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Revelation 2:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— and to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: These things saith he that hath the sharp two-edged sword:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “And to the angel of the church in Pergamum write: The One who has the sharp two-edged sword says this:
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he who hath the sharp sword with two edges;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And to the angel of the assembly in Pergamos write: These things says he that has the sharp two-edged sword:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, unto the messenger of the assembly, in Pergamum, write:—These things, saith he that hath the sharp, two-edged sword:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And to the messenger of the assembly in Pergamos write: These things saith he who is having the sharp two-edged sword:
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And to the angel of the church of Pergamus write: These things saith he that hath the sharp two-edged sword:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And to the Angel of the Church in Pergamos, write, These things saith hee, which hath the sharpe sword with two edges:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And to the angel of the church which is in Pergamos, write: These saith he who hath the sharp sword with two edges.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And to the angel of the church at Pergamos, write: Thus saith he who hath the sharp two-edged sword;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
angel 32
{0032} Prime
ἄγγελος
aggelos
{ang'-el-os}
From ἀγγέλλω [[aggello]] (probably derived from G0071; compare G0034; to bring tidings); a messenger; especially an 'angel'; by implication a pastor.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
church 1577
{1577} Prime
ἐκκλησία
ekklesia
{ek-klay-see'-ah}
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both).
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
Pergamos 4010
{4010} Prime
Πέργαμος
Pergamos
{per'-gam-os}
From G4444; fortified; Pergamus, a place in Asia Minor.
write; 1125
{1125} Prime
γράφω
grapho
{graf'-o}
A primary verb; to 'grave', especially to write; figuratively to describe.
z5657
<5657> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Imperative (See G5794)
Count - 376
These things 3592
{3592} Prime
ὅδε
hode
{hod'-eh}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms. From G3588 and G1161; the same, that is, this or that one (plural these or those); often used as personal pronoun.
saith 3004
{3004} Prime
λέγω
lego
{leg'-o}
A primary verb; properly to 'lay' forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean.
z5719
<5719> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 3019
he which hath 2192
{2192} Prime
ἔχω
echo
{ekh'-o}
A primary verb (including an alternate form σχέω [[scheo]], {skheh'-o}; used in certain tenses only); to hold (used in very various applications, literally or figuratively, direct or remote; such as possession, ability, contiguity, relation or condition).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
sharp 3691
{3691} Prime
ὀξύς
oxus
{oz-oos'}
Probably akin to the base of G0188 ('acid'); keen; by analogy rapid.
sword 4501
{4501} Prime
ῥομφαία
rhomphaia
{hrom-fah'-yah}
Probably of foreign origin; a sabre, that is, a long and broad cutlass (any weapon of the kind, literally or figuratively).
with two edges; 1366
{1366} Prime
δίστομος
distomos
{dis'-tom-os}
From G1364 and G4750; double edged.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 2:12

_ _ Trench prefers writing Pergamus, or rather, Pergamum, on the river Caicus. It was capital of Attalus the Second’s kingdom, which was bequeathed by him to the Romans, 133 b.c. Famous for its library, founded by Eumenes (197-159), and destroyed by Caliph Omar. Parchment, that is, Pergamena charta, was here discovered for book purposes. Also famous for the magnificent temple of Aesculapius, the healing god [Tacitus, Annals, 3.63].

_ _ he which hath the sharp sword with two edges — appropriate to His address having a twofold bearing, a searching power so as to convict and convert some (Revelation 2:13, Revelation 2:17), and to convict and condemn to punishment others (Revelation 2:14-16, especially Revelation 2:16; compare also see on Revelation 1:16).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Revelation 2:12-17

