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Revelation 16:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the sixth poured out his bowl upon the great river, the [river] Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way might by made ready for the kings that [come] from the sunrising.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The sixth [angel] poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates; and its water was dried up, so that the way would be prepared for the kings from the east.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water of it was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the sixth poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates; and its water was dried up, that the way of the kings from the rising of the sun might be prepared.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, the sixth, poured out his bowl upon the great river: [the] Euphrates; and the water thereof, was dried up, that the way might be prepared, of the kings who were from the rising of the sun.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the sixth messenger did pour out his vial upon the great river, the Euphrates, and dried up was its water, that the way of the kings who are from the rising of the sun may be made ready;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon that great river Euphrates and dried up the water thereof, that a way might be prepared for the kings from the rising of the sun.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the sixt Angel powred out his viall vpon the great riuer Euphrates, and the water thereof was dried vp, that the way of the Kings of the East might be prepared.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— And the sixth poured his vial upon the great river Phrat, and his waters were dried, that might be prepared the way of the kings who (are) from the rising of the sun.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And the sixth poured his cup upon the great river Euphrates; and its waters dried up, so that a way might be prepared for the kings from the rising of the sun.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
sixth 1623
{1623} Prime
ἕκτος
hektos
{hek'-tos}
Ordinal from G1803; sixth.
angel 32
{0032} Prime
ἄγγελος
aggelos
{ang'-el-os}
From ἀγγέλλω [[aggello]] (probably derived from G0071; compare G0034; to bring tidings); a messenger; especially an 'angel'; by implication a pastor.
poured out 1632
{1632} Prime
ἐκχέω
ekcheo
{ek-kheh'-o}
From G1537 and χέω [[cheo]] (to pour); to pour forth; figuratively to bestow.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
his y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
vial 5357
{5357} Prime
φιάλη
phiale
{fee-al'-ay}
Of uncertain affinity; a broad shallow cup ('phial').
upon 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
great 3173
{3173} Prime
μέγας
megas
{meg'-as}
Including the prolonged forms, feminine μεγάλη [[megale]], plural μέγάλοι [[megaloi]], etc.; compare also G3176, G3187], big (literally or figuratively, in a very wide application).
river 4215
{4215} Prime
ποταμός
potamos
{pot-am-os'}
Probably from a derivative of the alternate of G4095 (compare G4224); a current, brook or freshet (as drinkable), that is, running water.
Euphrates; 2166
{2166} Prime
Εὐφράτης
Euphrates
{yoo-frat'-ace}
Of foreign origin (compare [H6578]); Euphrates, a river of Asia.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
water 5204
{5204} Prime
ὕδωρ
hudor
{hoo'-dore}
From the base of G5205; water (as if rainy) literally or figuratively.
thereof y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
was dried up, 3583
{3583} Prime
ξηραίνω
xeraino
{xay-rah'-ee-no}
From G3584; to desiccate; by implication to shrivel, to mature.
z5681
<5681> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 602
that 2443
{2443} Prime
ἵνα
hina
{hin'-ah}
Probably from the same as the former part of G1438 (through the demonstrative idea; compare G3588); in order that (denoting the purpose or the result).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
way 3598
{3598} Prime
ὁδός
hodos
{hod-os'}
Apparently a primary word; a road; by implication a progress (the route, act or distance); figuratively a mode or means.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
kings 935
{0935} Prime
βασιλεύς
basileus
{bas-il-yooce'}
Probably from G0939 (through the notion of a foundation of power); a sovereign (abstractly, relatively or figuratively).
of 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
the east 395
{0395} Prime
ἀνατολή
anatole
{an-at-ol-ay'}
From G0393; a rising of light, that is, dawn (figuratively); by implication the east (also in plural).
2246
{2246} Prime
ἥλιος
helios
{hay'-lee-os}
From ἕλη [[hele]] (a ray; perhaps akin to the alternate of G0138); the sun; by implication light.
might be prepared. 2090
{2090} Prime
ἑτοιμάζω
hetoimazo
{het-oy-mad'-zo}
From G2092; to prepare.
z5686
<5686> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Passive (See G5786)
Mood - Subjunctive (See G5792)
Count - 219
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 16:12

_ _ angel — so Coptic and Andreas. A, B, C, Vulgate, and Syriac omit.

