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Psalms 59:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— [[For the Chief Musician; [set to] Al-tashheth. [A Psalm] of David. Michtam; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: Set me on high from them that rise up against me.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [[To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [[For the choir director; [set to] Al-tashheth. A Mikhtam of David, when Saul sent [men] and they watched the house in order to kill him.]] Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; Set me [securely] on high away from those who rise up against me.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [[To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from my enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [[To the chief Musician. 'Destroy not.' Of David. Michtam; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God; secure me on high from them that rise up against me.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [[To the Chief Musician. "Do not Destroy." A precious Psalm of David. When Saul sent, and they watched the house, to kill him.]] Rescue me from my foes, O my God, From them who lift themselves up against me, wilt thou set me on high:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— To the Overseer.—'Destroy not,' by David.—A secret treasure, in Saul's sending, and they watch the house to put him to death. Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God, From my withstanders set me on high.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Unto the end, destroy not, for David for an inscription of a title, when Saul sent and watched his house to kill him. [1 Samuel 19] Deliver me from my enemies, O my God; and defend me from them that rise up against me.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [[To the chiefe musician Al-taschith, Michtam of Dauid: when Saul sent, and they watcht the house to kill him.]] Deliuer me from mine enemies, O my God: defend mee from them that rise vp against me.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[For the end. Destroy not: by David for a memorial, when Saul sent, and watched his house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O God; and ransom me from those that rise up against me.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [[To the chief Musician, Al Tashcheth, Mikhtam of Dawid; when Shaul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O my Elohim: defend me from them that rise up against me.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[[To the chief Musician, 5329
{5329} Prime
נָצַח
natsach
{naw-tsakh'}
A primitive root; properly to glitter from afar, that is, to be eminent (as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music); also (as denominative from H5331), to be permanent.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
Al Ta אַל־תַּשׁחֵת, 516
{0516} Prime
אַל־תַּשְׁחֵת
'Al tashcheth
{al tash-kayth'}
From H0408 and H7843; Thou must not destroy; probably the opening words of a popular song.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
Mitm מִכתָּם 4387
{4387} Prime
מִכְתָּם
miktam
{mik-tawm'}
From H3799; an engraving, that is, (technically) a poem.
of Dwi דָּוִד; 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
when l שָׁאוּל 7586
{7586} Prime
שָׁאוּל
Sha'uwl
{shaw-ool'}
Passive participle of H7592; asked; Shaul, the name of an Edomite and two Israelites.
sent, 7971
{7971} Prime
שָׁלַח
shalach
{shaw-lakh'}
A primitive root; to send away, for, or out (in a great variety of applications).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
and they watched 8104
{8104} Prime
שָׁמַר
shamar
{shaw-mar'}
A primitive root; properly to hedge about (as with thorns), that is, guard; generally to protect, attend to, etc.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the house 1004
{1004} Prime
בַּיִת
bayith
{bah'-yith}
Probably from H1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest variation of applications, especially family, etc.).
to kill x4191
(4191) Complement
מָמוֹת
muwth
{mooth}
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
him.]] y4191
[4191] Standard
מָמוֹת
muwth
{mooth}
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
Deliver 5337
{5337} Prime
נָצַל
natsal
{naw-tsal'}
A primitive root; to snatch away, whether in a good or a bad sense.
z8685
<8685> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 731
me from mine enemies, 341
{0341} Prime
אֹיֵב
'oyeb
{o-yabe'}
Active participle of H0340; hating; an adversary.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
O my lhm אֱלֹהִים: 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
defend 7682
{7682} Prime
שָׂגַב
sagab
{saw-gab'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively make) lofty, especially inaccessible; by implication safe, strong; used literally and figuratively.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
me from them that rise up y6965
[6965] Standard
קוּם
quwm
{koom}
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
z8693
<8693> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 139
against x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x6965
(6965) Complement
קוּם
quwm
{koom}
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
me.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 59:1

_ _ Psalms 59:1-17. See on Psalms 57:1, title, and for history, 1 Samuel 19:11, etc. The scope is very similar to that of the fifty-seventh: prayer in view of malicious and violent foes, and joy in prospect of relief.

_ _ defend me — (Compare Margin).

