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Romans 5:18 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— So then as through one trespass [the judgment came] unto all men to condemnation; even so through one act of righteousness [the free gift came] unto all men to justification of life.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Therefore as by the offence of one [judgment came] upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one [the free gift came] upon all men unto justification of life.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men, even so through one act of righteousness there resulted justification of life to all men.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Therefore, as by the offense of one, [judgment came] upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one [the free gift came] upon all men to justification of life.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— so then as [it was] by one offence towards all men to condemnation, so by one righteousness towards all men for justification of life.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Hence then, as through one fault, [the sentence was] unto all men unto condemnation, so, also, through one recovery of righteousness, [the decree of favour] is unto all men for righteous acquittal unto life;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— So, then, as through one offence to all men [it is] to condemnation, so also through one declaration of 'Righteous' [it is] to all men to justification of life;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Therefore, as by the offence of one, unto all men to condemnation: so also by the justice of one, unto all men to justification of life.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Therfore as by the offence of one, [iudgment] came vpon all men to condemnation: euen so by the righteousnes of one, [the free gift] came vpon all men vnto iustification of life.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— As then on account of the transgression of one was the condemnation of all men, so, on account of the righteousness of one shall there be acquittal unto the life of all men.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Therefore, as on account of the offence of one, condemnation was to all men; so on account of the righteousness of one, will the victory unto life be to all men.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Therefore 686
{0686} Prime
άρα
ara
{ar'-ah}
Probably from G0142 (through the idea of drawing a conclusion); a particle denoting an inference more or less decisive (as follows).
3767
{3767} Prime
οὖν
oun
{oon}
Apparently a primary word; (adverbially) certainly, or (conjugationally) accordingly.
as 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
by 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
the offence 3900
{3900} Prime
παράπτωμα
paraptoma
{par-ap'-to-mah}
From G3895; a side slip (lapse or deviation), that is, (unintentional) error or (wilful) transgression.
of one 1520
{1520} Prime
εἷς
heis
{hice}
(Including the neuter [etc.] ἕν [[hen]]); a primary numeral; one.
[judgment came] upon 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
all 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
men 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
to 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
condemnation; 2631
{2631} Prime
κατάκριμα
katakrima
{kat-ak'-ree-mah}
From G2632; an adverse sentence (the verdict).
even 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
so 3779
{3779} Prime
οὕτω
houto
{hoo'-to}
From G3778; in this way (referring to what precedes or follows).
by 1223
{1223} Prime
διά
dia
{dee-ah'}
A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through (in very wide applications, local, causal or occasional). In composition it retains the same general import.
the righteousness 1345
{1345} Prime
δικαίωμα
dikaioma
{dik-ah'-yo-mah}
From G1344; an equitable deed; by implication a statute or decision.
of one 1520
{1520} Prime
εἷς
heis
{hice}
(Including the neuter [etc.] ἕν [[hen]]); a primary numeral; one.
[the free gift came] upon 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
all 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
men 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
unto 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
justification 1347
{1347} Prime
δικαίωσις
dikaiosis
{dik-ah'-yo-sis}
From G1344; acquittal (for Christ's sake).
of life. 2222
{2222} Prime
ζωή
zoe
{dzo-ay'}
From G2198; life (literally or figuratively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 5:18

_ _ Therefore — now at length resuming the unfinished comparison of Romans 5:12, in order to give formally the concluding member of it, which had been done once and again substantially, in the intermediate verses.

_ _ as by the offence of one judgment came — or, more simply, “it came.”

_ _ upon all men to condenmation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came — rather, “it came.”

_ _ upon all men to justification of life — (So Calvin, Bengel, Olshausen, Tholuck, Hodge, Philippi). But better, as we judge: “As through one offense it [came] upon all men to condemnation; even so through one righteousness [it came] upon all men to justification of life” — (So Beza, Grotius, Ferme, Meyer, De Wette, Alford, Revised Version). In this case, the apostle, resuming the statement of Romans 5:12, expresses it in a more concentrated and vivid form — suggested no doubt by the expression in Romans 5:16, “through one offense,” representing Christ’s whole work, considered as the ground of our justification, as “ONE RIGHTEOUSNESS.” (Some would render the peculiar word here employed, “one righteous act” [Alford, etc.]; understanding by it Christ’s death as the one redeeming act which reversed the one undoing act of Adam. But this is to limit the apostle’s idea too much; for as the same word is properly rendered “righteousness” in Romans 8:4, where it means “the righteousness of the law as fulfilled by us who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit,” so here it denotes Christ’s whole “obedience unto death,” considered as the one meritorious ground of the reversal of the condemnation which came by Adam. But on this, and on the expression, “all men,” see on Romans 5:19. The expression “justification of life,” is a vivid combination of two ideas already expatiated upon, meaning “justification entitling to and issuing in the rightful possession and enjoyment of life”).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 5:6-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 5:18

Justification of life — Is that sentence of God, by which a sinner under sentence of death is adjudged to life.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 5:18

(17) Therefore as by the offence of one [judgment came] upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one [the free gift came] upon all men unto (x) justification of life.

(17) Therefore, to be short, as by one man's offence the guiltiness came on all men to make them subject to death, so on the opposite side, the righteousness of Christ, which by God's mercy is imputed to all believers, justifies them, that they may become partakers of everlasting life.

(x) Not only because our sins are forgiven us, but also because the righteousness of Christ is imputed to us.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the offence:
or, one offence

upon:

Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
Romans 5:15 But not as the offence, so also [is] the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
Romans 5:19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.
Romans 3:19-20 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. ... Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law [is] the knowledge of sin.

the righteousness:
or, one righteousness,
Romans 3:21-22 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; ... Even the righteousness of God [which is] by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:
2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:

all men:

John 1:7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all [men] through him might believe.
John 3:26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all [men] come to him.
John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all [men] unto me.
Acts 13:39 And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.
1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
1 Timothy 2:4-6 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth. ... Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.
Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.
1 John 2:20 But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.
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Jn 1:7; 3:26; 12:32. Ac 13:39. Ro 3:19, 21; 5:12, 15, 19. 1Co 15:22. 1Ti 2:4. He 2:9. 2P 1:1. 1Jn 2:20.

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