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Revelation 1:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from him who is and who was and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits that are before his throne;
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace [be] unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace, from Him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven Spirits who are before His throne,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace [be] to you, and peace, from him who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits who are before his throne;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— John to the seven assemblies which [are] in Asia: Grace to you and peace from [him] who is, and who was, and who is to come; and from the seven Spirits which [are] before his throne;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— John, unto the Seven Assemblies which are in Asia, Favour to you, and peace, from—Him who Is, and who Was, and who is Coming, and from—The Seven Spirits which are before his throne,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— John to the seven assemblies that [are] in Asia: Grace to you, and peace, from Him who is, and who was, and who is coming, and from the Seven Spirits that are before His throne,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— John to the seven churches which are in Asia. Grace be unto you and peace, from him that is and that was and that is to come: and from the seven spirits which are before his throne:
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Iohn to the seuen Churches in Asia, Grace [be] vnto you, & peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come, and from the seuen spirits which are before his throne:
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— Juhanon to the seven churches which are in Asia: grace to you and peace from him who is, and who was, and who cometh; from the seven Spirits who are before his throne;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace to you and quietude, from him who is, and who was, and who is to come, from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
John 2491
{2491} Prime
Ἰωάννης
Ioannes
{ee-o-an'-nace}
Of Hebrew origin [H3110]; Joannes (that is, Jochanan), the name of four Israelites.
to the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
churches 1577
{1577} Prime
ἐκκλησία
ekklesia
{ek-klay-see'-ah}
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both).
which 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
are in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
Asia: 773
{0773} Prime
Ἀσία
Asia
{as-ee'-ah}
Of uncertain derivation; Asia, that is, Asia Minor, or (usually) only its western shore.
Grace 5485
{5485} Prime
χάρις
charis
{khar'-ece}
From G5463; graciousness (as gratifying), of manner or act (abstract or concrete; literal, figurative or spiritual; especially the divine influence upon the heart, and its reflection in the life; including gratitude).
[be] unto you, 5213
{5213} Prime
ὑμῖν
humin
{hoo-min'}
Irregular dative case of G5210; to (with or by) you.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
peace, 1515
{1515} Prime
εἰρήνη
eirene
{i-ray'-nay}
Probably from a primary verb εἴρω [[eiro]] (to join); peace (literally or figuratively); by implication prosperity.
from 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
him which y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
is, y5607
[5607] Standard
ὤν
on
{oan}
The feminine, the neuter and the present participle of G1510; being.
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
z5625
<5625> Grammar
Synonym Strong's Number

The Greek word has more than one possible Strong's number.
y3801
[3801] Standard
ὢν καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐρχόμενος
ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos
{ho own kahee ho ane kahee ho er-khom'-en-os}
A phrase combining G3588 with the present participle and imperfect of G1510 and the present participle of G2064 by means of G2532; the one being and the one that was and the one coming, that is, the Eternal, as a divine epithet of Christ. (Each 'and' (G2532) was ommited from the phrase because of limited space.).
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
and y2532
[2532] Standard
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
which y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
was, y2258
[2258] Standard
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
z5625
<5625> Grammar
Synonym Strong's Number

The Greek word has more than one possible Strong's number.
y3801
[3801] Standard
ὢν καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐρχόμενος
ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos
{ho own kahee ho ane kahee ho er-khom'-en-os}
A phrase combining G3588 with the present participle and imperfect of G1510 and the present participle of G2064 by means of G2532; the one being and the one that was and the one coming, that is, the Eternal, as a divine epithet of Christ. (Each 'and' (G2532) was ommited from the phrase because of limited space.).
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
and y2532
[2532] Standard
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
which y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
is to come; 3801
{3801} Prime
ὢν καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐρχόμενος
ho on kai ho en kai ho erchomenos
{ho own kahee ho ane kahee ho er-khom'-en-os}
A phrase combining G3588 with the present participle and imperfect of G1510 and the present participle of G2064 by means of G2532; the one being and the one that was and the one coming, that is, the Eternal, as a divine epithet of Christ. (Each 'and' (G2532) was ommited from the phrase because of limited space.).
y2064
[2064] Standard
ἔρχομαι
erchomai
{er'-khom-ahee}
Middle voice of a primary verb (used only in the present and imperfect tenses, the others being supplied by a kindred [middle voice] word, ἐλεύθομαι [[eleuthomai]], {el-yoo'-thom-ahee}; or [active] ἔλθω [[eltho]], {el'-tho}; which do not otherwise occur); to come or go (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
z5625
<5625> Grammar
Synonym Strong's Number

