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Revelation 21:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth are passed away; and the sea is no more.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth passed away, and there is no longer [any] sea.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away; and there was no more sea.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea exists no more.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for, the first heaven and the first earth, have passed away, and, the sea, is no more.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth did pass away, and the sea is not any more;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— I saw a new heaven and a new earth. For the first heaven and the first earth was gone: and the sea is now no more.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And I saw a new heauen, and a new earth: for the first heauen, and the first earth were passed away, and there was no more sea.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— AND I saw new heavens and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth had gone, and the sea was no more.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And I saw new heavens, and a new earth: for the former heaven and the former earth had passed away: and the sea was no more.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
I saw 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
a new 2537
{2537} Prime
καινός
kainos
{kahee-nos'}
Of uncertain affinity; new (especially in freshness; while G3501 is properly so with respect to age).
heaven 3772
{3772} Prime
οὐρανός
ouranos
{oo-ran-os'}
Perhaps from the same as G3735 (through the idea of elevation); the sky; by extension heaven (as the abode of God); by implication happiness, power, eternity; specifically the Gospel (Christianity).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
a new 2537
{2537} Prime
καινός
kainos
{kahee-nos'}
Of uncertain affinity; new (especially in freshness; while G3501 is properly so with respect to age).
earth: 1093
{1093} Prime
γῆ
ge
{ghay}
Contracted from a primary word; soil; by extension a region, or the solid part or the whole of the terrene globe (including the occupants in each application).
for 1063
{1063} Prime
γάρ
gar
{gar}
A primary particle; properly assigning a reason (used in argument, explanation or intensification; often with other particles).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
first 4413
{4413} Prime
πρῶτος
protos
{pro'-tos}
Contracted superlative of G4253; foremost (in time, place, order or importance).
heaven 3772
{3772} Prime
οὐρανός
ouranos
{oo-ran-os'}
Perhaps from the same as G3735 (through the idea of elevation); the sky; by extension heaven (as the abode of God); by implication happiness, power, eternity; specifically the Gospel (Christianity).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
first 4413
{4413} Prime
πρῶτος
protos
{pro'-tos}
Contracted superlative of G4253; foremost (in time, place, order or importance).
earth 1093
{1093} Prime
γῆ
ge
{ghay}
Contracted from a primary word; soil; by extension a region, or the solid part or the whole of the terrene globe (including the occupants in each application).
were passed away; 3928
{3928} Prime
παρέρχομαι
parerchomai
{par-er'-khom-ahee}
From G3844 and G2064; to come near or aside, that is, to approach (arrive), go by (or away), (figuratively) perish or neglect, (causatively) avert.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
there was 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
no 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
more 2089
{2089} Prime
ἔτι
eti
{et'-ee}
Perhaps akin to G2094; 'yet', still (of time or degree).
sea. 2281
{2281} Prime
θάλασσα
thalassa
{thal'-as-sah}
Probably prolonged from G0251; the sea (generally or specifically).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 21:1

_ _ Revelation 21:1-27. The New Heaven and Earth: New Jerusalem out of Heaven.

_ _ The remaining two chapters describe the eternal and consummated kingdom of God and the saints on the new earth. As the world of nations is to be pervaded by divine influence in the millennium, so the world of nature shall be, not annihilated, but transfigured universally in the eternal state which follows it. The earth was cursed for man’s sake; but is redeemed by the second Adam. Now is the Church; in the millennium shall be the kingdom; and after that shall be the new world wherein God shall be all in all. The “day of the Lord” and the conflagration of the earth are in 2 Peter 3:10, 2 Peter 3:11 spoken of as if connected together, from which many argue against a millennial interval between His coming and the general conflagration of the old earth, preparatory to the new; but “day” is used often of a whole period comprising events intimately connected together, as are the Lord’s second advent, the millennium, and the general conflagration and judgment. Compare Genesis 2:4 as to the wide use of “day.” Man’s soul is redeemed by regeneration through the Holy Spirit now; man’s body shall be redeemed at the resurrection; man’s dwelling-place, His inheritance, the earth, shall be redeemed perfectly at the creation of the new heaven and earth, which shall exceed in glory the first Paradise, as much as the second Adam exceeds in glory the first Adam before the fall, and as man regenerated in body and soul shall exceed man as he was at creation.

_ _ the first — that is the former.

