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Revelation 20:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne; and books were opened: and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life: and the dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life; and the dead were judged from the things which were written in the books, according to their deeds.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life: and the dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened; and another book was opened, which is [that] of life. And the dead were judged out of the things written in the books according to their works.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne; and, books, were opened, and, another book, was opened, which is, the book, of life; and the dead, were judged, out of the things written in the books, according to their works.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and I saw the dead, small and great, standing before God, and scrolls were opened, and another scroll was opened, which is that of the life, and the dead were judged out of the things written in the scrolls—according to their works;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And I saw the dead, great and small, standing in the presence of the throne. And the books were opened: and another book was opened, which was the book of life. And the dead were judged by those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And I sawe the dead, small and great, stand before God: and the books were opened: & another booke was opened, which is [the booke] of life: and the dead were iudged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne; and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is (the Book) of Life. And the dead were judged from the (records) which are written in the books according to their works.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And I saw the dead, great and small standing before the throne; and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is [the book] of life. And the dead were judged from the things written in the books, according to their deeds.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
I saw 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
dead, 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
small 3398
{3398} Prime
μικρός
mikros
{mik-ros'}
Apparently a primary word, including the comparative (second form); small (in size, quantity, number or (figuratively) dignity).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
great, 3173
{3173} Prime
μέγας
megas
{meg'-as}
Including the prolonged forms, feminine μεγάλη [[megale]], plural μέγάλοι [[megaloi]], etc.; compare also G3176, G3187], big (literally or figuratively, in a very wide application).
stand 2476
{2476} Prime
ἵστημι
histemi
{his'-tay-mee}
A prolonged form of a primary word στάω [[stao]], {stah'-o} (of the same meaning, and used for it in certain tenses); to stand (transitively or intransitively), used in various applications (literally or figuratively).
z5761
<5761> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 193
before 1799
{1799} Prime
ἐνώπιον
enopion
{en-o'-pee-on}
Neuter of a compound of G1722 and a derivation of G3700; in the face of (literally or figuratively).
God; 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the books 975
{0975} Prime
βιβλίον
biblion
{bib-lee'-on}
A diminutive of G0976; a roll.
were opened: 455
{0455} Prime
ἀνοίγω
anoigo
{an-oy'-go}
From G0303 and οἴγω [[oigo]] (to open); to open up (literally or figuratively, in various applications).
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
another 243
{0243} Prime
ἄλλος
allos
{al'-los}
A primary word; 'else', that is, different (in many applications).
book 975
{0975} Prime
βιβλίον
biblion
{bib-lee'-on}
A diminutive of G0976; a roll.
was opened, 455
{0455} Prime
ἀνοίγω
anoigo
{an-oy'-go}
From G0303 and οἴγω [[oigo]] (to open); to open up (literally or figuratively, in various applications).
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
which y3739
[3739] Standard
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
is y2076
[2076] Standard
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
x3603
(3603) Complement
ἐστι
ho esti
{ho es-tee'}
From the neuter of G3739 and the third person singular present indicative of G1510; which is.
[the book] of life: 2222
{2222} Prime
ζωή
zoe
{dzo-ay'}
From G2198; life (literally or figuratively).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
dead 3498
{3498} Prime
νεκρός
nekros
{nek-ros'}
From an apparently primary word νέκυς [[nekus]] (a corpse); dead (literally or figuratively; also as noun).
were judged 2919
{2919} Prime
κρίνω
krino
{kree'-no}
Properly to distinguish, that is, decide (mentally or judicially); by implication to try, condemn, punish.
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
out of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
those things which were written 1125
{1125} Prime
γράφω
grapho
{graf'-o}
A primary verb; to 'grave', especially to write; figuratively to describe.
z5772
<5772> Grammar
Tense - Perfect (See G5778)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 463
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
books, 975
{0975} Prime
βιβλίον
biblion
{bib-lee'-on}
A diminutive of G0976; a roll.
according x2596
(2596) Complement
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
to y2596
[2596] Standard
κατά
kata
{kat-ah'}
A primary particle; (preposition) down (in place or time), in varied relations (according to the case [genitive, dative or accusative] with which it is joined).
their y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
works. 2041
{2041} Prime
ἔργον
ergon
{er'-gon}
From ἔργω [[ergo]] (a primary but obsolete word; to work); toil (as an effort or occupation); by implication an act.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 20:12

_ _ the dead — “the rest of the dead” who did not share the first resurrection, and those who died during the millennium.

_ _ small and great — B has “the small and the great.” A, Vulgate, Syriac, and Andreas have “the great and the small.” The wicked who had died from the time of Adam to Christ’s second advent, and all the righteous and wicked who had died during and after the millennium, shall then have their eternal portion assigned to them. The godly who were transfigured and reigned with Christ during it, shall also be present, not indeed to have their portion assigned as if for the first time (for that shall have been fixed long before, John 5:24), but to have it confirmed for ever, and that God’s righteousness may be vindicated in the case of both the saved and the lost, in the presence of an assembled universe. Compare “We must ALL appear,” etc. Romans 14:10; 2 Corinthians 5:10. The saints having been first pronounced just themselves by Christ out of “the book of life,” shall sit as assessors of the Judge. Compare Matthew 25:31, Matthew 25:32, Matthew 25:40, “these My brethren.” God’s omniscience will not allow the most insignificant to escape unobserved, and His omnipotence will cause the mightiest to obey the summons. The living are not specially mentioned: as these all shall probably first (before the destruction of the ungodly, Revelation 20:9) be transfigured, and caught up with the saints long previously transfigured; and though present for the confirmation of their justification by the Judge, shall not then first have their eternal state assigned to them, but shall sit as assessors with the Judge.