The Greek word has more than one possible Strong's number.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
from 575
{0575} Prime
ἀπό
apo
{ap-o'}
A primary particle; 'off', that is, away (from something near), in various senses (of place, time, or relation; literally or figuratively).
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
Spirits 4151
{4151} Prime
πνεῦμα
pneuma
{pnyoo'-mah}
From G4154; a current of air, that is, breath (blast) or a breeze; by analogy or figuratively a spirit, that is, (human) the rational soul, (by implication) vital principle, mental disposition, etc., or (superhuman) an angel, daemon, or (divine) God, Christ's spirit, the Holy spirit.
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
are 2076
{2076} Prime
ἐστί
esti
{es-tee'}
Third person singular present indicative of G1510; he (she or it) is; also (with neuter plural) they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
before 1799
{1799} Prime
ἐνώπιον
enopion
{en-o'-pee-on}
Neuter of a compound of G1722 and a derivation of G3700; in the face of (literally or figuratively).
his y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
x848
(0848) Complement
αὑτοῦ
hautou
{how-too'}
Contraction for G1438; self (in some oblique case or reflexive relation).
throne; 2362
{2362} Prime
θρόνος
thronos
{thron'-os}
From θράω [[thrao]] (to sit); a stately seat ('throne'); by implication power or (concretely) a potentate.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 1:4

_ _ John — the apostle. For none but he (supposing the writer an honest man) would thus sign himself nakedly without addition. As sole survivor and representative of the apostles and eye-witnesses of the Lord, he needed no designation save his name, to be recognized by his readers.

_ _ seven churches — not that there were not more churches in that region, but the number seven is fixed on as representing totality. These seven represent the universal Church of all times and places. See Trench’s [Commentary on the Epistles to the Seven Churches in Asia] interesting note, Revelation 1:20, on the number seven. It is the covenant number, the sign of God’s covenant relation to mankind, and especially to the Church. Thus, the seventh day, sabbath (Genesis 2:3; Ezekiel 20:12). Circumcision, the sign of the covenant, after seven days (Genesis 17:12). Sacrifices (Numbers 23:1; Numbers 14:29; 2 Chronicles 29:21). Compare also God’s acts typical of His covenant (Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:15, Joshua 6:16; 2 Kings 5:10). The feasts ordered by sevens of time (Deuteronomy 15:1; Deuteronomy 16:9, Deuteronomy 16:13, Deuteronomy 16:15). It is a combination of three, the divine number (thus the Trinity: the thrice Holy, Isaiah 6:3; the blessing, Numbers 6:24-26), and four the number of the organized world in its extension (thus the four elements, the four seasons, the four winds, the four corners or quarters of the earth, the four living creatures, emblems of redeemed creaturely life, Revelation 4:6; Ezekiel 1:5, Ezekiel 1:6, with four faces and four wings each; the four beasts and four metals, representing the four world empires, Daniel 2:32, Daniel 2:33; Daniel 7:3; the four-sided Gospel designed for all quarters of the world; the sheet tied at four corners, Acts 10:11; the four horns, the sum of the world’s forces against the Church, Zechariah 1:18). In the Apocalypse, where God’s covenant with His Church comes to its consummation, appropriately the number seven recurs still more frequently than elsewhere in Scripture.

_ _ Asia — Proconsular, governed by a Roman proconsul: consisting of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia: the kingdom which Attalus III had bequeathed to Rome.

_ _ Grace ... peace — Paul’s apostolical greeting. In his Pastoral Epistles he inserts “mercy” in addition: so 2 John 1:3.

_ _ him which is ... was ... is to come — a periphrasis for the incommunicable name Jehovah, the self-existing One, unchangeable. In Greek the indeclinability of the designation here implies His unchangeableness. Perhaps the reason why “He which is to come” is used, instead of “He that shall be,” is because the grand theme of Revelation is the Lord’s coming (Revelation 1:7). Still it is THE FATHER as distinguished from “Jesus Christ” (Revelation 1:5) who is here meant. But so one are the Father and Son that the designation, “which is to come,” more immediately applicable to Christ, is used here of the Father.

_ _ the seven Spirits which are before his throne — The oldest manuscripts omit “are.”

_ _ before — literally, “in the presence of.” The Holy Spirit in His sevenfold (that is, perfect, complete, and universal) energy. Corresponding to “the seven churches.” One in His own essence, manifold in His gracious influences. The seven eyes resting on the stone laid by Jehovah (Revelation 5:6). Four is the number of the creature world (compare the fourfold cherubim); seven the number of God’s revelation in the world.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Revelation 1:3-8.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 1:4

John — The dedication of this book is contained in Revelation 1:4-6; but the whole Revelation is a kind of letter. To the seven churches which are in Asia — That part of the Lesser Asia which was then a Roman province. There had been several other churches planted here; but it seems these were now the most eminent; and it was among these that St. John had laboured most during his abode in Asia. In these cities there were many Jews. Such of them as believed in each were joined with the gentile believers in one church. Grace be unto you, and peace — The favour of God, with all temporal and eternal blessings. From him who is, and who was, and who cometh, or, who is to come — A wonderful translation of the great name JEHOVAH: he was of old, he is now, he cometh; that is, will be for ever. And from the seven spirits which are before his throne — Christ is he who "hath the seven spirits of God." "The seven lamps which burn before the throne are the seven spirits of God." " The lamb hath seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God." Seven was a sacred number in the Jewish church: but it did not always imply a precise number. It sometimes is to be taken figuratively, to denote completeness or perfection. By these seven spirits, not seven created angels, but the Holy Ghost is to be understood. The angels are never termed spirits in this book; and when all the angels stand up, while the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders worship him that sitteth on the throne, and the Lamb, the seven spirits neither stand up nor worship. To these "seven spirits of God," the seven churches, to whom the Spirit speaks so many things, are subordinate; as are also their angels, yea, and "the seven angels which stand before God." He is called the seven spirits, not with regard to his essence, which is one, but with regard to his manifold operations.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 1:4