_ _ passed awayGreek, in A and B is “were departed” (Greek,apeelthon,” not as in English Version,pareelthe”).

_ _ wasGreek, “is,” which graphically sets the thing before our eyes as present.

_ _ no more sea — The sea is the type of perpetual unrest. Hence our Lord rebukes it as an unruly hostile troubler of His people. It symbolized the political tumults out of which “the beast” arose, Revelation 13:1. As the physical corresponds to the spiritual and moral world, so the absence of sea, after the metamorphosis of the earth by fire, answers to the unruffled state of solid peace which shall then prevail. The sea, though severing lands from one another, is now, by God’s eliciting of good from evil, made the medium of communication between countries through navigation. Then man shall possess inherent powers which shall make the sea no longer necessary, but an element which would detract from a perfect state. A “river” and “water” are spoken of in Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:2, probably literal (that is, with such changes of the natural properties of water, as correspond analogically to man’s own transfigured body), as well as symbolical. The sea was once the element of the world’s destruction, and is still the source of death to thousands, whence after the millennium, at the general judgment, it is specially said, “The sea gave up the dead ... in it.” Then it shall cease to destroy, or disturb, being removed altogether on account of its past destructions.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Revelation 21:1-8

_ _ We have here a more general account of the happiness of the church of God in the future state, by which it seems most safe to understand the heavenly state.

_ _ I. A new world now opens to our view (Revelation 21:1): I saw a new heaven and a new earth; that is, a new universe; for we suppose the world to be made up of heaven and earth. By the new earth we may understand a new state for the bodies of men, as well as a heaven for their souls. This world is not now newly created, but newly opened, and filled with all those who were the heirs of it. The new heaven and the new earth will not then be distinct; the very earth of the saints, their glorified bodies, will now be spiritual and heavenly, and suited to those pure and bright mansions. To make way for the commencement of this new world, the old world, with all its troubles and commotions, passed away.

_ _ II. In this new world the apostle saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem, coming down from heaven, not locally, but as to its original: this new Jerusalem is the church of God in its new and perfect state, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband, beautified with all perfection of wisdom and holiness, meet for the full fruition of the Lord Jesus Christ in glory.

_ _ III. The blessed presence of God with his people is here proclaimed and admired: I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, etc., Revelation 21:3. Observe, 1. The presence of God with his church is the glory of the church. 2. It is matter of wonder that a holy God should ever dwell with any of the children of men. 3. The presence of God with his people in heaven will not be interrupted as it is on earth, but he will dwell with them continually. 4. The covenant, interest, and relation, that there are now between God and his people, will be filled up and perfected in heaven. They shall be his people; their souls shall be assimilated to him, filled with all the love, honour, and delight in God which their relation to him requires, and this will constitute their perfect holiness; and he will be their God: God himself will be their God; his immediate presence with them, his love fully manifested to them, and his glory put upon them, will be their perfect happiness; then he will fully answer the character of the relation on his part, as they shall do on their part.

_ _ IV. This new and blessed state will be free from all trouble and sorrow; for, 1. All the effects of former trouble shall be done away. They have been often before in tears, by reason of sin, of affliction, of the calamities of the church; but now all tears shall be wiped away; no signs, no remembrance of former sorrows shall remain, any further than to make their present felicity the greater. God himself, as their tender Father, with his own kind hand, shall wipe away the tears of his children; and they would not have been without those tears when God shall come and wipe them away. 2. All the causes of future sorrow shall be for ever removed: There shall be neither death nor pain; and therefore no sorrow nor crying; these are things incident to that state in which they were before, but now all former things have passed away.

