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Romans 4:9 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Is this blessing then pronounced upon the circumcision, or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say, To Abraham his faith was reckoned for righteousness.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [Cometh] this blessedness then upon the circumcision [only], or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Is this blessing then on the circumcised, or on the uncircumcised also? For we say, “FAITH WAS CREDITED TO ABRAHAM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [Cometh] this blessedness then upon the circumcision [only], or upon the uncircumcision also? For we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [Does] this blessedness then [rest] on the circumcision, or also on the uncircumcision? For we say that faith has been reckoned to Abraham as righteousness.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— This happiness, then, [is it] for the circumcision, or for the uncircumcision? for we say—His faith was reckoned unto Abraham as righteousness:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— [Is] this happiness, then, upon the circumcision, or also upon the uncircumcision—for we say that the faith was reckoned to Abraham—to righteousness?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— This blessedness then, doth it remain in the circumcision only or in the uncircumcision also? For we say that unto Abraham faith was reputed to justice.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [Commeth] this blessednes then vpon the circumcision [onely], or vpon the vncircumcision also? for wee say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousnesse.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Is this blessedness, then, upon the circumcision (only), or upon the uncircumcision (also)? Now we have said, that his faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— This blessedness, therefore, is it on the circumcision? or on the uncircumcision? For we say, that Abraham's faith was reckoned to him for righteousness.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[Cometh] this 3778
{3778} Prime
Including the nominative masculine plural (second form), nominative feminine signular (third form), and the nominate feminine plural, (fourth form). From the article G3588 and G0846; the he (she or it), that is, this or that (often with the article repeated).
blessedness y3108
[3108] Standard
From G3106; beatification, that is, attribution of good fortune.
(3107) Complement
A prolonged form of the poetical μάκαρ [[makar]] (meaning the same); supremely blest; by extension fortunate, well off.
then 3767
{3767} Prime
Apparently a primary word; (adverbially) certainly, or (conjugationally) accordingly.
upon 1909
{1909} Prime
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
circumcision 4061
{4061} Prime
From G4059; circumcision (the rite, the condition or the people, literally or figuratively).
[only], or 2228
{2228} Prime

A primary particle of distinction between two connected terms; disjunctive, or; comparative, than.
upon 1909
{1909} Prime
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
uncircumcision 203
{0203} Prime
From G0206 and probably a modified form of πόσθη [[posthe]] (the penis or male sexual organ); the prepuce; by implication an uncircumcised (that is, gentile, figuratively unregenerate) state or person.
also? 2532
{2532} Prime
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
for 1063
{1063} Prime
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
we say 3004
{3004} Prime
A primary verb; properly to 'lay' forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean.
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
that 3754
{3754} Prime
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
faith 4102
{4102} Prime
From G3982; persuasion, that is, credence; moral conviction (of religious truth, or the truthfulness of God or a religious teacher), especially reliance upon Christ for salvation; abstractly constancy in such profession; by extension the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself.
was reckoned 3049
{3049} Prime
Middle voice from G3056; to take an inventory, that is, estimate (literally or figuratively).
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
to Abraham 11
{0011} Prime
Of Hebrew origin [H0085]; Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch. In Acts 7:16 the text should probably read Jacob.
for 1519
{1519} Prime
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
righteousness. 1343
{1343} Prime
From G1342; equity (of character or act); specifically (Christian) justification.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 4:9-12

_ _ Cometh this blessedness then, etc. — that is, “Say not, All this is spoken of the circumcised, and is therefore no evidence of God’s general way of justifying men; for Abraham’s justification took place long before he was circumcised, and so could have no dependence upon that rite: nay, ‘the sign of circumcision’ was given to Abraham as ‘a seal’ (or token) of the (justifying) righteousness which he had before he was circumcised; in order that he might stand forth to every age as the parent believer — the model man of justification by faith — after whose type, as the first public example of it, all were to be molded, whether Jew or Gentile, who should thereafter believe to life everlasting.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Romans 4:9-17

_ _ St. Paul observes in this paragraph when and why Abraham was thus justified; for he has several things to remark upon that. It was before he was circumcised, and before the giving of the law; and there was a reason for both.