(2) John to the seven churches which are in Asia: Grace [be] unto you, and peace, (3) from him (c) which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from (4) the (d) seven Spirits which are before his throne;

(2) This is the particular or singular inscription, in which salutation is written to certain churches by name, who represent the catholic church: and the certainty and truth of this is declared, from the author of it, in (Revelation 1:8). (3) That is, from God the Father, eternal, immortal, immutable: wholly unchangeable, John declares in a form of speech which is undeclined. For there is no incongruity in this place, where, of necessity the words must be adapted to the mystery, not the mystery corrupted or impaired by the words.

(c) These three, Is, Was, and Shall be, signify the word Jehovah, which is the proper name for God. (4) That is, from the Holy Spirit who proceeds from the Father and the Son. This Spirit is one in person according to his subsistence: but in communication of his power, and in demonstration of his divine works in those seven churches, perfectly manifests himself as if there were many spirits, every one perfectly working in his own church. Which is why in (Revelation 5:6) they are called the seven horns and seven eyes of the Lamb, as if to say, as his most absolute power and wisdom. In (Revelation 3:1) Christ is said to have those seven spirits of God, and in (Revelation 4:5) it is said that seven lamps burn before his throne, which also are those seven spirits of God. That this place ought to be so understood, it is thus proved. For first, grace and peace is asked by prayer from this Spirit, which is a divine work, and an action incommunicable in respect to God. Secondly, he is placed between the Father and the Son, as set in the same degree of dignity and operation with them, besides, he is before the throne, as of the same substance with the Father and the Son: as the seven eyes and seven horns of the Lamb. Moreover, these spirits are never said to adore God, as all other things are. Finally, this is the power by which the Lamb opened the book, and loosed the seven seals of it, when no one could be found among all creatures by whom the book might be opened (Revelation 5:1-10); Of these things long ago Master John Luide of Oxford wrote to me. Now the Holy Spirit is named before Christ because a long speech about Christ follows.

(d) These are the seven spirits, which are later called the horns and eyes of the Lamb in (Revelation 5:6) and are now acting as a guard waiting on God.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
John:

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified [it] by his angel unto his servant John:

to the:

Revelation 1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.
Revelation 2:1 Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
Revelation 2:8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
Revelation 2:12 And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;
Revelation 2:18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet [are] like fine brass;
Revelation 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
Revelation 3:7 And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;
Revelation 3:14 And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;
Acts 19:10 And this continued by the space of two years; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks.
1 Peter 1:1 Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

Grace:

Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called [to be] saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 1:3 Grace [be] unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and [from] the Lord Jesus Christ.
2 Corinthians 1:2 Grace [be] to you and peace from God our Father, and [from] the Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Peter 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

him:

Revelation 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.
Exodus 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.
Psalms 90:2 Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou [art] God.
Psalms 102:25-27 Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens [are] the work of thy hands. ... But thou [art] the same, and thy years shall have no end.
Isaiah 41:4 Who hath wrought and done [it], calling the generations from the beginning? I the LORD, the first, and with the last; I [am] he.
Isaiah 57:15 For thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name [is] Holy; I dwell in the high and holy [place], with him also [that is] of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones.
Micah 5:2 But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.
John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
Hebrews 1:10-13 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands: ... But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?
Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.
James 1:17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning.

from the:

Revelation 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
Revelation 4:5 And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God.
Revelation 5:6 And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent forth into all the earth.
Zechariah 3:9 For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone [shall be] seven eyes: behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.
Zechariah 4:10 For who hath despised the day of small things? for they shall rejoice, and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel [with] those seven; they [are] the eyes of the LORD, which run to and fro through the whole earth.
Zechariah 6:5 And the angel answered and said unto me, These [are] the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth.
1 Corinthians 12:4-13 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. ... For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether [we be] Jews or Gentiles, whether [we be] bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
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Ex 3:14. Ps 90:2; 102:25. Is 41:4; 57:15. Mi 5:2. Zc 3:9; 4:10; 6:5. Jn 1:1. Ac 19:10. Ro 1:7. 1Co 1:3; 12:4. 2Co 1:2. He 1:10; 13:8. Jm 1:17. 1P 1:1, 2. Rv 1:1, 8, 11, 20; 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14; 4:5; 5:6.

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