_ _ V. The truth and certainty of this blessed state are ratified by the word and promise of God, and ordered to be committed to writing, as matter of perpetual record, Revelation 21:5, Revelation 21:6. The subject-matter of this vision is so great, and of such great importance to the church and people of God, that they have need of the fullest assurances of it; and God therefore from heaven repeats and ratifies the truth thereof. Besides, many ages must pass between the time when this vision was given forth and the accomplishment of it, and many great trials must intervene; and therefore God would have it committed to writing, for perpetual memory, and continual use to his people. Observe, 1. The certainty of the promise averred: These words are faithful and true; and it follows, It is done, is as sure as if it were done already. We may and ought to take God's promise as present payment; if he has said that he makes all things new, it is done. 2. He gives us his titles of honour as a pledge or surety of the full performance, even those titles of Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. As it was his glory that he gave the rise and beginning to the world and to his church, it will be his glory to finish the work begin, and not to leave it imperfect. As his power and will were the first cause of all things, his pleasure and glory are the last end, and he will not lose his design; for then he would no longer be the Alpha and Omega. Men may begin designs which they can never bring to perfection; but the counsel of God shall stand, and he will do all his pleasure. 3. The desires of his people towards this blessed state furnish another evidence of the truth and certainty of it. They thirst after a state of sinless perfection and the uninterrupted enjoyment of God, and God has wrought in them these longing desires, which cannot be satisfied with any thing else, and therefore would be the torment of the soul if they were disappointed but it would be inconsistent with the goodness of God, and his love to his people, to create in them holy and heavenly desires, and then deny them their proper satisfaction; and therefore they may be assured that, when they have overcome their present difficulties, he will give them of the fountain of the water of life freely.

_ _ VI. The greatness of this future felicity is declared and illustrated, 1. By the freeness of it — it is the free gift of God: He gives of the water of life freely; this will not make it less but more grateful to his people. 2. The fulness of it. The people of God then lie at the fountain-head of all blessedness: they inherit all things (Revelation 21:7); enjoying God, they enjoy all things. He is all in all. 3. By the tenure and title by which they enjoy this blessedness — by right of inheritance, as the sons of God, a title of all others the most honourable, as resulting from so near and endeared a relation to God himself, and the most sure and indefeasible, that can no more cease than the relation from which it results. 4. By the vastly different state of the wicked. Their misery helps to illustrate the glory and blessedness of the saints, and the distinguishing goodness of God towards them, Revelation 21:8. Here observe, (1.) The sins of those who perish, among which are first mentioned their cowardliness and unbelief. The fearful lead the van in this black list. They durst not encounter the difficulties of religion, and their slavish fear proceeded from their unbelief; but those who were so dastardly as not to dare to take up the cross of Christ, and discharge their duty to him, were yet so desperate as to run into all manner of abominable wickedness — murder, adultery, sorcery, idolatry, and lying. (2.) Their punishment: They have their part in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. [1.] They could not burn at a stake for Christ, but they must burn in hell for sin. [2.] They must die another death after their natural death; the agonies and terrors of the first death will consign them over to the far greater terrors and agonies of eternal death, to die and to be always dying. [3.] This misery will be their proper part and portion, what they have justly deserved, what they have in effect chosen, and what they have prepared themselves for by their sins. Thus the misery of the damned will illustrate the blessedness of those that are saved, and the blessedness of the saved will aggravate the misery of those that are damned.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 21:1

And I saw — So it runs, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 20:1, Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:11, in a succession. All these several representations follow one another in order: so the vision reaches into eternity. A new heaven and a new earth — After the resurrection and general judgment. St. John is not now describing a flourishing state of the church, but a new and eternal state of all things. For the first heaven and the first earth — Not only the lowest part of heaven, not only the solar system, but the whole ethereal heaven, with all its host, whether of planets or fixed stars, Isaiah 34:4; Matthew 24:29. All the former things will be done away, that all may become new, Revelation 20:4-5, 2 Peter 3:10, 2 Peter 3:12. Are passed away — But in the fourth verse it is said, "are gone away." There the stronger word is used; for death, mourning, and sorrow go away all together: the former heaven and earth only pass away, giving place to the new heaven and the new earth.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 21:1

And (1) I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.

(1) Now follows the second part of the history prophetic of the future estate of the Church in heaven after the last judgment, to (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 22:5). In this are two things briefly declared. The station, seat, or place of it, (Revelation 21:1). Then her state and condition, in the verses following. Before the state of the Church described, is set down the state of the whole world, that there shall be a new heaven, and a new earth; (Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22; 2 Peter 3:13) and this is the seat or place of the Church, in which righteousness shall dwell.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a new:

Revelation 21:5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.
Isaiah 65:17-19 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. ... And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying.
Isaiah 66:22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain.
2 Peter 3:13 Nevertheless we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness.

for:

Revelation 20:11 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.

and there:

Revelation 13:1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
Isaiah 27:1 In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that [is] in the sea.
Isaiah 57:20 But the wicked [are] like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.
Daniel 7:3 And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.
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Is 27:1; 57:20; 65:17; 66:22. Dn 7:3. 2P 3:13. Rv 13:1; 20:11; 21:5.

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