_ _ I. It was before he was circumcised, Romans 4:10. His faith was counted to him for righteousness while he was in uncircumcision. It was imputed, Genesis 15:6, and he was not circumcised till ch. 17. Abraham is expressly said to be justified by faith fourteen years, some say twenty-five years, before he was circumcised. Now this the apostle takes notice of in answer to the question (Romans 4:9), Cometh this blessedness then on the circumcision only, or on the uncircumcision also? Abraham was pardoned and accepted in uncircumcision, a circumstance which, as it might silence the fears of the poor uncircumcised Gentiles, so it might lower the pride and conceitedness of the Jews, who gloried in their circumcision, as if they had the monopoly of all happiness. Here are two reasons why Abraham was justified by faith in uncircumcision: —

_ _ 1. That circumcision might be a seal of the righteousness of faith, Romans 4:11. The tenour of the covenants must first be settled before the seal can be annexed. Sealing supposes a previous bargain, which is confirmed and ratified by that ceremony. After Abraham's justification by faith had continued several years only a grant by parole, for the confirmation of Abraham's faith God was pleased to appoint a sealing ordinance, and Abraham received it; though it was a bloody ordinance, yet he submitted to it, and even received it as a special favour, the sign of circumcision, etc. Now we may hence observe, (1.) The nature of sacraments in general: they are signs and seals — signs to represent and instruct, seals to ratify and confirm. They are signs of absolute grace and favour; they are seals of the conditional promises; nay, they are mutual seals: God does in the sacraments seal to us to be to us a God, and we do therein seal to him to be to him a people. (2.) The nature of circumcision in particular: it was the initiating sacrament of the Old Testament; and it is here said to be, [1.] A sign — a sign of that original corruption which we are all born with, and which is cut off by spiritual circumcision, — a commemorating sign of God's covenant with Abraham, — a distinguishing sign between Jews and Gentiles, — a sign of admission into the visible church, — a sign prefiguring baptism, which comes in the room of circumcision, now under the gospel, when (the blood of Christ being shed) all bloody ordinances are abolished; it was an outward and sensible sign of an inward and spiritual grace signified thereby. [2.] A seal of the righteousness of the faith. In general, it was a seal of the covenant of grace, particularly of justification by faith — the covenant of grace, called the righteousness which is of faith (Romans 10:6), and it refers to an Old Testament promise, Deuteronomy 30:12. Now if infants were then capable of receiving a seal of the covenant of grace, which proves that they then were within the verge of that covenant, how they come to be now cast out of the covenant and incapable of the seal, and by what severe sentence they were thus rejected and incapacitated, those are concerned to make out that not only reject, but nullify and reproach, the baptism of the seed of believers.

_ _ 2. That he might be the father of all those that believe. Not but that there were those that were justified by faith before Abraham; but of Abraham first it is particularly observed, and in him commenced a much clearer and fuller dispensation of the covenant of grace than any that had been before extant; and there he is called the father of all that believe, because he was so eminent a believer, and so eminently justified by faith, as Jabal was the father of shepherds and Jubal of musicians, Genesis 4:20, Genesis 4:21. The father of all those that believe; that is, a standing pattern of faith, as parents are examples to their children; and a standing precedent of justification by faith, as the liberties, privileges, honours, and estates, of the fathers descend to their children. Abraham was the father of believers, because to him particularly the magna charta was renewed. (1.) The father of believing Gentiles, though they be not circumcised. Zaccheus, a publican, if he believe, is reckoned a son of Abraham, Luke 19:9. Abraham being himself uncircumcised when he was justified by faith, uncircumcision can never be a bar. Thus were the doubts and fears of the poor Gentiles anticipated and no room left to question but that righteousness might be imputed to them also, Colossians 3:11; Galatians 5:6. (2.) The father of believing Jews, not merely as circumcised, and of the seed of Abraham according to the flesh, but because believers, because they are not of the circumcision only (that is, are not only circumcised), but walk in the steps of that faith — have not only the sign, but the thing signified — not only are of Abraham's family, but follow the example of Abraham's faith. See here who are the genuine children and lawful successors of those that were the church's fathers: not those that sit in their chairs, and bear their names, but those that tread in their steps; this is the line of succession, which holds, notwithstanding interruptions. It seems, then, those were most loud and forward to call Abraham father that had least title to the honours and privileges of his children. Thus those have most reason to call Christ Father, not that bear his name in being Christians in profession, but that tread in his steps.

_ _ II. It was before the giving of the law, Romans 4:13-16. The former observation is levelled against those that confined justification to the circumcision, this against those that expected it by the law; now the promise was made to Abraham long before the law. Compare Galatians 3:17, Galatians 3:18. Now observe,

_ _ 1. What that promise was — that he should be the heir of the world, that is, of the land of Canaan, the choicest spot of ground in the world, — or the father of many nations of the world, who sprang from him, besides the Israelites, — or the heir of the comforts of the life which now is. The meek are said to inherit the earth, and the world is theirs. Though Abraham had so little of the world in possession, yet he was heir of it all. Or, rather, it points at Christ, the seed here mentioned; compare Galatians 3:16, To thy seed, which is Christ. Now Christ is the heir of the world, the ends of the earth are his possession, and it is in him that Abraham was so. And it refers to that promise (Genesis 12:3), In thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.

