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Romans 13:11 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And this, knowing the season, that already it is time for you to awake out of sleep: for now is salvation nearer to us than when we [first] believed.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And that, knowing the time, that now [it is] high time to awake out of sleep: for now [is] our salvation nearer than when we believed.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [Do] this, knowing the time, that it is already the hour for you to awaken from sleep; for now salvation is nearer to us than when we believed.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And this, knowing the time, that now [it is] high time to awake out of sleep: for now [is] our salvation nearer than when we believed.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— This also, knowing the time, that it is already time that *we* should be aroused out of sleep; for now [is] our salvation nearer than when we believed.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, this besides,—knowing the season—that it is an hour already for you out of sleep to be wakened; for, now, is our salvation nearer than when we believed:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And this, knowing the time, that for us, the hour already [is] to be aroused out of sleep, for now nearer [is] our salvation than when we did believe;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And that, knowing the season, that it is now the hour for us to rise from sleep. For now our salvation is nearer than when we believed.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleepe: for now is our saluation neerer then when we beleeued.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— AND also this know, that the time is, and the hour is, when we should be awake from our sleep; for now hath drawn nearer to us our salvation than when we believed.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And this also know ye, that it is the time and the hour, that we should henceforth be awake from our sleep. For now our life hath come nearer to us, than when we believed.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
that, 5124
{5124} Prime
Neuter, singular, nomitive or accusative of G3778; that thing.
knowing 1492
{1492} Prime
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
<5761> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 193
the x3588
(3588) Complement

The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
time, 2540
{2540} Prime
Of uncertain affinity; an occasion, that is, set or proper time.
that 3754
{3754} Prime
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
now 2235
{2235} Prime
Apparently from G2228 (or possibly G2229) and G1211; even now.
[it is] high time 5610
{5610} Prime
Apparently a primary word; an 'hour' (literally or figuratively).
to x2248
(2248) Complement
Accusative plural of G1473; us.
awake 1453
{1453} Prime
Probably akin to the base of G0058 (through the idea of collecting one's faculties); to waken (transitively or intransitively), that is, rouse (literally from sleep, from sitting or lying, from disease, from death; or figuratively from obscurity, inactivity, ruins, nonexistence).
[2248] Standard
Accusative plural of G1473; us.
<5683> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 159
out of 1537
{1537} Prime
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
sleep: 5258
{5258} Prime
From an obsolete primary (perhaps akin to G5259 through the idea of subsilience); sleep, that is, (figuratively) spiritual torpor.
for 1063
{1063} Prime
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
now 3568
{3568} Prime
A primary particle of present time; 'now' (as adverb of date, a transition or emphasis); also as noun or adjective present or immediate.
[is] our 2257
{2257} Prime
Genitive plural of G1473; of (or from) us.
salvation 4991
{4991} Prime
Feminine of a derivative of G4990 as (properly abstract) noun; rescue or safety (physically or morally).
nearer 1452
{1452} Prime
Neuter of the comparative of G1451; nearer.
than 2228
{2228} Prime

A primary particle of distinction between two connected terms; disjunctive, or; comparative, than.
when 3753
{3753} Prime
From G3739 and G5037; at which (thing) too, that is, when.
we believed. 4100
{4100} Prime
From G4102; to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), that is, credit; by implication to entrust (especially one's spiritual well being to Christ).
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Romans 13:11

_ _ And that — rather, “And this [do]”

_ _ knowing the time, that now it is high time — literally, “the hour has already come.”

_ _ to awake out of sleep — of stupid, fatal indifference to eternal things.

_ _ for now is our salvation — rather, “the salvation,” or simply “salvation.”

_ _ nearer than when we — first

_ _ believed — This is in the line of all our Lord’s teaching, which represents the decisive day of Christ’s second appearing as at hand, to keep believers ever in the attitude of wakeful expectancy, but without reference to the chronological nearness or distance of that event.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Romans 13:11-14

_ _ We are here taught a lesson of sobriety and godliness in ourselves. Our main care must be to look to ourselves. Four things we are here taught, as a Christian's directory for his day's work: when to awake, how to dress ourselves, how to walk, and what provision to make.

