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Romans 5:14 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a figure of him that was to come.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— but death reigned from Adam until Moses, even upon those who had not sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is [the] figure of him to come.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Yet still, death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over them who had not sinned after the likeness of the transgression of Adam,—who is a type of the Coming One;—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— but the death did reign from Adam till Moses, even upon those not having sinned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, who is a type of him who is coming.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— But death reigned from Adam unto Moses, even over them also who have not sinned, after the similitude of the transgression of Adam, who is a figure of him who was to come.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Neuertheles, death reigned from Adam to Moses, euen ouer them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adams transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— yet death reigned from Adam until Musha on them also who had not sinned after the manner of the transgression of the law of Adam, who was the type of him who was to be.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Yet death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned after the likeness of the transgression of the command by Adam, who was the type of him that was to come.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Nevertheless 235
{0235} Prime
ἀλλά
alla
{al-lah'}
Neuter plural of G0243; properly other things, that is, (adverbially) contrariwise (in many relations).
death 2288
{2288} Prime
θάνατος
thanatos
{than'-at-os}
From G2348; (properly an adjective used as a noun) death (literally or figuratively).
reigned 936
{0936} Prime
βασιλεύω
basileuo
{bas-il-yoo'-o}
From G0935; to rule (literally or figuratively).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
from 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
Adam 76
{0076} Prime
Ἀδάμ
Adam
{ad-am'}
Of Hebrew origin [H0121]; Adam, the first man; typically (of Jesus) man (as his representative).
to 3360
{3360} Prime
μέχρι
mechri
{mekh'-ree}
From G3372; as far as, that is, up to a certain point (as preposition of extent [denoting the terminus, whereas G0891 refers especially to the space of time or place intervening] or conjugation).
Moses, 3475
{3475} Prime
Μωσεῦς
Moseus
{moce-yoos'}
Of Hebrew origin [H4872]; Moseus, Moses or Mouses (that is, Mosheh), the Hebrew lawgiver.
even 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
over 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
them that had y264
[0264] Standard
ἁμαρτάνω
hamartano
{ham-ar-tan'-o}
Perhaps from G0001 (as a negative particle) and the base of G3313; properly to miss the mark (and so not share in the prize), that is, (figuratively) to err, especially (morally) to sin.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
not y3361
[3361] Standard
μή
me
{may}
A primary particle of qualified negation (whereas G3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverbially) not, (conjugationally) lest; also (as interrogitive implying a negative answer [whereas G3756 expects an affirmative one]); whether.
sinned 264
{0264} Prime
ἁμαρτάνω
hamartano
{ham-ar-tan'-o}
Perhaps from G0001 (as a negative particle) and the base of G3313; properly to miss the mark (and so not share in the prize), that is, (figuratively) to err, especially (morally) to sin.
z5660
<5660> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 714
x3361
(3361) Complement
μή
me
{may}
A primary particle of qualified negation (whereas G3756 expresses an absolute denial); (adverbially) not, (conjugationally) lest; also (as interrogitive implying a negative answer [whereas G3756 expects an affirmative one]); whether.
after 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
similitude 3667
{3667} Prime
ὁμοίωμα
homoioma
{hom-oy'-o-mah}
From G3666; a form; abstractly resemblance.
of Adam's 76
{0076} Prime
Ἀδάμ
Adam
{ad-am'}
Of Hebrew origin [H0121]; Adam, the first man; typically (of Jesus) man (as his representative).
transgression, 3847
{3847} Prime
παράβασις
parabasis
{par-ab'-as-is}
From G3845; violation.
who 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
is 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
the figure 5179
{5179} Prime
τύπος
tupos
{too'-pos}
From G5180; a die (as struck), that is, (by implication) a stamp or scar; by analogy a shape, that is, a statue, (figuratively) style or resemblance; specifically a sampler ('type'), that is, a model (for imitation) or instance (for warning).
of him x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
that was to come. 3195
{3195} Prime
μέλλω
mello
{mel'-lo}
A strengthened form of G3199 (through the idea of expectation); to intend, that is, be about to be, do, or suffer something (of persons or things, especially events; in the sense of purpose, duty, necessity, probability, possibility, or hesitation).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Romans 5:13-14.