_ _ 2. How it was made to him: Not through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. Not through the law, for that was not yet given: but it was upon that believing which was counted to him for righteousness; it was upon his trusting God, in his leaving his own country when God commanded him, Hebrews 11:8. Now, being by faith, it could not be by the law, which he proves by the opposition there is between them (Romans 4:14, Romans 4:15): If those who are of the law be heirs; that is, those, and those only, and they by virtue of the law (the Jews did, and still do, boast that they are the rightful heirs of the world, because to them the law was given), then faith is made void; for, if it were requisite to an interest in the promise that there should be a perfect performance of the whole law, then the promise can never take its effect, nor is it to any purpose for us to depend upon it, since the way to life by perfect obedience to the law, and spotless sinless innocency, is wholly blocked up, and the law in itself opens no other way. This he proves, Romans 4:15. The law worketh wrath — wrath in us to God; it irritates and provokes that carnal mind which is enmity to God, as the damming up of a stream makes it swell — wrath in God against us. It works this, that is, it discovers it, or our breach of the law works it. Now it is certain that we can never expect the inheritance by a law that worketh wrath. How the law works wrath he shows very concisely in the latter part of the verse: Where no law is there is no transgression, an acknowledged maxim, which implies, Where there is a law there is transgression and that transgression is provoking, and so the law worketh wrath.

_ _ 3. Why the promise was made to him by faith; for three reasons, Romans 4:16. (1.) That it might be by grace, that grace might have the honour of it; by grace, and not by the law; by grace, and not of debt, nor of merit; that Grace, grace, might be cried to every stone, especially to the top-stone, in this building. Faith hath particular reference to grace granting, as grace hath reference to faith receiving. By grace, and therefore through faith, Ephesians 2:8. For God will have every crown thrown at the feet of grace, free grace, and every song in heaven sung to that tune, Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name be the praise. (2.) That the promise might be sure. The first covenant, being a covenant of works, was not sure: but, through man's failure, the benefits designed by it were cut off; and therefore, the more effectually to ascertain and ensure the conveyance of the new covenant, there is another way found out, not by works (were it so, the promise would not be sure, because of the continual frailty and infirmity of the flesh), but by faith, which receives all from Christ, and acts in a continual dependence upon him, as the great trustee of our salvation, and in whose keeping it is safe. The covenant is therefore sure, because it is so well ordered in all things, 2 Samuel 23:5. (3.) That it might be sure to all the seed. If it had been by the law, it had been limited to the Jews, to whom pertained the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law (Romans 9:4); but therefore it was by faith that Gentiles as well as Jews might become interested in it, the spiritual as well as the natural seed of faithful Abraham. God would contrive the promise in such a way as might make it most extensive, to comprehend all true believers, that circumcision and uncircumcision might break no squares; and for this (Romans 4:17) he refers us to Genesis 17:5, where the reason of the change of his name from Abram — a high father, to Abraham — the high father of a multitude, is thus rendered: For a father of many nations have I made thee; that is, all believers, both before and since the coming of Christ in the flesh, should take Abraham for their pattern, and call him father. The Jews say Abraham was the father of all proselytes to the Jewish religion. Behold, he is the father of all the world, which are gathered under the wings of the Divine Majesty. — Maimonides.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 4:9

This happiness — Mentioned by Abraham and David. On the circumcision — Those that are circumcised only. Faith was imputed to Abraham for righteousness — This is fully consistent with our being justified, that is, pardoned and accepted by God upon our believing, for the sake of what Christ hath done and suffered. For though this, and this alone, be the meritorious cause of our acceptance with God, yet faith may be said to be "imputed to us for righteousness," as it is the sole condition of our acceptance. We may observe here, forgiveness, not imputing sin, and imputing righteousness, are all one.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 4:9

(6) [Cometh] this (e) blessedness then upon the circumcision [only], or upon the uncircumcision also? for we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness.

(6) A new proposition: that this manner of justification belongs both to uncircumcised and also to the circumcised, as is declared in the person of Abraham.

(e) This saying of David, in which he pronounces them as blessed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Romans 3:29-30 [Is he] the God of the Jews only? [is he] not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also: ... Seeing [it is] one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.
Romans 9:23-24 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory, ... Even us, whom he hath called, not of the Jews only, but also of the Gentiles?
Romans 10:12-13 For there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek: for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him. ... For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
Romans 15:8-19 Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises [made] unto the fathers: ... Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.
Isaiah 49:6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth.
Luke 2:32 A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.
Galatians 3:14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
Galatians 3:26-28 For ye are all the children of God by faith in Christ Jesus. ... There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
Ephesians 2:11-13 Wherefore remember, that ye [being] in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands; ... But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.
Ephesians 3:8 Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ;
Colossians 3:11 Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian, Scythian, bond [nor] free: but Christ [is] all, and in all.

for we:

Romans 4:3 For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.
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Is 49:6. Lk 2:32. Ro 3:29; 4:3; 9:23; 10:12; 15:8. Ga 3:14, 26. Ep 2:11; 3:8. Col 3:11.

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