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Psalms 42:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— [[For the Chief Musician. Maschil of the sons of Korah.]] As the hart panteth after the water brooks, So panteth my soul after thee, O God.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [[To the chief Musician, Maschil, for the sons of Korah.]] As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [[For the choir director. A Maskil of the sons of Korah.]] As the deer pants for the water brooks, So my soul pants for You, O God.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [[To the chief Musician, Maschil, for the sons of Korah.]] As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so my soul panteth after thee, O God.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [[To the chief Musician. An instruction; of the sons of Korah.]] As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [[BOOK THE SECOND]] [[To the Chief Musician. An Instructive Psalm for the Sons of Korah.]] As, the hart, cometh panting up to the channels of water, So my soul, panteth for thee, O God.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— To the Overseer.—An Instruction. By sons of Korah. As a hart doth pant for streams of water, So my soul panteth toward Thee, O God.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Unto the end, understanding for the sons of Core. As the hart panteth after the fountains of water; so my soul panteth after thee, O God.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [[To the chiefe Musician, Maschil, for the sonnes of Korah.]] As the Hart panteth after the water brookes, so panteth my soule after thee, O God.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[For the end, [a Psalm] for instruction, for the sons of Korah{gr.Core}.]] As the hart earnestly desires the fountains of water, so my soul earnestly longs for thee, O God.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [[To the chief Musician, Maskil, for the sons of Qorach.]] As the hart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O Elohim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[[To the chief Musician, 5329
{5329} Prime
נָצַח
natsach
{naw-tsakh'}
A primitive root; properly to glitter from afar, that is, to be eminent (as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music); also (as denominative from H5331), to be permanent.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
Ma$cl מַשׂכִּיל, 4905
{4905} Prime
מַשְׂכִּיל
maskiyl
{mas-keel'}
From H7919; instructive, that is, a didactic poem.
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
for the sons 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Kra קֹרַח.]] 7141
{7141} Prime
קֹרַח
Qorach
{ko'-rakh}
From H7139; ice; Korach, the name of two Edomites and three Israelites.
As the hart 354
{0354} Prime
אַיָּל
'ayal
{ah-yawl'}
An intensive form of H0352 (in the sense of ram); a stag or male deer.
panteth 6165
{6165} Prime
עָרַג
`arag
{aw-rag'}
A primitive root; to long for.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
after x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
the water 4325
{4325} Prime
מַיִם
mayim
{mah'-yim}
Dual of a primitive noun (but used in a singular sense); water; figuratively juice; by euphemism urine, semen.
brooks, 650
{0650} Prime
אָפִיק
'aphiyq
{aw-feek'}
From H0622; properly containing, that is, a tube; also a bed or valley of a stream; also a strong thing or a hero.
so x3651
(3651) Complement
כֵּן
ken
{kane}
From H3559; properly set upright; hence (figuratively as adjective) just; but usually (as adverb or conjugation) rightly or so (in various applications to manner, time and relation; often with other particles).
panteth 6165
{6165} Prime
עָרַג
`arag
{aw-rag'}
A primitive root; to long for.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
my soul 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
after x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
thee, O lhm אֱלֹהִים. 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 42:1-2

_ _ Psalms 42:1-11. Maschil — (See on Psalms 32:1, title). For, or of (see on Introduction) the sons of Korah. The writer, perhaps one of this Levitical family of singers accompanying David in exile, mourns his absence from the sanctuary, a cause of grief aggravated by the taunts of enemies, and is comforted in hopes of relief. This course of thought is repeated with some variety of detail, but closing with the same refrain.

_ _ Compare (Psalms 63:1).

_ _ panteth — desires in a state of exhaustion.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 42:1-5

_ _ Holy love to God as the chief good and our felicity is the power of godliness, the very life and soul of religion, without which all external professions and performances are but a shell and carcase: now here we have some of the expressions of that love. Here is,

_ _ I. Holy love thirsting, love upon the wing, soaring upwards in holy desires towards the Lord and towards the remembrance of his name (Psalms 42:1, Psalms 42:2): “My soul panteth, thirsteth, for God, for nothing more than God, but still for more and more of him.” Now observe,

_ _ 1. When it was that David thus expressed his vehement desire towards God. It was, (1.) When he was debarred from his outward opportunities of waiting on God, when he was banished to the land of Jordan, a great way off from the courts of God's house. Note, Sometimes God teaches us effectually to know the worth of mercies by the want of them, and whets our appetite for the means of grace by cutting us short in those means. We are apt to loathe that manna, when we have plenty of it, which will be very precious to us if ever we come to know the scarcity of it. (2.) When he was deprived, in a great measure, of the inward comfort he used to have in God. He now went mourning, but he went on panting. Note, If God, by his grace, has wrought in us sincere and earnest desires towards him, we may take comfort from these when we want those ravishing delights we have sometimes had in God, because lamenting after God is as sure an evidence that we love him as rejoicing in God. Before the psalmist records his doubts, and fears, and griefs, which had sorely shaken him, he premises this, That he looked upon the living God as his chief good, and had set his heart upon him accordingly, and was resolved to live and die by him; and, casting anchor thus at first, he rides out the storm.