Romans 5:14

_ _ Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression — But who are they? — a much contested question. Infants (say some), who being guiltless of actual sin, may be said not to have sinned in the way that Adam did [Augustine, Beza, Hodge]. But why should infants be specially connected with the period “from Adam to Moses,” since they die alike in every period? And if the apostle meant to express here the death of infants, why has he done it so enigmatically? Besides, the death of infants is comprehended in the universal mortality on account of the first sin, so emphatically expressed in Romans 5:12; what need then to specify it here? and why, if not necessary, should we presume it to be meant here, unless the language unmistakably point to it — which it certainly does not? The meaning then must be, that “death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those that had not, like Adam, transgressed against a positive commandment, threatening death to the disobedient.” (So most interpreters). In this case, the particle “even,” instead of specifying one particular class of those who lived “from Adam to Moses” (as the other interpretation supposes), merely explains what it was that made the case of those who died from Adam to Moses worthy of special notice — namely, that “though unlike Adam and all since Moses, those who lived between the two had no positive threatening of death for transgression, nevertheless, death reigned even over them.

_ _ who is the figure — or, “a type.”

_ _ of him that was to come — Christ. “This clause is inserted on the first mention of the name “Adam,” the one man of whom he is speaking, to recall the purpose for which he is treating of him, as the figure of Christ” [Alford]. The point of analogy intended here is plainly the public character which both sustained, neither of the two being regarded in the divine procedure towards men as mere individual men, but both alike as representative men. (Some take the proper supplement here to be “Him [that is] to come”; understanding the apostle to speak from his own time, and to refer to Christ’s second coming [Fritzsche, De Wette, Alford]. But this is unnatural, since the analogy of the second Adam to the first has been in full development ever since “God exalted Him to be a Prince and a Savior,” and it will only remain to be consummated at His second coming. The simple meaning is, as nearly all interpreters agree, that Adam is a type of Him who was to come after him in the same public character, and so to be “the second Adam”).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 5:6-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 5:14

Death reigned — And how vast is his kingdom! Scarce can we find any king who has as many subjects, as are the kings whom he hath conquered. Even over them that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression — Even over infants who had never sinned, as Adam did, in their own persons; and over others who had not, like him, sinned against an express law. Who is the figure of him that was to come — Each of them being a public person, and a federal head of mankind. The one, the fountain of sin and death to mankind by his offence; the other, of righteousness and life by his free gift. Thus far the apostle shows the agreement between the first and second Adam: afterward he shows the differences between them. The agreement may be summed up thus: As by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; so by one man righteousness entered into the world, and life by righteousness. As death passed upon all men, in that all had sinned; so life passed upon all men, (who are in the second Adam by faith,) in that all are justified. And as death through the sin of the first Adam reigned even over them who had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's transgression; so through the righteousness of Christ, even those who have not obeyed, after the likeness of his obedience, shall reign in life. We may add, As the sin of Adam, without the sins which we afterwards committed, brought us death ; so the righteousness of Christ, without the good works which we afterwards perform, brings us life: although still every good, as well as evil, work, will receive its due reward.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 5:14

(12) Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over (q) them that had not sinned after the (r) similitude of Adam's transgression, (13) who is the figure of him that was to come.

(12) But that this law was not the universal law, and that death did not proceed from any actual sin of everyone particularly, it appears by this, that the very infants which neither could ever know nor transgress that natural law, are nonetheless dead as well as Adam.

(q) Our infants.

(r) Nor after the manner of sin of those who are older, following their lusts: but yet the whole posterity was corrupted in Adam when he knowingly and willingly sinned.

(13) Now that first Adam corresponds to the latter, who is Christ, as it is afterward declared.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
death:

Romans 5:17 For if by one man's offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)
Romans 5:21 That as sin hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord.
Genesis 4:8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: and it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him.
Genesis 5:5-31 And all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years: and he died. ... And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred seventy and seven years: and he died.
Genesis 7:22 All in whose nostrils [was] the breath of life, of all that [was] in the dry [land], died.
Genesis 19:25 And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.
Exodus 1:6 And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation.
Hebrews 9:27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:

even:

Romans 8:20 For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected [the same] in hope,
Romans 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.
Exodus 1:22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, saying, Every son that is born ye shall cast into the river, and every daughter ye shall save alive.
Exodus 12:29-30 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that [was] in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. ... And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for [there was] not a house where [there was] not one dead.
Jonah 4:11 And should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and [also] much cattle?

who is the figure:
Or "type (pattern, or resemblance, τυπον [Strong's G5179]), of him who was to come," i.e., THE MESSIAH. Mr. Baxter remarks, It is indeed interesting to compare, on Scripture authority, Adam as the root of sin and death to all, with CHRIST, who is to all true Christians the root of holiness and life.
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Gn 4:8; 5:5; 7:22; 19:25. Ex 1:6, 22; 12:29. Jna 4:11. Ro 5:17, 21; 8:20, 22. He 9:27.

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