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Romans 5:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— But not as the trespass, so also [is] the free gift. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But not as the offence, so also [is] the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But not as the offense, so also [is] the free gift. For if through the offense of one many are dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded to many.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But [shall] not the act of favour [be] as the offence? For if by the offence of one the many have died, much rather has the grace of God, and the free gift in grace, which [is] by the one man Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, not as the fault, so, [also] the decree of favour, for, if, by the fault of the one, the many died, much more, the favour of God and the free-gift in favour, by the one man Jesus Christ, unto the many superabounded;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— But, not as the offence so also [is] the free gift; for if by the offence of the one the many did die, much more did the grace of God, and the free gift in grace of the one man Jesus Christ, abound to the many;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— But not as the offence, so also the gift. For if by the offence of one, many died: much more the grace of God and the gift, by the grace of one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But not as the offence, so also is the free gift: for if through the offence of one, many bee dead: much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man Iesus Christ, hath abounded vnto many.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— But not as was the fall, so is the gift; for if, on account of the fall of one, many died, how much more the grace of Aloha, and his gift, for the sake of one man, Jeshu Meshiha, in many will abound?
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— But not, as the fault, so also the free gift. For if, on account of the fault of one, many died; how much more, will the grace of God and his free gift, on account of one man, Jesus Messiah, abound unto many?

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
as 5613
{5613} Prime
ὡς
hos
{hoce}
Probably adverb of comparative from G3739; which how, that is, in that manner (very variously used as shown).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
offence, 3900
{3900} Prime
παράπτωμα
paraptoma
{par-ap'-to-mah}
From G3895; a side slip (lapse or deviation), that is, (unintentional) error or (wilful) transgression.
so 3779
{3779} Prime
οὕτω
houto
{hoo'-to}
From G3778; in this way (referring to what precedes or follows).
also 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
[is] the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
free gift. 5486
{5486} Prime
χάρισμα
charisma
{khar'-is-mah}
From G5483; a (divine) gratuity, that is, deliverance (from danger or passion); (specifically) a (spiritual) endowment, that is, (subjectively) religious qualification, or (objectively) miraculous faculty.
For 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
if 1487
{1487} Prime
εἰ
ei
{i}
A primary particle of conditionality; if, whether, that, etc.
through the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
offence 3900
{3900} Prime
παράπτωμα
paraptoma
{par-ap'-to-mah}
From G3895; a side slip (lapse or deviation), that is, (unintentional) error or (wilful) transgression.
of one 1520
{1520} Prime
εἷς
heis
{hice}
(Including the neuter [etc.] ἕν [[hen]]); a primary numeral; one.
many 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
be dead, 599
{0599} Prime
ἀποθνῄσκω
apothnesko
{ap-oth-nace'-ko}
From G0575 and G2348; to die off (literally or figuratively).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
much 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
more 3123
{3123} Prime
μᾶλλον
mallon
{mal'-lon}
Neuter of the comparative of the same as G3122; (adverb) more (in a greater degree) or rather.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
grace 5485
{5485} Prime
χάρις
charis
{khar'-ece}
From G5463; graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstract or concrete; literal, figurative or spiritual; especially the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude).
of God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
gift 1431
{1431} Prime
δωρεά
dorea
{do-reh-ah'}
From G1435; a gratuity.
by 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
grace, 5485
{5485} Prime
χάρις
charis
{khar'-ece}
From G5463; graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstract or concrete; literal, figurative or spiritual; especially the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude).
[which x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
is
] y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
by one 1520
{1520} Prime
εἷς
heis
{hice}
(Including the neuter [etc.] ἕν [[hen]]); a primary numeral; one.
man, 444
{0444} Prime
ἄνθρωπος
anthropos
{anth'-ro-pos}
From G0435 and ὤψ [[ops]] (the countenance; from G3700); manfaced, that is, a human being.
Jesus 2424
{2424} Prime
Ἰησοῦς
Iesous
{ee-ay-sooce'}
Of Hebrew origin [H3091]; Jesus (that is, Jehoshua), the name of our Lord and two (three) other Israelites.
Christ, 5547
{5547} Prime
Χριστός
Christos
{khris-tos'}
From G5548; anointed, that is, the Messiah, an epithet of Jesus.
hath abounded 4052
{4052} Prime
περισσεύω
perisseuo
{per-is-syoo'-o}
From G4053; to superabound (in quantity or quality), be in excess, be superfluous; also (transitively) to cause to superabound or excel.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
unto 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
many. 4183
{4183} Prime
πολύς
polus
{pol-oos'}
Including the forms from the alternate 'pollos'; (singular) much (in any respect) or (plural) many; neuter (singular) as adverb largely; neuter (plural) as adverb or noun often, mostly, largely.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 5:15

_ _ But — “Yet,” “Howbeit.”

