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Romans 2:15 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness therewith, and their thoughts one with another accusing or else excusing [them]);
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— in that they show the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing testimony, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing, or else excusing one another)
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— who shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts accusing or else excusing themselves between themselves;)
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Who, indeed, shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience therewith bearing witness, and, between one another, their reasonings accusing—or, even excusing, them:—
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— who do shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also witnessing with them, and between one another the thoughts accusing or else defending,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Who shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness to them: and their thoughts between themselves accusing or also defending one another,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Which shew the worke of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witnesse, and their thoughts the meane while accusing, or else excusing one another:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And these show the work of law written upon their hearts, and their conscience testifieth of them, while their reasonings accuse or excuse one another;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and they show the work of the law, as it is inscribed on their heart; and their conscience beareth testimony to them, their own reflections rebuking or vindicating one another,)

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Which 3748
{3748} Prime
ὅστις
hostis
{hos'-tis}
From G3739 and G5100; which some, that is, any that; also (definitely) which same.
shew 1731
{1731} Prime
ἐνδείκνυμι
endeiknumi
{en-dike'-noo-mee}
From G1722 and G1166; to indicate (by word or act).
z5731
<5731> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle (See G5785)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 69
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
work 2041
{2041} Prime
ἔργον
ergon
{er'-gon}
From ἔργω [[ergo]] (a primary but obsolete word; to work); toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication an act.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
law 3551
{3551} Prime
νόμος
nomos
{nom'-os}
From a primary word νέμω [[nemo]] (to parcel out, especially food or grazing to animals); law (through the idea of prescriptive usage), generally (regulation), specifically (of Moses [including the volume]; also of the Gospel), or figuratively (a principle).
written 1123
{1123} Prime
γραπτός
graptos
{grap-tos'}
From G1125; inscribed (figuratively).
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
their y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
hearts, 2588
{2588} Prime
καρδία
kardia
{kar-dee'-ah}
Prolonged from a primary κάρ [[kar]] (Latin cor, 'heart'); the heart, that is, (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings (mind); also (by analogy) the middle.
their y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
conscience 4893
{4893} Prime
συνείδησις
suneidesis
{soon-i'-day-sis}
From a prolonged form of G4894; co-perception, that is, moral consciousness.
also bearing witness, 4828
{4828} Prime
συμμαρτυρέω
summartureo
{soom-mar-too-reh'-o}
From G4862 and G3140; to testify jointly, that is, corroborate by (concurrent) evidence.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
[their] thoughts 3053
{3053} Prime
λογισμός
logismos
{log-is-mos'}
From G3049; computation, that is, (figuratively) reasoning (conscience, conceit).
the mean while accusing 2723
{2723} Prime
κατηγορέω
kategoreo
{kat-ay-gor-eh'-o}
From G2725; to be a plaintiff, that is, to charge with some offence.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
or 2228
{2228} Prime

e
{ay}
A primary particle of distinction between two connected terms; disjunctive, or; comparative, than.
else 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
excusing 626
{0626} Prime
ἀπολογέομαι
apologeomai
{ap-ol-og-eh'-om-ahee}
Middle voice from a compound of G0575 and G3056; to give an account (legal plea) of oneself, that is, exculpate (self).
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
one another;) 240
{0240} Prime
ἀλλήλων
allelon
{al-lay'-lone}
Genitive plural from G0243 reduplicated; one another. (Sometimes with G3326 or G4314.).
y3342
[3342] Standard
μεταξύ
metaxu
{met-ax-oo'}
From G3326 and a form of G4862; betwixt (of place or person); (of time) as adjective intervening, or (by implication) adjoining.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Romans 2:13-15.


Romans 2:15

_ _ their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing — that is, perhaps by turns doing both.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 2:1-16.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 2:15

Who show — To themselves, to other men, and, in a sense, to God himself. The work of the law — The substance, though not the letter, of it. Written on their hearts — By the same hand which wrote the commandments on the tables of stone. Their conscience — There is none of all its faculties which the soul has less in its power than this. Bearing witness — In a trial there are the plaintiff, the defendant, and the witnesses. Conscience and sin itself are witnesses against the heathens. Their thoughts sometimes excuse, sometimes condemn, them. Among themselves — Alternately, like plaintiff and defendant. Accusing or even defending them — The very manner of speaking shows that they have far more room to accuse than to defend.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 2:15

Which shew the work of the law (l) written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and [their] thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

(l) This knowledge is a natural knowledge.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
written:

Romans 1:18-19 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; ... Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed [it] unto them.

their conscience:
etc. or, the conscience witnessing with them,
Romans 9:1 I say the truth in Christ, I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the Holy Ghost,
John 8:9 And they which heard [it], being convicted by [their own] conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, [even] unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
Acts 23:1 And Paul, earnestly beholding the council, said, Men [and] brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day.
Acts 24:16 And herein do I exercise myself, to have always a conscience void of offence toward God, and [toward] men.
2 Corinthians 1:12 For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the world, and more abundantly to you-ward.
2 Corinthians 5:11 Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.
1 Timothy 4:2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;
Titus 1:15 Unto the pure all things [are] pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving [is] nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.

the mean while:
or, between themselves

accusing:

Genesis 3:8-11 And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. ... And he said, Who told thee that thou [wast] naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?
Genesis 20:5 Said he not unto me, She [is] my sister? and she, even she herself said, He [is] my brother: in the integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands have I done this.
Genesis 42:21-22 And they said one to another, We [are] verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us. ... And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also his blood is required.
1 Kings 2:44 The king said moreover to Shimei, Thou knowest all the wickedness which thine heart is privy to, that thou didst to David my father: therefore the LORD shall return thy wickedness upon thine own head;
Job 27:6 My righteousness I hold fast, and will not let it go: my heart shall not reproach [me] so long as I live.
Ecclesiastes 7:22 For oftentimes also thine own heart knoweth that thou thyself likewise hast cursed others.
1 John 3:19-21 And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. ... Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, [then] have we confidence toward God.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 3:8; 20:5; 42:21. 1K 2:44. Jb 27:6. Ec 7:22. Jn 8:9. Ac 23:1; 24:16. Ro 1:18; 9:1. 2Co 1:12; 5:11. 1Ti 4:2. Tit 1:15. 1Jn 3:19.

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