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Revelation 1:20 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks are seven churches.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “As for the mystery of the seven stars which you saw in My right hand, and the seven golden lampstands: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven lampstands are the seven churches.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— The mystery of the seven stars which thou hast seen on my right hand, and the seven golden lamps.—The seven stars are angels of the seven assemblies; and the seven lamps are seven assemblies.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— The sacred secret of the seven stars, which thou sawest upon my right hand, and the seven lamps of gold:—The seven stars, are, messengers of the seven assemblies, and, the seven lamps, are, seven assemblies
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— the secret of the seven stars that thou hast seen upon my right hand, and the seven golden lamp-stands: the seven stars are messengers of the seven assemblies, and the seven lamp-stands that thou hast seen are seven assemblies.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The mystery of the seven stars, which thou sawest in my right hand and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches. And the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The mysterie of the seuen starres which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seuen golden Candlestickes. The seuen Starres are the Angels of the seuen Churches: and the seuen candlestickes which thou sawest, are the seuen Churches.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— (This is) the mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and of the seven candlesticks of gold: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— the mystery of these seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven candlesticks of gold. Those seven stars are the angels of the seven churches; and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
mystery 3466
{3466} Prime
μυστήριον
musterion
{moos-tay'-ree-on}
From a derivative of μύω [[muo]] (to shut the mouth); a secret or 'mystery' (through the idea of silence imposed by initiation into religious rites).
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
stars 792
{0792} Prime
ἀστήρ
aster
{as-tare'}
Probably from the base of G4766; a star (as strown over the sky), literally or figuratively.
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
thou sawest 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
in 1909
{1909} Prime
ἐπί
epi
{ep-ee'}
A primary preposition properly meaning superimposition (of time, place, order, etc.), as a relation of distribution [with the genitive case], that is, over, upon, etc.; of rest (with the dative case) at, on, etc.; of direction (with the accusative case) towards, upon, etc.
my 3450
{3450} Prime
μοῦ
mou
{moo}
The simpler from of G1700; of me.
right hand, 1188
{1188} Prime
δεξιός
dexios
{dex-ee-os'}
From G1209; the right side or (feminine) hand (as that which usually takes).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
golden 5552
{5552} Prime
χρύσεος
chruseos
{khroo'-seh-os}
From G5557; made of gold.
candlesticks. 3087
{3087} Prime
λυχνία
luchnia
{lookh-nee'-ah}
From G3088; a lamp stand (literally or figuratively).
The x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
stars 792
{0792} Prime
ἀστήρ
aster
{as-tare'}
Probably from the base of G4766; a star (as strown over the sky), literally or figuratively.
are 1526
{1526} Prime
εἰσί
eisi
{i-see'}
Third person plural present indicative of G1510; they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
the angels 32
{0032} Prime
ἄγγελος
aggelos
{ang'-el-os}
From ἀγγέλλω [[aggello]] (probably derived from G0071; compare G0034; to bring tidings); a messenger; especially an 'angel'; by implication a pastor.
of the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
churches: 1577
{1577} Prime
ἐκκλησία
ekklesia
{ek-klay-see'-ah}
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
candlesticks 3087
{3087} Prime
λυχνία
luchnia
{lookh-nee'-ah}
From G3088; a lamp stand (literally or figuratively).
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
thou sawest 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
are 1526
{1526} Prime
εἰσί
eisi
{i-see'}
Third person plural present indicative of G1510; they are.
z5748
<5748> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 1612
the seven 2033
{2033} Prime
ἑπτά
hepta
{hep-tah'}
A primary number; seven.
churches. 1577
{1577} Prime
ἐκκλησία
ekklesia
{ek-klay-see'-ah}
From a compound of G1537 and a derivative of G2564; a calling out, that is, (concretely) a popular meeting, especially a religious congregation (Jewish synagogue, or Christian community of members on earth or saints in heaven or both).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Revelation 1:20

_ _ inGreek,upon My right hand.”

_ _ the mystery ... candlesticks — in apposition to, and explaining, “the things which thou hast seen,” governed by “Write.” Mystery signifies the hidden truth, veiled under this symbol, and now revealed; its correlative is revelation. Stars symbolize lordship (Numbers 24:17; compare Daniel 12:3, of faithful teachers; Revelation 8:10; Revelation 12:4; Jude 1:13).

_ _ angels — not as Alford, from Origen [Homily 13 on Luke, and Homily 20 on Numbers], the guardian angels of the churches, just as individuals have their guardian angels. For how could heavenly angels be charged with the delinquencies laid here to the charge of these angels? Then, if a human angel be meant (as the Old Testament analogy favors, Haggai 1:13, “the Lord’s Messenger in the Lord’s message”; Malachi 2:7; Malachi 3:1), the bishop, or superintendent pastor, must be the angel. For whereas there were many presbyters in each of the larger churches (as for example, Ephesus, Smyrna, etc.), there was but one angel, whom, moreover, the Chief Shepherd and Bishop of souls holds responsible for the spiritual state of the Church under him. The term angel, designating an office, is, in accordance with the enigmatic symbolism of this book, transferred from the heavenly to the earthly superior ministers of Jehovah; reminding them that, like the heavenly angels above, they below should fulfil God’s mission zealously, promptly and efficiently. “Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven!”

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Revelation 1:9-20.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Revelation 1:20

Write first the mystery — The mysterious meaning of the seven stars — St. John knew better than we do, in how many respects these stars were a proper emblem of those angels: how nearly they resembled each other, and how far they differed in magnitude, brightness, aa& other circumstances. The seven stars are angels of the seven churches — Mentioned in Revelation 1:11. In each church there was one pastor or ruling minister, to whom all the rest were subordinate. This pastor, bishop, or overseer, had the peculiar care over that flock: on him the prosperity of that congregation in a great measure depended, and he was to answer for all those souls at the judgment seat of Christ. And the seven candlesticks are seven churches — How significant an emblem is this! For a candlestick, though of gold, has no light of itself; neither has any church, or child of man. But they receive from Christ the light of truth, holiness, comfort, that it may shine to all around them. As soon as this was spoken St. John wrote it down, even all that is contained in this first chapter. Afterwards what was contained in the second and third chapters was dictated to him in like manner.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Revelation 1:20

(14) The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the (l) angels of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

(14) That is, the thing which was mystical signified by the particulars of the vision before going.

(l) By angels he means the ministers of the Church.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
mystery:

Matthew 13:11 He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.
Luke 8:10 And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.

the seven stars:

Revelation 1:13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks [one] like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.
Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp twoedged sword: and his countenance [was] as the sun shineth in his strength.

the seven golden:

Revelation 1:12 And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

The seven stars:

Revelation 2:1 Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
Revelation 2:8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
Revelation 2:12 And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;
Revelation 2:18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet [are] like fine brass;
Revelation 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
Revelation 3:7 And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;
Revelation 3:14 And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;
Malachi 2:7 For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth: for he [is] the messenger of the LORD of hosts.

and the:

Zechariah 4:2 And said unto me, What seest thou? And I said, I have looked, and behold a candlestick all [of] gold, with a bowl upon the top of it, and his seven lamps thereon, and seven pipes to the seven lamps, which [are] upon the top thereof:
Matthew 5:15-16 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. ... Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
Philippians 2:15-16 That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world; ... Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain.
1 Timothy 3:14-16 These things write I unto thee, hoping to come unto thee shortly: ... And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory.
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Zc 4:2. Mal 2:7. Mt 5:15; 13:11. Lk 8:10. Php 2:15. 1Ti 3:14. Rv 1:12, 13, 16; 2:1, 8, 12, 18; 3:1, 7, 14.

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