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Revelation 18:19 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and mourning, saying, Woe, woe, the great city, wherein all that had their ships in the sea were made rich by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “And they threw dust on their heads and were crying out, weeping and mourning, saying, ‘Woe, woe, the great city, in which all who had ships at sea became rich by her wealth, for in one hour she has been laid waste!’
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, in which were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her opulence! for in one hour is she made desolate.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and cast dust upon their heads, and cried, weeping and grieving, saying, Woe, woe, the great city, in which all that had ships in the sea were enriched through her costliness! for in one hour she has been made desolate.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And they cast dust upon their heads, and cried out, weeping and grieving, saying—Alas! alas! the great city! Whereby were made rich all that had ships in the sea, by reason of her costliness,—that, in one hour, she hath been laid waste!
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and they did cast dust upon their heads, and were crying out, weeping and sorrowing, saying, Woe, woe, the great city! in which were made rich all having ships in the sea, out of her costliness—for in one hour was she made waste.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And they cast dust upon their heads and cried, weeping and mourning, saying: Alas! alas! that great city, wherein all were made rich, that had ships at sea, by reason of her prices. For, in one hour she is made desolate.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping, and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great citie, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea, by reason of her costlinesse, for in one houre is she made desolate.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And they cast dust upon their heads, and cried, weeping and lamenting, and saying, Woe, woe, that great city, in which were made rich all they who have ships in the sea, from the preciousness of her! For in one hour she becometh desolate!
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping, and mourning, and saying: Alas, alas that great city, in which all that have ships in the sea became rich, by her preciousness; for in one hour she hath become desolate.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
they cast 906
{0906} Prime
βάλλω
ballo
{bal'-lo}
A primary verb; to throw (in various applications, more or less violent or intense).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
dust 5522
{5522} Prime
χοῦς
choos
{kho'-os}
From the base of G5494; a heap (as poured out), that is, rubbish; lose dirt.
on 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
their y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
heads, 2776
{2776} Prime
κεφαλή
kephale
{kef-al-ay'}
Probably from the primary word κάπτω [[kapto]] (in the sense of seizing); the head (as the part most readily taken hold of), literally or figuratively.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
cried, 2896
{2896} Prime
κράζω
krazo
{krad'-zo}
A primary verb; properly to 'croak' (as a raven) or scream, that is, (generally) to call aloud (shriek, exclaim, intreat).
z5707
<5707> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 855
weeping 2799
{2799} Prime
κλαίω
klaio
{klah'-yo}
Of uncertain affinity; to sob, that is, wail aloud (whereas G1145 is rather to cry silently).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
wailing, 3996
{3996} Prime
πενθέω
pentheo
{pen-theh'-o}
From G3997; to grieve (the feeling or the act).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
saying, 3004
{3004} Prime
λέγω
lego
{leg'-o}
A primary verb; properly to 'lay' forth, that is, (figuratively) relate (in words [usually of systematic or set discourse; whereas G2036 and G5346 generally refer to an individual expression or speech respectively; while G4483 is properly to break silence merely, and G2980 means an extended or random harangue]); by implication to mean.
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
Alas, 3759
{3759} Prime
οὐαί
ouai
{oo-ah'-ee}
A primary excamation of grief; 'woe'.
alas, 3759
{3759} Prime
οὐαί
ouai
{oo-ah'-ee}
A primary excamation of grief; 'woe'.
that great 3173
{3173} Prime
μέγας
megas
{meg'-as}
Including the prolonged forms, feminine μεγάλη [[megale]], plural μέγάλοι [[megaloi]], etc.; compare also G3176, G3187], big (literally or figuratively, in a very wide application).
city, 4172
{4172} Prime
πόλις
polis
{pol'-is}
Probably from the same as G4171, or perhaps from G4183; a town (properly with walls, of greater or less size).
wherein 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
were made rich 4147
{4147} Prime
πλουτέω
plouteo
{ploo-teh'-o}
From G4148; to be (or become) wealthy (literally or figuratively).
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
all 3956
{3956} Prime
πᾶς
pas
{pas}
Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole.
that had 2192
{2192} Prime
ἔχω
echo
{ekh'-o}
A primary verb (including an alternate form σχέω [[scheo]], {skheh'-o}; used in certain tenses only); to hold (used in very various applications, literally or figuratively, direct or remote; such as possession, ability, contiguity, relation or condition).
z5723
<5723> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 2549
ships 4143
{4143} Prime
πλοῖον
ploion
{ploy'-on}
From G4126; a sailer, that is, vessel.
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
sea 2281
{2281} Prime
θάλασσα
thalassa
{thal'-as-sah}
Probably prolonged from G0251; the sea (generally or specifically).
by reason of 1537
{1537} Prime
ἐκ
ek
{ek}
A primary preposition denoting origin (the point whence motion or action proceeds), from, out (of place, time or cause; literally or figuratively; direct or remote).
her y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
costliness! 5094
{5094} Prime
τιμιότης
timiotes
{tim-ee-ot'-ace}
From G5093; expensiveness, that is, (by implication) magnificence.
for 3754
{3754} Prime
ὅτι
hoti
{hot'-ee}
Neuter of G3748 as conjugation; demonstrative that (sometimes redundant); causatively because.
in one 3391
{3391} Prime
μία
mia
{mee'-ah}
Irregular feminine of G1520; one or first.
hour 5610
{5610} Prime
ὥρα
hora
{ho'-rah}
Apparently a primary word; an 'hour' (literally or figuratively).
is she made desolate. 2049
{2049} Prime
ἐρημόω
eremoo
{er-ay-mo'-o}
From G2048; to lay waste (literally or figuratively).
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 18:19

_ _ wailing — “mourning.”

_ _ that had ships — A, B, and C read, “that had their ships”: literally, “the ships.”

_ _ costliness — her costly treasures: abstract for concrete.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Revelation 18:9-24.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 18:19

And they cast dust on their heads — As mourners. Most of the expressions here used in describing the downfall of Babylon are taken from Ezekiel's description of the downfall of Tyre, Eze. 26:1-28:19.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
they cast:

Joshua 7:6 And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the eventide, he and the elders of Israel, and put dust upon their heads.
1 Samuel 4:12 And there ran a man of Benjamin out of the army, and came to Shiloh the same day with his clothes rent, and with earth upon his head.
2 Samuel 13:19 And Tamar put ashes on her head, and rent her garment of divers colours that [was] on her, and laid her hand on her head, and went on crying.
Nehemiah 9:1 Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackclothes, and earth upon them.
Job 2:12 And when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their voice, and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven.
Ezekiel 27:30 And shall cause their voice to be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wallow themselves in the ashes:

weeping:

Revelation 18:10 Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.
Revelation 18:15-16 The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing, ... And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!

for:

Revelation 18:8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong [is] the Lord God who judgeth her.
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Jsh 7:6. 1S 4:12. 2S 13:19. Ne 9:1. Jb 2:12. Ezk 27:30. Rv 18:8, 10, 15.

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