_ _ 2. What is the object of his desire and what it is he thus thirsts after. (1.) He pants after God, he thirsts for God, not the ordinances themselves, but the God of the ordinances. A gracious soul can take little satisfaction in God's courts if it do not meet with God himself there: “O that I knew where I might find him! that I might have more of the tokens of his favour, the graces and comforts of his Spirit, and the earnests of his glory.” (2.) He has, herein, an eye to God as the living God, that has life in himself, and is the fountain of life and all happiness to those that are his, the living God, not only in opposition to dead idols, the works of men's hands, but to all the dying comforts of this world, which perish in the using. Living souls can never take up their rest any where short of a living God. (3.) He longs to come and appear before God, — to make himself known to him, as being conscious to himself of his own sincerity, — to attend on him, as a servant appears before his master, to pay his respects to him and receive his commands, — to give an account to him, as one from whom our judgment proceeds. To appear before God is as much the desire of the upright as it is the dread of the hypocrite. The psalmist knew he could not come into God's courts without incurring expense, for so was the law, that none should appear before God empty; yet he longs to come, and will not grudge the charges.

_ _ 3. What is the degree of this desire. It is very importunate; it is his soul that pants, his soul that thirsts, which denotes not only the sincerity, but the strength, of his desire. His longing for the water of the well of Bethlehem was nothing to this. He compares it to the panting of a hart, or deer, which is naturally hot and dry, especially of a hunted buck, after the water-brooks. Thus earnestly does a gracious soul desire communion with God, thus impatient is it in the want of that communion, so impossible does it find it to be satisfied with any thing short of that communion, and so insatiable is it in taking the pleasures of that communion when the opportunity of it returns, still thirsting after the full enjoyment of him in the heavenly kingdom.

_ _ II. Holy love mourning for God's present withdrawings and the want of the benefit of solemn ordinances (Psalms 42:3): “My tears have been my meat day and night during this forced absence from God's house.” His circumstances were sorrowful, and he accommodated himself to them, received the impressions and returned the signs of sorrow. Even the royal prophet was a weeping prophet when he wanted the comforts of God's house. His tears were mingled with his meat; nay, they were his meat day and night; he fed, he feasted, upon his own tears, when there was such just cause for them; and it was a satisfaction to him that he found his heart so much affected with a grievance of this nature. Observe, He did not think it enough to shed a tear or two at parting from the sanctuary, to weep a farewell-prayer when he took his leave, but, as long as he continued under a forced absence from that place of his delight, he never looked up, but wept day and night. Note, Those that are deprived of the benefit of public ordinances constantly miss them, and therefore should constantly mourn for the want of them, till they are restored to them again. Two things aggravated his grief: —

_ _ 1. The reproaches with which his enemies teased him: They continually say unto me, Where is thy God? (1.) Because he was absent from the ark, the token of God's presence. Judging of the God of Israel by the gods of the heathen, they concluded he had lost his God. Note, Those are mistaken who think that when they have robbed us of our Bibles, and our ministers, and our solemn assemblies, they have robbed us of our God; for, though God has tied us to them when they are to be had, he has not tied himself to them. We know where our God is, and where to find him, when we know not where his ark is, nor where to find that. Wherever we are there is a way open heaven-ward. (2.) Because God did not immediately appear for his deliverance they concluded that he had abandoned him; but herein also they were deceived: it does not follow that the saints have lost their God because they have lost all their other friends. However, by this base reflection on God and his people, they added affliction to the afflicted, and that was what they aimed at. Nothing is more grievous to a gracious soul than that which is intended to shake its hope and confidence in God.

_ _ 2. The remembrance of his former liberties and enjoyments, Psalms 42:4. Son, remember thy good things, is a great aggravation of evil things, so much do our powers of reflection and anticipation add to the grievance of this present time. David remembered the days of old, and then his soul was poured out in him; he melted away, and the thought almost broke his heart. he poured out his soul within him in sorrow, and then poured out his soul before God in prayer. But what was it that occasioned this painful melting of spirit? It was not the remembrance of the pleasures at court, or the entertainments of his own house, from which he was now banished, that afflicted him, but the remembrance of the free access he had formerly had to God's house and the pleasure he had in attending the sacred solemnities there. (1.) He went to the house of God, though in his time it was but a tent; nay, if this psalm was penned, as many think it was, at the time of his being persecuted by Saul, the ark was then in a private house, 2 Samuel 6:3. But the meanness, obscurity, and inconveniency of the place did not lessen his esteem of that sacred symbol of the divine presence. David was a courtier, a prince, a man of honour, a man of business, and yet very diligent in attending God's house and joining in public ordinances, even in the days of Saul, when he and his great men enquired not at it, 1 Chronicles 13:3. Whatever others did, David and his house would serve the Lord. (2.) He went with the multitude, and thought it no disparagement to his dignity to be at the head of a crowd in attending upon God. Nay, this added to the pleasure of it, that he was accompanied with a multitude, and therefore it is twice mentioned, as that which he greatly lamented the want of now. The more the better in the service of God; it is the more like heaven, and a sensible help to our comfort in the communion of saints. (3.) He went with the voice of joy and praise, not only with joy and praise in his heart, but with the outward expressions of it, proclaiming his joy and speaking forth the high praises of his God. Note, When we wait upon God in public ordinances we have reason to do it both with cheerfulness and thankfulness, to take to ourselves the comfort and give to God the glory of our liberty of access to him. (4.) He went to keep holy-days, not to keep them in vain mirth and recreation, but in religious exercises. Solemn days are spent most comfortably in solemn assemblies.