_ _ I. When to awake: Now it is high time to awake (Romans 13:11), to awake out of the sleep of sin (for a sinful condition is a sleeping condition), out of the sleep of carnal security, sloth and negligence, out of the sleep of spiritual death, and out of the sleep of spiritual deadness; both the wise and foolish virgins slumbered and slept, Matthew 25:5. We have need to be often excited and stirred up to awake. The word of command to all Christ's disciples is, Watch.Awake — be concerned about your souls and your eternal interest; take heed of sin, be ready to, and serious in, that which is good, and live in a constant expectation of the coming of our Lord. Considering,” 1. “The time we are cast into: Knowing the time. Consider what time of day it is with us, and you will see it is high time to awake. It is gospel time, it is the accepted time, it is working time; it is a time when more is expected than was in the times of that ignorance which God winked at, when people sat in darkness. It is high time to awake; for the sun has been up a great while, and shines in our faces. Have we this light to sleep in? See 1 Thessalonians 5:5, 1 Thessalonians 5:6. It is high time to awake; for others are awake and up about us. Know the time to be a busy time; we have a great deal of work to do, and our Master is calling us to it again and again. Know the time to be a perilous time. We are in the midst of enemies and snares. It is high time to awake, for the Philistines are upon us; our neighbour's house is on fire, and our own in danger. It is time to awake, for we have slept enough (1 Peter 4:3), high time indeed, for behold the bridegroom cometh.” 2. “The salvation we are upon the brink of: Now is our salvation nearer than when we believed — than when we first believed, and so took upon us the profession of Christianity. The eternal happiness we chose for our portion is now nearer to us than it was when we became Christians. Let us mind our way and mend our pace, for we are now nearer our journey's end than we were when we had our first love. The nearer we are to our centre the quicker should our motion be. Is there but a step between us and heaven, and shall we be so very slow and dull in our Christian course, and move so heavily? The more the days are shortened, and the more grace is increased, the nearer is our salvation, and the more quick and vigorous we should be in our spiritual motions.”

_ _ II. How to dress ourselves. This is the next care, when we are awake and up: “The night is far spent, the day is at hand; therefore it is time to dress ourselves. Clearer discoveries will be quickly made of gospel grace than have been yet made, as light gets ground. The night of Jewish rage and cruelty is just at an end; their persecuting power is near a period; the day of our deliverance from them is at hand, that day of redemption which Christ promised, Luke 21:28. And the day of our complete salvation, in the heavenly glory, is at hand. Observe then,”

_ _ 1. “What we must put off; put off our night-clothes, which it is a shame to appear abroad in: Cast off the works of darkness.” Sinful works are works of darkness; they come from the darkness of ignorance and mistake, they covet the darkness of privacy and concealment, and they end in the darkness of hell and destruction. “Let us therefore, who are of the day, cast them off; not only cease from the practice of them, but detest and abhor them, and have no more to do with them. Because eternity is just at the door, let us take heed lest we be found doing that which will then make against us,” 2 Peter 3:11, 2 Peter 3:14.

_ _ 2. “What we must put on.” Our care must be wherewithal we shall be clothed, how shall we dress our souls? (1.) Put on the armour of light. Christians are soldiers in the midst of enemies, and their life a warfare, therefore their array must be armour, that they may stand upon their defence — the armour of God, to which we are directed, Ephesians 6:13, etc. A Christian may reckon himself undressed if he be unarmed. The graces of the Spirit are this armour, to secure the soul from Satan's temptations and the assaults of this present evil world. This is called the armour of light, some think alluding to the bright glittering armour which the Roman soldiers used to wear; or such armour as it becomes us to wear in the day-light. The graces of the Spirit are suitable splendid ornaments, are in the sight of God of great price. (2.) Put on the Lord Jesus Christ, Romans 13:14. This stands in opposition to a great many base lusts, mentioned Romans 13:13. Rioting and drunkenness must be cast off: one would think it should follows, but, “Put on sobriety, temperance, chastity,” the opposite virtues: no, “Put on Christ, this includes all. Put on the righteousness of Christ for justification; be found in him (Philippians 3:9) as a man is found in his clothes; put on the priestly garments of the elder brother, that in them you may obtain the blessing. Put on the spirit and grace of Christ for sanctification; put on the new man (Ephesians 4:24); get the habit of grace confirmed, the acts of it quickened.” Jesus Christ is the best clothing for Christians to adorn themselves with, to arm themselves with; it is decent, distinguishing, dignifying, and defending. Without Christ, we are naked, deformed; all other things are filthy rages, fig-leaves, a sorry shelter. God has provided us coats of skins — large, strong, warm, and durable. By baptism we have in profession put on Christ, Galatians 3:27. Let us do it in truth and sincerity. The Lord Jesus Christ. “Put him on as Lord to rule you, as Jesus to save you, and in both as Christ, anointed and appointed by the Father to this ruling saving work.”

_ _ III. How to walk. When we are up and dressed, we are not to sit still in an affected closeness and privacy, as monks and hermits. What have we good clothes for, but to appear abroad in them? — Let us walk. Christianity teaches us how to walk so as to please God, whose eye is upon us: 1 Thessalonians 4:1, Walk honestly as in the day. Compare Ephesians 5:8, Walk as children of light. Our conversation must be as becomes the gospel. Walk honestly; euschmonsdecently and becomingly, so as to credit your profession, and to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour, and recommend religion in its beauty to others. Christians should be in a special manner careful to conduct themselves well in those things wherein men have an eye upon them, and to study that which is lovely and of good report. Particularly, here are three pairs of sins we are cautioned against: — 1. We must not walk in rioting and drunkenness; we must abstain from all excess in eating and drinking. We must not give the least countenance to revelling, nor indulge our sensual appetite in any private excesses. Christians must not overcharge their hearts with surfeiting and drunkenness, Luke 21:34. This is not walking as in the day; for those that are drunk are drunk in the night, 1 Thessalonians 5:7. 2. Not in chambering and wantonness; not in any of those lusts of the flesh, those works of darkness, which are forbidden in the seventh commandment. Downright adultery and fornication are the chambering forbidden. Lascivious thoughts and affections, lascivious looks, words, books, sons, gestures, dances, dalliances, which lead to, and are degrees of, that uncleanness, are the wantonness here forbidden — whatsoever transgresseth the pure and sacred law of chastity and modesty. 3. Not in strife and envying. These are also works of darkness; for, though the acts and instances of strife and envy are very common, yet none are willing to own the principles, or to acknowledge themselves envious and contentious. it may be the lot of the best saints to be envied and striven with; but to strive and to envy ill becomes the disciples and followers of the peaceable and humble Jesus. Where there are riot and drunkenness, there usually are chambering and wantonness, and strife and envy. Solomon puts them all together, Proverbs 23:29, etc. Those that tarry long at the wine (Proverbs 23:30) have contentions and wounds without cause (Proverbs 23:29) and their eyes behold strange women, Proverbs 23:33.

