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Romans 13:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Render to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Render to all their dues: to whom tribute [is due], tribute; to whom custom, custom; to whom fear, fear; to whom honour, honour.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Render unto all their dues,—unto whom tribute, tribute, unto whom tax, tax, unto whom fear, fear, unto whom honour, honour.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— render, therefore, to all [their] dues; to whom tribute, the tribute; to whom custom, the custom; to whom fear, the fear; to whom honour, the honour.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Render therefore to all men their dues. Tribute, to whom tribute is due: custom, to whom custom: fear, to whom fear: honour, to whom honour.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Render therfore to all their dues, tribute to whom tribute [is due], custome to whome custome, feare to whome feare, honour to whom honour.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Render therefore to every man as is due to him: to whom tribute (is due,) tribute; and to whom custom, custom; and to whom reverence, reverence; and to whom honour, honour.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— Render therefore to every one, as is due to him; tribute-money, to whom tribute-money; and excise, to whom excise; and fear, to whom fear; and honor, to whom honor.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Render 591
{0591} Prime
ἀποδίδωμι
apodidomi
{ap-od-eed'-o-mee}
From G0575 and G1325; to give away, that is, up, over, back, etc. (in various applications).
z5628
<5628> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Imperative (See G5794)
Count - 459
therefore 3767
{3767} Prime
οὖν
oun
{oon}
Apparently a primary word; (adverbially) certainly, or (conjugationally) accordingly.
to all 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
their dues: 3782
{3782} Prime
ὀφειλή
opheile
{of-i-lay'}
From G3784; indebtedness, that is, (concretely) a sum owed; figuratively obligation, that is, (conjugal) duty.
tribute 5411
{5411} Prime
φόρος
phoros
{for'-os}
From G5342; a load (as borne), that is, (figuratively) a tax (properly an individual assessment on persons or property; whereas G5056 is usually a general toll on goods or travel).
to whom 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
tribute 5411
{5411} Prime
φόρος
phoros
{for'-os}
From G5342; a load (as borne), that is, (figuratively) a tax (properly an individual assessment on persons or property; whereas G5056 is usually a general toll on goods or travel).
[is due]; custom 5056
{5056} Prime
τέλος
telos
{tel'-os}
From a primary word τέλλω [[tello]] (to set out for a definite point or goal); properly the point aimed at as a limit, that is, (by implication) the conclusion of an act or state (termination [literally, figuratively or indefinitely], result [immediate, ultimate or prophetic], purpose); specifically an impost or levy (as paid).
to whom 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
custom; 5056
{5056} Prime
τέλος
telos
{tel'-os}
From a primary word τέλλω [[tello]] (to set out for a definite point or goal); properly the point aimed at as a limit, that is, (by implication) the conclusion of an act or state (termination [literally, figuratively or indefinitely], result [immediate, ultimate or prophetic], purpose); specifically an impost or levy (as paid).
fear 5401
{5401} Prime
φόβος
phobos
{fob'-os}
From a primary φέβομαι [[phebomai]] (to be put in fear); alarm or fright.
to whom 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
fear; 5401
{5401} Prime
φόβος
phobos
{fob'-os}
From a primary φέβομαι [[phebomai]] (to be put in fear); alarm or fright.
honour 5092
{5092} Prime
τιμή
time
{tee-may'}
From G5099; a value, that is, money paid, or (concretely and collectively) valuables; by analogy esteem (especially of the highest degree), or the dignity itself.
to whom 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
honour. 5092
{5092} Prime
τιμή
time
{tee-may'}
From G5099; a value, that is, money paid, or (concretely and collectively) valuables; by analogy esteem (especially of the highest degree), or the dignity itself.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Romans 13:6-7.


Romans 13:7

_ _ Render therefore to all their dues — From magistrates the apostle now comes to other officials, and from them to men related to us by whatever tie.

_ _ tribute — land tax.

_ _ custom — mercantile tax.

_ _ fear — reverence for superiors.

_ _ honour — the respect due to persons of distinction.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Romans 13:7-10

_ _ We are here taught a lesson of justice and charity.

_ _ I. Of justice (Romans 13:7): Render therefore to all their dues, especially to magistrates, for this refers to what goes before; and likewise to all with whom we have to do. To be just is to give to all their due, to give every body his own. What we have we have as stewards; others have an interest in it, and must have their dues. “Render to God his due in the first place, to yourselves, to you families, your relations, to the commonwealth, to the church, to the poor, to those that you have dealings with in buying, selling, exchanging, etc. Render to all their dues; and that readily and cheerfully, not tarrying till you are by law compelled to it.” He specifies, 1. Due taxes: Tribute to whom tribute is due, custom to whom custom. Most of the countries where the gospel was first preached were subject at this time to the Roman yoke, and were made provinces of the empire. He wrote this to the Romans, who, as they were rich, so they were drained by taxes and impositions, to the just and honest payment of which they are here pressed by the apostle. Some distinguish between tribute and custom, understanding by the former constant standing taxes, and by the latter those which were occasionally required, both which are to be faithfully and conscientiously paid as they become legally due. Our Lord was born when his mother went to be taxed; and he enjoined the payment of tribute to Caesar. Many, who in other things seem to be just, yet make no conscience of this, but pass it off with a false ill-favoured maxim, that it is no sin to cheat the king, directly contrary to Paul's rule, Tribute to whom tribute is due. 2. Due respect: Fear to whom fear, honour to whom honour. This sums up the duty which we owe not only to magistrates, but to all superiors, parents, masters, all that are over us in the Lord, according to the fifth commandment: Honour thy father and mother. Compare Leviticus 19:3, You shall fear every man his mother and his father; not with a fear of amazement, but a loving, reverent, respectful, obediential fear. Where there is not this respect in the heart to our superiors, no other duty will be paid aright. 3. Due payment of debts (Romans 13:8): “Owe no man any thing; that is, do not continue in any one's debt, while you are able to pay it, further than by, at least, the tacit consent of the person to whom you are indebted. Give every one his own. Do not spend that upon yourselves, which you owe to others.” The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again, Psalms 37:21. Many that are very sensible of the trouble think little of the sin of being in debt.

