. Php 1:23; 3:9. Col 1:27; 3:3. 1Th 4:16. He 9:27; 12:23. 2P 1:13. Rv 7:14; 14:13.

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