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Psalms 99:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Jehovah reigneth; let the peoples tremble: He sitteth [above] the cherubim; let the earth be moved.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The LORD reigneth; let the people tremble: he sitteth [between] the cherubims; let the earth be moved.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— The LORD reigns, let the peoples tremble; He is enthroned [above] the cherubim, let the earth shake!
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The LORD reigneth; let the people tremble: he setteth [between] the cherubim; let the earth be moved.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Jehovah reigneth: let the peoples tremble. He sitteth [between the] cherubim: let the earth be moved.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Yahweh, hath become king, Let the peoples, tremble, He is enthroned on the cherubim, Let the earth, shake.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Jehovah hath reigned, peoples tremble, The Inhabitant of the cherubs, the earth shaketh.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— A psalm for David himself. The Lord hath reigned, let the people be angry: he that sitteth on the cherubims: let the earth be moved.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The LORD raigneth, let the people tremble: he sitteth [betweene] the Cherubims, let the earth bee mooued.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[A Psalm of David.]] The Lord reigns;-- let the people rage; [it is he] that sits upon the cherubs, let the earth be moved.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Yahweh reigneth; let the people tremble: he sitteth [between] the cherubims; let the earth be moved.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
reigneth; 4427
{4427} Prime
A primitive root; to reign; inceptively to ascend the throne; causatively to induct into royalty; hence (by implication) to take counsel.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
let the people 5971
{5971} Prime
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
tremble: 7264
{7264} Prime
A primitive root; to quiver (with any violent emotion, especially anger or fear).
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
he sitteth 3427
{3427} Prime
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
[between] the cherubims; 3742
{3742} Prime
Of uncertain derivation; a cherub or imaginary figure.
let the earth 776
{0776} Prime
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
be moved. 5120
{5120} Prime
To quake.
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 99:1

_ _ Psalms 99:1-9. God’s government is especially exercised in and for His Church, which should praise Him for His gracious dealings.

_ _ sitteth ... cherubim — (compare 1 Samuel 4:4; Psalms 80:1).

_ _ tremble ... be moved — inspired with fear by His judgments on the wicked.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 99:1-5

_ _ The foundation of all religion is laid in this truth, That the Lord reigns. God governs the world by his providence, governs the church by his grace, and both by his Son. We are to believe not only that the Lord lives, but that the Lord reigns. This is the triumph of the Christian church, and here it was the triumph of the Jewish church, that Jehovah was their King; and hence it is inferred, Let the people tremble, that is, 1. Let even the subjects of this kingdom tremble; for the Old Testament dispensation had much of terror in it. At Mount Sinai Israel, and even Moses himself, did exceedingly fear and quake; and then God was terrible in his holy places. Even when he appeared in his people's behalf, he did terrible things. But we are not now come to that mount that burned with fire, Hebrews 12:18. Now that the Lord reigns let the earth rejoice. Then he ruled more by the power of holy fear; now he rules by the power of holy love. 2. Much more let the enemies of this kingdom tremble; for he will either bring them into obedience to his golden sceptre or crush them with his iron rod. The Lord reigns, though the people be stirred with indignation at it; though they fret away all their spirits, their rage is all in vain. He will set his King upon his holy hill of Zion in spite of them (Psalms 2:1-6); first, or last, he will make them tremble, Revelation 6:15, etc. The Lord reigns, let the earth be moved. Those that submit to him shall be established, and not moved (Psalms 96:10); but those that oppose him will be moved. Heaven and earth shall be shaken, and all nations; but the kingdom of Christ is what cannot be moved; the things which cannot be shaken shall remain, Hebrews 12:27. In these is continuance, Isaiah 64:5.

_ _ God's kingdom, set up in Israel, is here made the subject of the psalmist's praise.

_ _ I. Two things the psalmist affirms: — 1. God presided in the affairs of religion: He sitteth between the cherubim (Psalms 99:1), as on his throne, to give law by the oracles thence delivered — as on the mercy-seat, to receive petitions. This was the honour of Israel, that they had among them the Shechinah, or special presence of God, attended by the holy angels; the temple was the royal palace, and the Holy of holies was the presence-chamber. The Lord is great in Zion (Psalms 99:2); there he is known and praised (Psalms 76:1, Psalms 76:2); there he is served as great, more than any where else. He is high there above all people; as that which is high is exposed to view, and looked up to, so in Zion the perfections of the divine nature appear more conspicuous and more illustrious than any where else. Therefore let those that dwell in Zion, and worship there, praise thy great and terrible name, and give thee the glory due unto it, for it is holy. The holiness of God's name makes it truly great to his friends and terrible to his enemies, Psalms 99:3. This is that which those above adore — Holy, holy, holy. 2. He was all in all in their civil government, Psalms 99:4. As in Jerusalem was the testimony of Israel, whither the tribes went up, so there were set thrones of judgment, Psalms 122:4, Psalms 122:5. Their government was a theocracy. God raised up David to rule over them (and some think this psalm was penned upon occasion of his quiet and happy settlement in the throne) and he is the king whose strength loves judgment. He is strong; all his strength he has from God; and his strength is not abused for the support of any wrong, as the power of great princes often is, but it loves judgment. He does justice with his power, and does it with delight; and herein he was a type of Christ, to whom God would give the throne of his father David, to do judgment and justice. He has power to crush, but his strength loves judgment; he does not rule with rigour, but with moderation, with wisdom, and with tenderness. The people of Israel had a good king; but they are here taught to look up to God as he by whom their king reigns: Thou dost establish equity (that is, God gave them those excellent laws by which they were governed), and thou executest judgment and righteousness in Jacob; he not only by his immediate providences often executed and enforced his own laws, but took care for the administration of justice among them by civil magistrates, who reigned by him and by him did decree justice. Their judges judged for God, and their judgment was his, 2 Chronicles 19:6.