_ _ Here also we are to consider,

_ _ I. The inscription of this message. 1. To whom it was sent: To the angel of the church of Pergamos. Whether this was a city raised up out of the ruins of old Troy, a Troy nouveau (as our London was once called), or some other city of the same name, is neither certain nor material; it was a place where Christ had called and constituted a gospel church, by the preaching of the gospel and the grace of his Spirit making the word effectual. 2. Who it was that sent this message to Pergamos: the same Jesus who here describes himself as one that hath the sharp sword with two edges (Revelation 1:16), out of whose mouth went a sharp two-edged sword. Some have observed that, in the several titles of Christ which are prefixed to the several epistles, there is something suited to the state of those churches; as in that to Ephesus, what could be more proper to awaken and recover a drowsy and declining church than to hear Christ speaking as one that held the stars in his hand, and walked in the midst of the golden candlesticks? etc. The church of Pergamos was infested with men of corrupt minds, who did what they could to corrupt both the faith and manners of the church; and Christ, being resolved to fight against them by the sword of his word, takes the title of him that hath the sharp sword with two edges. (1.) The word of God is a sword; it is a weapon both offensive and defensive, it is, in the hand of God, able to slay both sin and sinners. (2.) It is a sharp sword. No heart is so hard but it is able to cut it; it can divide asunder between the soul and the spirit, that is, between the soul and those sinful habits that by custom have become another soul, or seem to be essential to it. (3.) It is a sword with two edges; it turns and cuts every way. There is the edge of the law against the transgressors of that dispensation, and the edge of the gospel against the despisers of that dispensation; there is an edge to make a wound, and an edge to open a festered wound in order to its healing. There is no escaping the edge of this sword: if you turn aside to the right hand, it has an edge on that side; if on the left hand, you fall upon the edge of the sword on that side; it turns every way.

_ _ II. From the inscription we proceed to the contents of the epistle, in which the method is much the same as is observed in the rest. Here,

_ _ 1. Christ takes notice of the trials and difficulties this church encountered with: I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, etc., Revelation 2:13. The works of God's servants are best known when the circumstances under which they did those works are duly considered. Now that which added very much lustre to the good works of this church was the circumstance of the place where this church was planted, a place where Satan's seat was. As our great Lord takes notice of all the advantages and opportunities we have for duty in the places where we dwell, so he takes notice of all the temptations and discouragements we meet with from the places where we dwell, and makes gracious allowances for them. This people dwelt where Satan's seat was, where he kept his court. His circuit is throughout the world, his seat is in some places that are infamous for wickedness, error, and cruelty. Some think that the Roman governor in this city was a most violent enemy to the Christians; and the seat of persecution is Satan's seat.

_ _ 2. He commends their stedfastness: Thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith. These two expressions are much the same in sense; the former may, however, signify the effect and the latter the cause or means. (1.) “Thou holdest fast my name; thou art not ashamed of thy relation to me, but accountest it thine honour that my name is named on thee, that, as the wife bears the name of the husband, so thou art called by my name; this thou holdest fast, as thine honour and privilege.” (2.) “That which has made thee thus faithful is the grace of faith: thou hast not denied the great doctrines of the gospel, nor departed from the Christian faith, and by that means thou hast been kept faithful.” Our faith will have a great influence upon our faithfulness. Men who deny the faith of Christ may boast very much of their sincerity, and faithfulness to God and conscience; but it has been seldom known that those who let go the true faith retained their fidelity; usually on that rock on which men make shipwreck of their faith they make shipwreck of a good conscience too. And here our blessed Lord aggrandizes the fidelity of this church from the circumstance of the times, as well as of the place where they lived: they had been stedfast even in those days wherein Antipas his faithful martyr was slain among them. Who this person was, and whether there be anything mysterious in his name, we have no certain account. He was a faithful disciple of Christ, he suffered martyrdom for it, and sealed his faith and fidelity with his blood in the place where Satan dwelt; and though the rest of the believers there knew this, and saw it, yet they were not discouraged nor drawn away from their stedfastness: this is mentioned as an addition to their honour.