_ _ rise up ... me — (Compare Psalms 17:7).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 59:1-7

_ _ The title of this psalm acquaints us particularly with the occasion on which it was penned; it was when Saul sent a party of his guards to beset David's house in the night, that they might seize him and kill him; we have the story 1 Samuel 19:11. It was when his hostilities against David were newly begun, and he had but just before narrowly escaped Saul's javelin. These first eruptions of Saul's malice could not but put David into disorder and be both grievous and terrifying, and yet he kept up his communion with God, and such a composure of mind as that he was never out of frame for prayer and praises; happy are those whose intercourse with heaven is not intercepted nor broken in upon by their cares, or griefs, or fears, or any of the hurries (whether outward or inward) of an afflicted state. In these verses,

_ _ I. David prays to be delivered out of the hands of his enemies, and that their cruel designs against him might be defeated (Psalms 59:1, Psalms 59:2): “Deliver me from my enemies, O my God! thou art God, and cast deliver me, my God, under whose protection I have put myself; and thou hast promised me to be a God all-sufficient, and therefore, in honour and faithfulness, thou wilt deliver me. Set me on high out of the reach of the power and malice of those that rise up against me, and above the fear of it. Let me be safe, and see myself so, safe and easy, safe and satisfied. O deliver me! and save me.” He cries out as one ready to perish, and that had his eye to God only for salvation and deliverance. He prays (Psalms 59:4), “Awake to help me, take cognizance of my case, behold that with an eye of pity, and exert thy power for my relief.” Thus the disciples, in the storm, awoke Christ, saying, Master, save us, we perish. And thus earnestly should we pray daily to be defended and delivered form our spiritual enemies, the temptations of Satan, and the corruptions of our own hearts, which war against our spiritual life.

_ _ II. He pleads for deliverance. Our God gives us leave not only to pray, but to plead with him, to order our cause before him and to fill our mouth with arguments, not to move him, but to move ourselves. David does so here.

_ _ 1. He pleads the bad character of his enemies. They are workers of iniquity, and therefore not only his enemies, but God's enemies; they are bloody men, and therefore not only his enemies, but enemies to all mankind. “Lord, let not the workers of iniquity prevail against one that is a worker of righteousness, nor bloody men against a merciful man.”

_ _ 2. He pleads their malice against him, and the imminent danger he was in from them, Psalms 59:3. “Their spite is great; they aim at my soul, my life, my better part. They are subtle and very politic: They lie in wait, taking an opportunity to do me a mischief. They are all mighty, men of honour and estates, and interest in court and country. They are in a confederacy; they are united by league, and actually gathered together against me, combined both in consultation and action. They are very ingenious in their contrivances, and very industrious in the prosecution of them (Psalms 59:4): They run and prepare themselves, with the utmost speed and fury, to do me a mischief.” He takes particular notice of the brutish conduct of the messengers that Saul sent to take him (Psalms 59:6): “They return at evening from the posts assigned them in the day, to apply themselves to their works of darkness (their night-work, which may well be their day-shame), and then they make a noise like a hound in pursuit of the hare.” Thus did David's enemies, when they came to take him, raise an out cry against him as a rebel, and traitor, a man not fit to live; with this clamour they went round about the city, to bring a bad reputation upon David, if possible to set the mob against him, at least to prevent their being incensed against them, which otherwise they had reason to fear they would be, so much was David their darling. Thus the persecutors of our Lord Jesus, who are compared to dogs (Psalms 22:16), ran him down with noise; for else they could not have taken him, at least no on the feast-day, for there would have been an uproar among the people. They belch out with their mouth the malice that boils in their hearts, Psalms 59:7. Swords are in their lips; that is, reproaches that would my heart with grief (Psalms 42:10), and slanders that stab and wound my reputation. They were continually suggesting that which drew and whetted Saul's sword against him, and the fault is laid upon the false accusers. The sword perhaps would not have been in Saul's hand if it had not been first in their lips.

_ _ 3. He pleads his own innocency, not as to God (he was never backward to own himself guilty before him), but as to his persecutors;. what they charged him with was utterly false, nor had he ever said or done any thing to deserve such treatment from them (Psalms 59:3): “Not for my transgression, nor for my sin, O Lord! thou knowest, who knowest all things.” And again (Psalms 59:4), without my fault. Note, (1.) The innocency of the godly will not secure them from the malignity of the wicked. Those that are harmless like doves, yet, for Christ's sake, are hated of all men, as if they were noxious like serpents, and obnoxious accordingly. (2.) Though our innocency will not secure us from troubles, yet it will greatly support and comfort us under our troubles. The testimony of our conscience for us that we have behaved ourselves well towards those that behave themselves ill towards us will be very much our rejoicing in the day of evil. (3.) If we are conscious to ourselves of our innocency, we may with humble confidence appeal to God and beg of him to plead our injured cause, which he will do in due time.