_ _ kings of the eastGreek, “the kings who are from the rising of the sun.” Reference to the Euphrates similarly occurs in the sixth trumpet. The drying up of the Euphrates, I think, is to be taken figuratively, as Babylon itself, which is situated on it, is undoubtedly so, Revelation 17:5. The waters of the Euphrates (compare Isaiah 8:7, Isaiah 8:8) are spiritual Babylon’s, that is, the apostate Church’s (of which Rome is the chief, though not exclusive representative) spiritual and temporal powers. The drying up of the waters of Babylon expresses the same thing as the ten kings stripping, eating, and burning the whore. The phrase, “way may be prepared for,” is that applied to the Lord’s coming (Isaiah 40:3; Matthew 3:3; Luke 1:76). He shall come from the East (Matthew 24:27; Ezekiel 43:2, “the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the East”): not alone, for His elect transfigured saints of Israel and the Gentiles shall accompany Him, who are “kings and priests unto God” (Revelation 1:6). As the Antichristian ten kings accompany the beast, so the saints accompany as kings the King of kings to the last decisive conflict. De Burgh and others take it of the Jews, who also were designed to be a kingdom of priests to God on earth. They shall, doubtless, become priest-kings in the flesh to the nations in the flesh at His coming. Abraham from the East (if Isaiah 41:2, Isaiah 41:8, Isaiah 41:9, refers to him, and not Cyrus) conquering the Chaldean kings is a type of Israel’s victorious restoration to the priest-kingdom. Israel’s exodus after the last Egyptian plagues typifies Israel’s restoration after the spiritual Babylon, the apostate Church, has been smitten. Israel’s promotion to the priest-kingdom after Pharaoh’s downfall, and at the Lord’s descent at Sinai to establish the theocracy, typifies the restored kingdom of Israel at the Lord’s more glorious descent, when Antichrist shall be destroyed utterly. Thus, besides the transfigured saints, Israel secondarily may be meant by “the kings from the East” who shall accompany the “King of kings” returning “from the way of the East” to reign over His ancient people. As to the drying up again of the waters opposing His people’s assuming the kingdom, compare Isaiah 10:26; Isaiah 11:11, Isaiah 11:15; Zechariah 10:9-11. The name Israel (Genesis 32:28) implies a prince with God. Compare Micah 4:8 as to the return of the kingdom to Jerusalem. Durham, several centuries ago, interpreted the drying up of the Euphrates to mean the wasting away of the Turkish power, which has heretofore held Palestine, and so the way being prepared for Israel’s restoration. But as Babylon refers to the apostate Church, not to Mohammedanism, the drying up of the Euphrates (answering to Cyrus’ overthrow of literal Babylon by marching into it through the dry channel of the Euphrates) must answer to the draining off of the apostate Church’s resources, the Roman and Greek corrupt Church having been heretofore one of the greatest barriers by its idolatries and persecutions in the way of Israel’s restoration and conversion. The kings of the earth who are earthly (Revelation 16:14), stand in contrast to the kings from the East who are heavenly.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Revelation 16:12-16

_ _ The sixth angel poured out his vial; and observe,

_ _ I. Where it fell — upon the great river Euphrates. Some take it literally, for the place where the Turkish power and empire began; and they think this is a prophecy of the destruction of the Turkish monarchy and of idolatry, which they suppose will be effected about the same time with that of the papacy, as another antichrist, and that thereby a way shall be made for the conveniency of the Jews, those princes of the east. Others take it for the river Tiber; for, as Rome is mystical Babylon, Tiber is mystical Euphrates. And when Rome shall be destroyed her river and merchandise must suffer with her.

_ _ II. What did this vial produce? 1. The drying up of the river, which furnished the city with wealth, provisions, and all sorts of accommodations. 2. A way is hereby prepared for the kings of the east. The idolatry of the church of Rome had been a great hindrance both to the conversion of the Jews, who have been long cured of their inclination to idols, and of the Gentiles, who are hardened in their idolatry by seeing that which so much symbolizes with it among those called Christians. It is therefore very probable that the downfall of popery, removing these obstructions, will open a way for both the Jews and other eastern nations to come into the church of Christ. And, if we suppose that Mahomedism shall fall at the same time, there will be still a more open communication between the western and eastern nations, which may facilitate the conversion of the Jews, and of the fulness of the Gentiles. And when this work of God appears, and is about to be accomplished, no wonder if it occasion another consequence, which is, 3. The last effort of the great dragon; he is resolved to have another push for it, that, if possible, he may retrieve the ruinous posture of his affairs in the world. He is now rallying his forces, recollecting all his spirits, to make one desperate sally before all be lost. This is occasioned by the pouring out of the sixth vial. Here observe, (1.) The instruments he makes use of to engage the powers of the earth in his cause and quarrel: Three unclean spirits like frogs come forth, one out of the mouth of the dragon, another out of the mouth of the beast, and a third out of the mouth of the false prophet. Hell, the secular power of antichrist, and the ecclesiastical power, would combine to send their several instruments, furnished with hellish malice, with worldly policy, and with religious falsehood and deceit; and these would muster up the devil's forces for a decisive battle. (2.) The means these instruments would use to engage the powers of earth in this war. They would work pretended miracles, the old stratagem of him whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness, 2 Thessalonians 2:9, 2 Thessalonians 2:10. Some think that a little before the fall of antichrist the popish pretence of power to work miracles will be revived and will very much amuse and deceive the world. (3.) The field of battle — a place called Armageddon; that is, say some, the mount of Megiddo, near to which, by a stream issuing thence, Barak overcame Sisera, and all the kings in alliance with him, Judges 5:19. And in the valley of Megiddo Josiah was slain. This place had been famous for two events of a very different nature, the former very happy for the church of God, the latter very unhappy; but it shall now be the field of the last battle in which the church shall be engaged, and she shall be victorious. This battle required time to prepare for it, and therefore the further account of it is suspended till we come to the nineteenth chapter, Revelation 19:19, Revelation 19:20. (4.) The warning which God gives of this great and decisive trial, to engage his people to prepare for it, Revelation 16:15. It would be sudden and unexpected, and therefore Christians should be clothed, and armed, and ready for it, that they might not be surprised and ashamed. When God's cause comes to be tried, and his battles to be fought, all his people shall be ready to stand up for his interest and be faithful and valiant in his service.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 16:12