_ _ 3. He reproves them for their sinful failures (Revelation 2:14): But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there those that hold the doctrine of Balaam, etc., and those that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. There were some who taught that it was lawful to eat things sacrificed to idols, and that simple fornication was no sin; they, by an impure worship, drew men into impure practices, as Balaam did the Israelites. Observe, (1.) The filthiness of the spirit and the filthiness of the flesh often go together. Corrupt doctrines and a corrupt worship often lead to a corrupt conversation. (2.) It is very lawful to fix the name of the leaders of any heresy upon those who follow them. It is the shortest way of telling whom we mean. (3.) To continue in communion with persons of corrupt principles and practices is displeasing to God, draws a guilt and blemish upon the whole society: they become partakers of other men's sins. Though the church, as such, has no power to punish the persons of men, either for heresy or immorality, with corporal penalties, yet it has power to exclude them from its communion; and, if it do not so, Christ, the head and lawgiver of the church, will be displeased with it.

_ _ 4. He calls them to repentance: Repent, or else I will come unto thee quickly, etc., Revelation 2:16. Observe here, (1.) Repentance is the duty of saints as well as sinners; it is a gospel duty. (2.) It is the duty of churches and communities as well as particular persons; those who sin together should repent together. (3.) It is the duty of Christian societies to repent of other men's sins, as far as they have been accessory to them, though but so much as by connivance. (4.) When God comes to punish the corrupt members of a church, he rebukes that church itself for allowing such to continue in its communion, and some drops of the storm fall upon the whole society. (5.) No sword cuts so deep, nor inflicts so mortal a wound, as the sword of Christ's mouth. Let but the threatenings of the word be set home upon the conscience of a sinner, and he will soon be a terror to himself; let these threatenings be executed, and the sinner is utterly cut off. The word of God will take hold of sinners, sooner or later, either for their conviction or their confusion.

_ _ III. We have the conclusion of this epistle, where, after the usual demand of universal attention, there is the promise of great favour to those that overcome. They shall eat of the hidden manna, and have the new name, and the white stone, which no man knoweth, saving he that receiveth it, Revelation 2:17. 1. The hidden manna, the influences and comforts of the Spirit of Christ in communion with him, coming down from heaven into the soul, from time to time, for its support, to let it taste something how saints and angels live in heaven. This is hidden from the rest of the world — a stranger intermeddles not with this joy; and it is laid up in Christ, the ark of the covenant, in the holy of holies. 2. The white stone, with a new name engraven upon it. This white stone is absolution from the guilt of sin, alluding to the ancient custom of giving a white stone to those acquitted on trial and a black stone to those condemned. The new name is the name of adoption: adopted persons took the name of the family into which they were adopted. None can read the evidence of a man's adoption but himself; he cannot always read it, but if he persevere he shall have both the evidence of sonship and the inheritance.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 2:12

The sword — With which I will cut off the impenitent, Revelation 2:16.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 2:12

(11) And to the angel of the church in (d) Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

(11) The third passage is to the pastors of Pergamos. The introduction is taken from (Revelation 1:16).

(d) Pergamos was the name of a famous city of old in Asia, where the kings of the Attalians were always resident.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the angel:

Revelation 2:1 Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
Revelation 1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.

Pergamos:
Pergamos, now Bergamo, the ancient metropolis of Mysia, and the residence of the Attalian kings, is situated on the river Caicus, about sixty miles north of Smyrna, in long. 27 degrees e lat. 39 degrees 11 minutes n. It still retains some measure of its ancient importance; containing a population of 15,000 souls, and having nine or ten mosques, two churches, and one synagogue.

which hath:

Revelation 2:16 Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.
Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance [was] as the sun shineth in his strength.
Revelation 19:15 And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
Revelation 19:21 And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which [sword] proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.
Isaiah 11:4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
Hebrews 4:12 For the word of God [is] quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and [is] a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
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Is 11:4. He 4:12. Rv 1:11, 16; 2:1, 16; 19:15, 21.

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