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Romans 1:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— who was declared [to be] the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead; [even] Jesus Christ our Lord,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And declared [to be] the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And declared [to be] the Son of God, with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— marked out Son of God in power, according to [the] Spirit of holiness, by resurrection of [the] dead) Jesus Christ our Lord;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Who was distinguished as the Son of God—by power, according to a Holy Spirit, through means of a resurrection of the dead,—Jesus Christ our Lord;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— who is marked out Son of God in power, according to the Spirit of sanctification, by the rising again from the dead,) Jesus Christ our Lord;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Who was predestinated the Son of God in power, according to the spirit of sanctification, by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And declared to be the Sonne of God, with power, according to the Spirit of holinesse, by the resurrection from the dead.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— and is known (to be) the Son of Aloha by power, and by the Holy Spirit, who raised him from among the dead, Jeshu Meshiha our Lord:
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— and was made known as the Son of God, by power, and by the Holy Spirit,) who arose from the dead, Jesus Messiah, our Lord,

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And declared 3724
{3724} Prime
ὁρίζω
horizo
{hor-id'-zo}
From G3725; to mark out or bound ('horizon'), that is, (figuratively) to appoint, decree, specify.
z5685
<5685> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 215
[to be] the Son 5207
{5207} Prime
υἱός
huios
{hwee-os'}
Apparently a primary word; a 'son' (sometimes of animals), used very widely of immediate, remote or figurative kinship.
of God 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
with 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
power, 1411
{1411} Prime
δύναμις
dunamis
{doo'-nam-is}
From G1410; force (literally or figuratively); specifically miraculous power (usually by implication a miracle itself).
according 2596
{2596} Prime
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
to the spirit 4151
{4151} Prime
πνεῦμα
pneuma
{pnyoo'-mah}
From G4154; a current of air, that is, breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, that is, (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy spirit.
of holiness, 42
{0042} Prime
ἁγιωσύνη
hagiosune
{hag-ee-o-soo'-nay}
From G0040; sacredness (that is, properly the quality).
by 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
the resurrection 386
{0386} Prime
ἀνάστασις
anastasis
{an-as'-tas-is}
From G0450; a standing up again, that is, (literally) a resurrection from death (individual, general or by implication (its author)), or (figuratively) a (moral) recovery (of spiritual truth).
from the dead: 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

See commentary on Romans 1:3-4.


Romans 1:4

_ _ And declared — literally, “marked off,” “defined,” “determined,” that is, “shown,” or “proved.”

_ _ to be the Son of God — Observe how studiously the language changes here. He “was MADE [says the apostle] of the seed of David, according to the flesh” (Romans 1:3); but He was not made, He was only “declared [or proved] to BE the Son of God.” So John 1:1, John 1:14, “In the beginning WAS the Word ... and the Word was MADE flesh”; and Isaiah 9:6, “Unto us a Child is BORN, unto us a Son is GIVEN.” Thus the Sonship of Christ is in no proper sense a born relationship to the Father, as some, otherwise sound divines, conceive of it. By His birth in the flesh, that Sonship, which was essential and uncreated, merely effloresced into palpable manifestation. (See on Luke 1:35; see Acts 13:32, Acts 13:33).

_ _ with power — This may either be connected with “declared,” and then the meaning will be “powerfully declared” [Luther, Beza, Bengel, Fritzsche, Alford, etc.]; or (as in our version, and as we think rightly) with “the Son of God,” and then the sense is, “declared to be the Son of God” in possession of that “power” which belonged to Him as the only-begotten of the Father, no longer shrouded as in the days of His flesh, but “by His resurrection from the dead” gloriously displayed and henceforth to be for ever exerted in this nature of ours [Vulgate, Calvin, Hodge, Philippi, Mehring, etc.].

_ _ according to the spirit of holiness — If “according to the flesh” means here, “in His human nature,” this uncommon expression must mean “in His other nature,” which we have seen to be that “of the Son of God” — an eternal, uncreated nature. This is here styled the “spirit,” as an impalpable and immaterial nature (John 4:24), and “the spirit of holiness,” probably in absolute contrast with that “likeness, of sinful flesh” which He assumed. One is apt to wonder that if this be the meaning, it was not expressed more simply. But if the apostle had said “He was declared to be the Son of God according to the Holy Spirit,” the reader would have thought he meant “the Holy Ghost”; and it seems to have been just to avoid this misapprehension that he used the rare expression, “the spirit of holiness.”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Romans 1:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Romans 1:4

But powerfully declared to be the Son of God, according to the Spirit of Holiness — That is, according to his divine nature. By the resurrection from the dead — For this is both the fountain and the object of our faith; and the preaching of the apostles was the consequence of Christ's resurrection.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Romans 1:4

And (g) declared [to be] the Son of God with (h) power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

(g) Shown and made manifest.

(h) The divine and mighty power is set against the weakness of the flesh, for it overcame death.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
declared:
Gr. determined

the Son:

Romans 1:3 Concerning his Son Jesus Christ our Lord, which was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;
John 2:18-21 Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things? ... But he spake of the temple of his body.
Acts 2:24 Whom God hath raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be holden of it.
Acts 2:32 This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.
Acts 3:15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.
Acts 4:10-12 Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, [even] by him doth this man stand here before you whole. ... Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.
Acts 5:30-32 The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree. ... And we are his witnesses of these things; and [so is] also the Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey him.
Acts 13:33-35 God hath fulfilled the same unto us their children, in that he hath raised up Jesus again; as it is also written in the second psalm, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. ... Wherefore he saith also in another [psalm], Thou shalt not suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.
Acts 17:31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by [that] man whom he hath ordained; [whereof] he hath given assurance unto all [men], in that he hath raised him from the dead.
2 Corinthians 13:4 For though he was crucified through weakness, yet he liveth by the power of God. For we also are weak in him, but we shall live with him by the power of God toward you.
Ephesians 1:19-23 And what [is] the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, ... Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.
Hebrews 5:5-6 So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. ... As he saith also in another [place], Thou [art] a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.
Revelation 1:18 I [am] he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.

according:

Luke 18:31-33 Then he took [unto him] the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished. ... And they shall scourge [him], and put him to death: and the third day he shall rise again.
Luke 24:26-27 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? ... And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Hebrews 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?
1 Peter 1:11 Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow.
2 Peter 1:21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake [as they were] moved by the Holy Ghost.
Revelation 19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See [thou do it] not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
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Lk 18:31; 24:26. Jn 2:18. Ac 2:24, 32; 3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 13:33; 17:31. Ro 1:3. 2Co 13:4. Ep 1:19. He 5:5; 9:14. 1P 1:11. 2P 1:21. Rv 1:18; 19:10.

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