_ _ IV. What provision to make (Proverbs 23:14): “Make not provision for the flesh. Be not careful about the body.” Our great care must be to provide for our souls; but must we take no care about our bodies? Must we not provide for them, when they need it? Yes, but two things are here forbidden: — 1. Perplexing ourselves with an inordinate care, intimated in these words, pronoian m poieisthe. “Be not solicitous in forecasting for the body; do not stretch your wits, nor set your thoughts upon the tenter-hooks, in making this provision; be not careful and cumbered about it; do not take thought,Matthew 6:31. It forbids an anxious encumbering care. 2. Indulging ourselves in an irregular desire. We are not forbidden barely to provide for the body (it is a lamp that must be supplied with oil), but we are forbidden to fulfil the lusts thereof. The necessities of the body must be considered, but the lusts of it must not be gratified. Natural desires must be answered, but wanton appetites must be checked and denied. To ask meat for our necessities is duty: we are taught to pray for daily bread; but to ask meat for our lusts is provoking, Psalms 78:18. Those who profess to walk in the spirit must not fulfil the lusts of the flesh, Galatians 5:16.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 13:11

And do this — Fulfil the law of love in all the instances above mentioned. Knowing the season — Full of grace, but hasting away. That it is high time to awake out of sleep — How beautifully is the metaphor carried on! This life, a night; the resurrection, the day; the gospel shining on the heart, the dawn of this day; we are to awake out of sleep; to rise up and throw away our night — clothes, fit only for darkness, and put on new; and, being soldiers, we are to arm, and prepare for fight, who are encompassed with so many enemies. The day dawns when we receive faith, and then sleep gives place. Then it is time to rise, to arm, to walk, to work, lest sleep steal upon us again. Final salvation, glory, is nearer to us now, than when we first believed — It is continually advancing, flying forward upon the swiftest wings of time. And that which remains between the present hour and eternity is comparatively but a moment.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 13:11

(11) And that, knowing the time, that now [it is] high time to awake out of sleep: for now [is] our salvation nearer than when we believed.

(11) An application taken from the circumstances of the time: which also itself puts us in mind of our duty, seeing that this remains, after which the darkness of ignorance and wicked affections by the knowledge of God's truth is driven out of us, that we order our life according to that certain and sure rule of all righteousness and honesty, being fully grounded upon the power of the Spirit of Christ.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Isaiah 21:11-12 The burden of Dumah. He calleth to me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? Watchman, what of the night? ... The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night: if ye will enquire, enquire ye: return, come.
Matthew 16:3 And in the morning, [It will be] foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O [ye] hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not [discern] the signs of the times?
Matthew 24:42-44 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. ... Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh.
1 Thessalonians 5:1-3 But of the times and the seasons, brethren, ye have no need that I write unto you. ... For when they shall say, Peace and safety; then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape.

it is:

Jonah 1:6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.
Matthew 25:5-7 While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. ... Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps.
Matthew 26:40-41 And he cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? ... Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed [is] willing, but the flesh [is] weak.
Mark 13:35-37 Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning: ... And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.
1 Corinthians 15:34 Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak [this] to your shame.
Ephesians 5:14 Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give thee light.
1 Thessalonians 5:5-8 Ye are all the children of light, and the children of the day: we are not of the night, nor of darkness. ... But let us, who are of the day, be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith and love; and for an helmet, the hope of salvation.

for now:

Ecclesiastes 9:10 Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do [it] with thy might; for [there is] no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest.
Luke 21:28 And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh.
1 Corinthians 7:29-31 But this I say, brethren, the time [is] short: it remaineth, that both they that have wives be as though they had none; ... And they that use this world, as not abusing [it]: for the fashion of this world passeth away.
1 Peter 4:7 But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer.
2 Peter 3:13-15 Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness. ... And account [that] the longsuffering of our Lord [is] salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you;
Revelation 22:12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward [is] with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
Revelation 22:20 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus.
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Ec 9:10. Is 21:11. Jna 1:6. Mt 16:3; 24:42; 25:5; 26:40. Mk 13:35. Lk 21:28. 1Co 7:29; 15:34. Ep 5:14. 1Th 5:1, 5. 1P 4:7. 2P 3:13. Rv 22:12, 20.

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