_ _ not as the offence — “trespass.”

_ _ so also is the free gift — or “the gracious gift,” “the gift of grace.” The two cases present points of contrast as well as resemblance.

_ _ For if, etc. — rather, “For if through the offense of the one the many died (that is, in that one man’s first sin), much more did the grace of God, and the free gift by grace, even that of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound unto the many.” By “the many” is meant the mass of mankind represented respectively by Adam and Christ, as opposed, not to few, but to “the one” who represented them. By “the free gift” is meant (as in Romans 5:17) the glorious gift of justifying righteousness; this is expressly distinguished from “the grace of God,” as the effect from the cause; and both are said to “abound” towards us in Christ — in what sense will appear in Romans 5:16, Romans 5:17. And the “much more,” of the one case than the other, does not mean that we get much more of good by Christ than of evil by Adam (for it is not a case of quantity at all); but that we have much more reason to expect, or it is much more agreeable to our ideas of God, that the many should be benefited by the merit of one, than that they should suffer for the sin of one; and if the latter has happened, much more may we assure ourselves of the former [Philippi, Hodge].

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 5:6-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 5:15

Yet not — St. Paul now describes the difference between Adam and Christ; and that much more directly and expressly than the agreement between them. Now the fall and the free gift differ, In amplitude, Romans 5:15. He from whom sin came, and He from whom the free gift came, termed also "the gift of righteousness," differ in power, Romans 5:16. The reason of both is subjoined, Romans 5:17. This premised, the offence and the free gift are compared, with regard to their effect, Romans 5:18, and with regard to their cause, Romans 5:19.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 5:15

(14) But not as the offence, so also [is] the free gift. For if through the offence of (s) one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, [which is] by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

(14) Adam and Christ are compared together in this respect, that both of them give and yield to theirs that which is their own: but the first difference between them is this, that Adam by nature has spread his fault to the destruction of many, but Christ's obedience has be grace overflowed to many.

(s) That is, Adam.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
But not:

Romans 5:16-17 And not as [it was] by one that sinned, [so is] the gift: for the judgment [was] by one to condemnation, but the free gift [is] of many offences unto justification. ... For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)
Romans 5:20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:
Isaiah 55:8-9 For my thoughts [are] not your thoughts, neither [are] your ways my ways, saith the LORD. ... For [as] the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.
John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.
John 4:10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.

many:

Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
Romans 5:18 Therefore as by the offence of one [judgment came] upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one [the free gift came] upon all men unto justification of life.
Daniel 12:2 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame [and] everlasting contempt.
Matthew 20:28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
Matthew 26:28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

much:

Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: [it is] the gift of God:

and the gift:

Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin [is] death; but the gift of God [is] eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
2 Corinthians 9:15 Thanks [be] unto God for his unspeakable gift.
Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.
1 John 4:9-10 In this was manifested the love of God toward us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. ... Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son [to be] the propitiation for our sins.
1 John 5:11 And this is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son.

hath:

Romans 5:20 Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound:
Isaiah 53:11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, [and] shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities.
Isaiah 55:7 Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.
1 John 2:2 And he is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for [the sins of] the whole world.
Revelation 7:9-10 After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands; ... And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb.
Revelation 7:14-17 And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. ... For the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of waters: and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes.
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Is 53:11; 55:7, 8. Dn 12:2. Mt 20:28; 26:28. Jn 3:16; 4:10. Ro 5:12, 16, 18, 20; 6:23. 2Co 9:15. Ep 2:8. He 2:9. 1Jn 2:2; 4:9; 5:11. Rv 7:9, 14.

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