_ _ 4. He pleads that his enemies were profane and atheistical, and bolstered themselves up in their enmity to David, with the contempt of God: For who, say they, doth hear? Psalms 59:7. Not God himself, Psalms 10:11; Psalms 94:7. Note, It is not strange if those regard not what they say who have made themselves believe the God regards not what they say.

_ _ III. He refers himself and his cause to the just judgment of God, Psalms 59:5. “The Lord, the Judge, be Judge between me and my persecutors.” In this appeal to God he has an eye to him as the Lord of hosts, that has power to execute judgment, having all creatures, even hosts of angels, at his command; he views him also as the God of Israel, to whom he was, in a peculiar manner, King and Judge, not doubting that he would appear on the behalf of those that were upright, that were Israelites indeed. When Saul's hosts persecuted him, he had recourse to God as the Lord of all hosts; when those maligned him who in spirit were strangers to the commonwealth of Israel he had recourse to God as the God of Israel. He desires (that is, he is very sure) that God will awake to visit all the nations, will make an early and exact enquiry into the controversies and quarrels that are among the children of men; there will be a day of visitation (Isaiah 10:3), and to that day David refers himself, with this solemn appeal, Be not merciful to any wicked transgressors. SelahMark that. 1. If David had been conscious to himself that he was a wicked transgressor, he would not have expected to find mercy; but, as to his enemies, he would say he was no transgressor at all (Psalms 59:3, Psalms 59:4): “Not for my transgression, and therefore thou wilt appear for me.” As to God, he could say he was no wicked transgressor; for, though he had transgressed, he was a penitent transgressor, and did not obstinately persist in what he had done amiss. 2. He knew his enemies were wicked transgressors, wilful, malicious, and hardened in their transgressions both against God and man, and therefore he sues for justice against them, judgment without mercy. Let not those expect to find mercy who never showed mercy, for such are wicked transgressors.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 59:1

"To the chief Musician, Altaschith, (a) Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him." (b) Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.

(a) Or, a certain tune.

(b) Though his enemies were even at hand to destroy him, yet he assures himself that God had ways to deliver him.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Michtam:
The seven poems of the celebrated Arabian poets who flourished before the time of Mohammed, called Moallakat, from being suspended on the walls of the temple of Mecca, were also called Modhabat, "golden," because they were written in letters of gold on the papyrus; and probably this is another reason why the six poems of David were called golden.

when:

Judges 16:2-3 [And it was told] the Gazites, saying, Samson is come hither. And they compassed [him] in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city, and were quiet all the night, saying, In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him. ... And Samson lay till midnight, and arose at midnight, and took the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, bar and all, and put [them] upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of an hill that [is] before Hebron.
1 Samuel 19:11-24 Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain. ... And he stripped off his clothes also, and prophesied before Samuel in like manner, and lay down naked all that day and all that night. Wherefore they say, [Is] Saul also among the prophets?
2 Corinthians 11:32-33 In Damascus the governor under Aretas the king kept the city of the Damascenes with a garrison, desirous to apprehend me: ... And through a window in a basket was I let down by the wall, and escaped his hands.

Deliver:

Psalms 7:1-2 [[Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.]] O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me: ... Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending [it] in pieces, while [there is] none to deliver.
Psalms 18:48 He delivereth me from mine enemies: yea, thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me: thou hast delivered me from the violent man.
Psalms 71:4 Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel man.
Psalms 143:12 And of thy mercy cut off mine enemies, and destroy all them that afflict my soul: for I [am] thy servant.
Luke 1:74-75 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, ... In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.
2 Timothy 4:17-18 Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and [that] all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. ... And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve [me] unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom [be] glory for ever and ever. Amen.

defend me:
Heb. set me on high,
Psalms 12:5 For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, saith the LORD; I will set [him] in safety [from him that] puffeth at him.
Psalms 91:14 Because he hath set his love upon me, therefore will I deliver him: I will set him on high, because he hath known my name.
Isaiah 33:16 He shall dwell on high: his place of defence [shall be] the munitions of rocks: bread shall be given him; his waters [shall be] sure.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Jg 16:2. 1S 19:11. Ps 7:1; 12:5; 18:48; 71:4; 91:14; 143:12. Is 33:16. Lk 1:74. 2Co 11:32. 2Ti 4:17.

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