_ _ II. Putting these two things together, we see what was the happiness of Israel above any other people, as Moses had described it (Deuteronomy 4:7, Deuteronomy 4:8), that they had God so night unto them, sitting between the cherubim, and that they had statutes and judgments so righteous, by which equity was established, and God himself ruled in Jacob, from which he infers this command to that happy people (Psalms 99:5): “Exalt you the Lord our God, and worship at his footstool; give him the glory of the good government you are under, as it is now established, both in church and state.” Note, 1. The greater the public mercies are which we have a share in the more we are obliged to bear a part in the public homage paid to God: the setting up of the kingdom of Christ, especially, ought to be the matter of our praise. 2. When we draw night to God, to worship him, our hearts must be filled with high thoughts of him, and he must be exalted in our souls. 3. The more we abase ourselves, and the more prostrate we are before God, the more we exalt him. We must worship at his footstool, at his ark, which was as the footstool to the mercy-seat between the cherubim; or we must cast ourselves down upon the pavement of his courts; and good reason we have to be thus reverent, for he is holy, and his holiness should strike an awe upon us, as it does on the angels themselves, Isaiah 6:2, Isaiah 6:3.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Psalms 99:1

People — Such as are enemies to God and his people. Sitteth — Upon the ark. He is present with his people. Earth — The people of the earth. Moved — With fear and trembling.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 99:1

The LORD reigneth; let the (a) people tremble: he sitteth [between] the cherubims; let the earth be moved.

(a) When God delivers his Church all the enemies will have reason to tremble.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Psalms 2:6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.
Psalms 93:1 The LORD reigneth, he is clothed with majesty; the LORD is clothed with strength, [wherewith] he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Psalms 96:10 Say among the heathen [that] the LORD reigneth: the world also shall be established that it shall not be moved: he shall judge the people righteously.
Psalms 97:1 The LORD reigneth; let the earth rejoice; let the multitude of isles be glad [thereof].
Luke 19:12 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return.
Luke 19:14 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this [man] to reign over us.
Revelation 11:17 Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.


Psalms 2:11-12 Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling. ... Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish [from] the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed [are] all they that put their trust in him.
Psalms 21:8-9 Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies: thy right hand shall find out those that hate thee. ... Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the LORD shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them.
Psalms 97:4 His lightnings enlightened the world: the earth saw, and trembled.
Luke 19:27 But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay [them] before me.
Philippians 2:12 Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.

he sitteth:

Psalms 18:10 And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind.
Psalms 80:1 [[To the chief Musician upon Shoshannimeduth, A Psalm of Asaph.]] Give ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest [between] the cherubims, shine forth.
Exodus 25:22 And there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubims which [are] upon the ark of the testimony, of all [things] which I will give thee in commandment unto the children of Israel.
Ezekiel 10:1-22 Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne. ... And the likeness of their faces [was] the same faces which I saw by the river of Chebar, their appearances and themselves: they went every one straight forward.


Psalms 82:5 They know not, neither will they understand; they walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth are out of course.
Jeremiah 4:24 I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they trembled, and all the hills moved lightly.
Jeremiah 5:22 Fear ye not me? saith the LORD: will ye not tremble at my presence, which have placed the sand [for] the bound of the sea by a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass it: and though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; though they roar, yet can they not pass over it?
Jeremiah 49:21 The earth is moved at the noise of their fall, at the cry the noise thereof was heard in the Red sea.
Jeremiah 50:46 At the noise of the taking of Babylon the earth is moved, and the cry is heard among the nations.
Revelation 6:14 And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.
Revelation 20:11 And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.

be moved:
Heb. stagger,
Isaiah 19:14 The LORD hath mingled a perverse spirit in the midst thereof: and they have caused Egypt to err in every work thereof, as a drunken [man] staggereth in his vomit.
Isaiah 24:19-20 The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly. ... The earth shall reel to and fro like a drunkard, and shall be removed like a cottage; and the transgression thereof shall be heavy upon it; and it shall fall, and not rise again.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 25:22. Ps 2:6, 11; 18:10; 21:8; 80:1; 82:5; 93:1; 96:10; 97:1, 4. Is 19:14; 24:19. Jr 4:24; 5:22; 49:21; 50:46. Ezk 10:1. Lk 19:12, 14, 27. Php 2:12. Rv 6:14; 11:17; 20:11.

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