And the sixth poured out his phial upon the great river Euphrates — Affected also by the sixth trumpet. And the water of it — And of all the rivers that flow into it. Was dried up — The far greater part of the Turkish empire lies on this side the Euphrates. The Romish and Mahometan affairs ran nearly parallel to each other for several ages. In the seventh century was Mahomet himself; and, a little before him, Boniface III., with his universal bishopric. In the eleventh, both the Turks and Gregory VII. carried all before them. In the year 1300, Boniface appeared with his two swords at the newly — erected jubilee. In the self — same year arose the Ottoman Porte; yea, and on the same day. And here the phial, poured out on the throne of the beast, is immediately followed by that poured out on the Euphrates; that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared — Those who lie east from the Euphrates, in Persia, India, &c., who will rush blindfold upon the plagues which are ready for them, toward the Holy Land, which lies west of the Euphrates.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 16:12

(9) And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river (10) Euphrates; and (11) the water thereof was dried up, (12) that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.

(9) The story of the sixth angel, divided into his act, and the event of it. The act is, that the angel cast out of his mouth the plague of a most glowing heat, in which even the greatest floods, and which most were accustomed to swell and overflow (as Euphrates) were dried up, by the counsel of God in this verse. The event is, that the madness with which the wicked are enraged that they may scorn the judgments of God, and abuse them furiously to serve their own turn, and to the executing of their own wicked outrage.

(10) The bound of the spiritual Babylon, and to the fortresses of the same (Revelation 9:14).

(11) So the Church of the ungodly, and kingdom of the beast is said to be left naked, all the defences of it in which they put their trust, being taken away from it.

(12) That is, that even they who dwell further off, may with more convenience make haste to the sacrifice, which the Lord has appointed.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
upon:

Revelation 9:14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates.
Revelation 11:14 The second woe is past; [and], behold, the third woe cometh quickly.
Isaiah 8:7 Now therefore, behold, the Lord bringeth up upon them the waters of the river, strong and many, [even] the king of Assyria, and all his glory: and he shall come up over all his channels, and go over all his banks:

and the water:

Revelation 17:15 And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.
Isaiah 11:15 And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make [men] go over dryshod.
Isaiah 42:15 I will make waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbs; and I will make the rivers islands, and I will dry up the pools.
Isaiah 44:27 That saith to the deep, Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers:
Jeremiah 50:38-40 A drought [is] upon her waters; and they shall be dried up: for it [is] the land of graven images, and they are mad upon [their] idols. ... As God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighbour [cities] thereof, saith the LORD; [so] shall no man abide there, neither shall any son of man dwell therein.
Jeremiah 51:36 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will plead thy cause, and take vengeance for thee; and I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry.

that the:

Isaiah 41:2-3 Who raised up the righteous [man] from the east, called him to his foot, gave the nations before him, and made [him] rule over kings? he gave [them] as the dust to his sword, [and] as driven stubble to his bow. ... He pursued them, [and] passed safely; [even] by the way [that] he had not gone with his feet.
Isaiah 41:25 I have raised up [one] from the north, and he shall come: from the rising of the sun shall he call upon my name: and he shall come upon princes as [upon] morter, and as the potter treadeth clay.
Ezekiel 38:1-39:29 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying, ... Neither will I hide my face any more from them: for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of Israel, saith the Lord GOD.
Daniel 11:43-45 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians [shall be] at his steps. ... And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
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Is 8:7; 11:15; 41:2, 25; 42:15; 44:27. Jr 50:38; 51:36. Ezk 38:1. Dn 11:43. Rv 9:14; 11:14; 17:15.

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