_ _ II. Of charity: Owe no man any thing; opheileteyou do owe no man any thing; so some read it: “Whatever you owe to any relation, or to any with whom you have to do, it is eminently summer up and included in this debt of love. But to love one another, this is a debt that must be always in the paying, and yet always owing.” Love is a debt. The law of God and the interest of mankind make it so. It is not a thing which we are left at liberty about, but it is enjoined us, as the principle and summary of all duty owing one to another; for love is the fulfilling of the law; not perfectly, but it is a good step towards it. It is inclusive of all the duties of the second table, which he specifies, Romans 13:9, and these suppose the love of God. See 1 John 4:20. If the love be sincere, it is accepted as the fulfilling of the law. Surely we serve a good master, that has summed up all our duty in one word, and that a short word and a sweet word — love, the beauty and harmony of the universe. Loving and being loved is all the pleasure, joy, and happiness, of an intelligent being. God is love (1 John 4:16), and love is his image upon the soul: where it is, the soul is well moulded, and the heart fitted for every good work. Now, to prove that love is the fulfilling of the law, he gives us, 1. An induction of particular precepts, Romans 13:9. He specifies the last five of the ten commandments, which he observes to be all summed up in this royal law, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself — with an as of quality, not of equality — “with the same sincerity that thou lovest thyself, though not in the same measure and degree.” He that loves his neighbour as himself will be desirous of the welfare of his neighbour's body, goods, and good name, as of his own. On this is built that golden rule of doing as we would be done by. Were there no restraints of human laws in these things, no punishments incurred (which the malignity of human nature hath made necessary), the law of love would of itself be effectual to prevent all such wrongs and injuries, and to keep peace and good order among us. In the enumeration of these commandments, the apostle puts the seventh before the sixth, and mentions this first, Thou shalt not commit adultery; for though this commonly goes under the name of love (pity it is that so good a word should be so abused) yet it is really as great a violation of it as killing and stealing is, which shows that true brotherly love is love to the souls of our brethren in the first place. He that tempts others to sin, and defiles their minds and consciences, though he may pretend the most passionate love (Proverbs 7:15, Proverbs 7:18), does really hate them, just as the devil does, who wars against the soul. 2. A general rule concerning the nature of brotherly love: Love worketh no ill (Romans 13:10) — he that walks in love, that is actuated and governed by a principle of love, worketh no ill; he neither practises nor contrives any ill to his neighbour, to any one that he has any thing to do with: ouk ergazetai. The projecting of evil is in effect the performing of it. Hence devising iniquity is called working evil upon the bed, Micah 2:1. Love intends and designs no ill to any body, is utterly against the doing of that which may turn to the prejudice, offence, or grief of any. It worketh no ill; that is, it prohibits the working of any ill: more is implied than is expressed; it not only worketh no ill, but it worketh all the good that may be, deviseth liberal things. For it is a sin not only to devise evil against thy neighbour, but to withhold good from those to whom it is due; both are forbidden together, Proverbs 3:27-29. This proves that love is the fulfilling of the law, answers all the end of it; for what else is that but to restrain us from evil-doing, and to constrain us to well-doing? Love is a living active principle of obedience to the whole law. The whole law is written in the heart, if the law of love be there.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 13:7

To all — Magistrates. Tribute — Taxes on your persons or estates. Custom — For goods exported or imported. Fear — Obedience. Honour — Reverence. All these are due to the supreme power.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 13:7

Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute [is due]; custom to whom custom; fear to whom (e) fear; honour to whom (f) honour.

(e) Obedience, and that from the heart.

(f) Reverence, which (as we have reason) we must give to the magistrate.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
therefore:

Luke 20:25 And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

fear to:

Leviticus 19:3 Ye shall fear every man his mother, and his father, and keep my sabbaths: I [am] the LORD your God.
1 Samuel 12:18 So Samuel called unto the LORD; and the LORD sent thunder and rain that day: and all the people greatly feared the LORD and Samuel.
Proverbs 24:21 My son, fear thou the LORD and the king: [and] meddle not with them that are given to change:
Ephesians 5:33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife [see] that she reverence [her] husband.
Ephesians 6:5 Servants, be obedient to them that are [your] masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;
1 Peter 2:18 Servants, [be] subject to [your] masters with all fear; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward.

honour to:

Exodus 20:12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Leviticus 19:32 Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honour the face of the old man, and fear thy God: I [am] the LORD.
Ephesians 6:2-3 Honour thy father and mother; (which is the first commandment with promise;) ... That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.
1 Timothy 5:13 And withal they learn [to be] idle, wandering about from house to house; and not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not.
1 Timothy 5:17 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine.
1 Timothy 6:1 Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and [his] doctrine be not blasphemed.
1 Peter 2:17 Honour all [men]. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.
1 Peter 3:7 Likewise, ye husbands, dwell with [them] according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel, and as being heirs together of the grace of life; that your prayers be not hindered.
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Ex 20:12. Lv 19:3, 32. 1S 12:18. Pv 24:21. Lk 20:25. Ep 5:33; 6:2, 5. 1Ti 5:13, 17; 6:1. 1P 2:17, 18; 3:7.

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