_ _ the books ... opened — (Daniel 7:10). The books of God’s remembrance, alike of the evil and the good (Psalms 56:8; Psalms 139:4; Malachi 3:16): conscience (Romans 2:15, Romans 2:16), the word of Christ (John 12:48), the law (Galatians 3:10), God’s eternal counsel (Psalms 139:16).

_ _ book of life — (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27; Exodus 32:32, Exodus 32:33; Psalms 69:28; Daniel 12:1; Philippians 4:3). Besides the general book recording the works of all, there is a special book for believers in which their names are written, not for their works, but for the work of Christ for, and in, them. Therefore it is called, “the Lamb’s book of life.” Electing grace has singled them out from the general mass.

_ _ according to their works — We are justified by faith, but judged according to (not by) our works. For the general judgment is primarily designed for the final vindication of God’s righteousness before the whole world, which in this checkered dispensation of good and evil, though really ruling the world, has been for the time less manifest. Faith is appreciable by God and the believer alone (Revelation 2:17). But works are appreciable by all. These, then, are made the evidential test to decide men’s eternal state, thus showing that God’s administration of judgment is altogether righteous.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Revelation 20:11-15.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 20:12

And I saw the dead, great and small — Of every age and condition. This includes, also, those who undergo a change equivalent to death, 1 Corinthians 15:51. And the books — Human judges have their books written with pen and ink: how different is the nature of these books! Were opened — O how many hidden things will then come to light; and how many will have quite another appearance than they had before in the sight of men! With the book of God's omniscience, that of conscience will then exactly tally. The book of natural law, as well as of revealed, will then also be displayed. It is not said, The books will be read: the light of that day will make them visible to all. Then, particularly, shall every man know himself, and that with the last exactness This will be the first true, full, impartial, universal history. And another book — Wherein are enrolled all that are accepted through the Beloved; all who lived and died in the faith that worketh by love. Which is the book of life, was opened — What manner of expectation will then be, with regard to the issue of the whole! Malachi 3:16, &c.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 20:12

And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before (22) God; and the (23) books were opened: and another book was opened, which is [the book] (24) of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.

(22) That is, Christ the judge; (2 Corinthians 5:10).

(23) As it were, his books of reckoning or accounts, that is, the testimony of our conscience, and of our works, which by no means can be avoided.

(24) The book of the eternal decree of God, in which God the Father has elected in Christ according to the good pleasure of his will, those that shall be heirs of life. This also is spoken according to the manner of men.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
I saw:

Revelation 20:11 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.
Daniel 12:2 And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame [and] everlasting contempt.
John 5:28-29 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, ... And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
John 11:25-26 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: ... And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?
Acts 24:15 And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.
1 Corinthians 15:21-23 For since by man [came] death, by man [came] also the resurrection of the dead. ... But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.
1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive [and] remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. ... Then we which are alive [and] remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

small:

Revelation 19:5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.

stand:

Romans 14:10-12 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. ... So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
1 Corinthians 4:5 Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God.
2 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things [done] in [his] body, according to that he hath done, whether [it be] good or bad.

the books:

Daniel 7:10 A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened.

and another:

Revelation 3:5 He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels.
Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
Revelation 17:8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
Revelation 21:27 And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defileth, neither [whatsoever] worketh abomination, or [maketh] a lie: but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life.
Psalms 69:28 Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, and not be written with the righteous.
Daniel 12:1 And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation [even] to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.
Luke 10:20 Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.
Philippians 4:3 And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and [with] other my fellowlabourers, whose names [are] in the book of life.

according:

Revelation 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.
Revelation 2:23 And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
Revelation 22:12 And, behold, I come quickly; and my reward [is] with me, to give every man according as his work shall be.
Psalms 28:4 Give them according to their deeds, and according to the wickedness of their endeavours: give them after the work of their hands; render to them their desert.
Psalms 62:12 Also unto thee, O Lord, [belongeth] mercy: for thou renderest to every man according to his work.
Proverbs 24:12 If thou sayest, Behold, we knew it not; doth not he that pondereth the heart consider [it]? and he that keepeth thy soul, doth [not] he know [it]? and shall [not] he render to [every] man according to his works?
Proverbs 24:29 Say not, I will do so to him as he hath done to me: I will render to the man according to his work.
Ecclesiastes 12:14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether [it be] good, or whether [it be] evil.
Jeremiah 17:10 I the LORD search the heart, [I] try the reins, even to give every man according to his ways, [and] according to the fruit of his doings.
Jeremiah 32:19 Great in counsel, and mighty in work: for thine eyes [are] open upon all the ways of the sons of men: to give every one according to his ways, and according to the fruit of his doings:
Matthew 16:27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.
Romans 2:6 Who will render to every man according to his deeds:
2 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things [done] in [his] body, according to that he hath done, whether [it be] good or bad.
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Ps 28:4; 62:12; 69:28. Pv 24:12, 29. Ec 12:14. Jr 17:10; 32:19. Dn 7:10; 12:1, 2. Mt 16:27. Lk 10:20. Jn 5:28; 11:25. Ac 24:15. Ro 2:6; 14:10. 1Co 4:5; 15:21. 2Co 5:10. Php 4:3. 1Th 4:15. Rv 2:23; 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 19:5; 20:11, 13; 21:27; 22:12.

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