_ _ III. Holy love hoping (Psalms 42:5): Why art thou cast down, O my soul? His sorrow was upon a very good account, and yet it must not exceed its due limits, nor prevail to depress his spirits; he therefore communes with his own heart, for his relief. “Come, my soul, I have something to say to thee in thy heaviness.” Let us consider, 1. The cause of it. “Thou art cast down, as one stooping and sinking under a burden, Proverbs 12:25. Thou art disquieted, in confusion and disorder; now why are thou so?” This may be taken as an enquiring question: “Let the cause of this uneasiness be duly weighed, and see whether it be a just cause.” Our disquietudes would in many cases vanish before a strict scrutiny into the grounds and reasons of them. “Why am I cast down? Is there a cause, a real cause? Have not others more cause, that do not make so much ado? Have not we, at the same time, cause to be encouraged?” Or it may be taken as an expostulating question; those that commune much with their own hearts will often have occasion to chide them, as David here. “Why do I thus dishonour God by my melancholy dejections? Why do I discourage others and do so much injury to myself? Can I give a good account of this tumult?” 2. The cure of it: Hope thou in God, for I shall yet praise him. A believing confidence in God is a sovereign antidote against prevailing despondency and disquietude of spirit. And therefore, when we chide ourselves to hope in God; when the soul embraces itself it sinks; if it catch hold on the power and promise of God, it keeps the head above water. Hope in God, (1.) That he shall have glory from us: “I shall yet praise him; I shall experience such a change in my state that I shall not want matter for praise, and such a change in my spirit that I shall not want a heart for praise.” It is the greatest honour and happiness of a man, and the greatest desire and hope of every good man, to be unto God for a name and a praise. What is the crown of heaven's bliss but this, that there we shall be for ever praising God? And what is our support under our present woes but this, that we shall yet praise God, that they shall not prevent nor abate our endless hallelujahs? (2.) That we shall have comfort in him. We shall praise him for the help of his countenance, for his favour, the support we have by it and the satisfaction we have in it. Those that know how to value and improve the light of God's countenance will find in that a suitable, seasonable, and sufficient help, in the worst of times, and that which will furnish them with constant matter for praise. David's believing expectation of this kept him from sinking, nay, it kept him from drooping; his harp was a palliative cure of Saul's melancholy, but his hope was an effectual cure of his own.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Psalms 42:1

Panteth — After the enjoyment of thee in thy sanctuary.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 42:1

"To the chief Musician, Maschil, (a) for the sons of Korah." As the hart (b) panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God.

(a) As a treasure to be kept by them, who were of the number of the Levites.

(b) By these comparisons of the thirst and panting, he shows his fervent desire to serve God in his temple.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2983, bc 1021 (Title), Maschil, or a Psalm giving instruction, of the sons, etc. Or, "An instructive Psalm," or didactic ode, "for the sons of Korah." It is generally supposed to have been written by David when driven from Jerusalem and beyond Jordan, by Absalom's rebellion.

the sons:

Psalms 44:1 [[To the chief Musician for the sons of Korah, Maschil.]] We have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers have told us, [what] work thou didst in their days, in the times of old.
Psalms 45:1 [[To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of loves.]] My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue [is] the pen of a ready writer.
Psalms 46:1 [[To the chief Musician for the sons of Korah, A Song upon Alamoth.]] God [is] our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
Psalms 47:1 [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm for the sons of Korah.]] O clap your hands, all ye people; shout unto God with the voice of triumph.
Psalms 48:1 [[A Song [and] Psalm for the sons of Korah.]] Great [is] the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, [in] the mountain of his holiness.
Psalms 49:1 [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm for the sons of Korah.]] Hear this, all [ye] people; give ear, all [ye] inhabitants of the world:
Psalms 84:1 [[To the chief Musician upon Gittith, A Psalm for the sons of Korah.]] How amiable [are] thy tabernacles, O LORD of hosts!
Psalms 85:1 [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm for the sons of Korah.]] LORD, thou hast been favourable unto thy land: thou hast brought back the captivity of Jacob.
*titles
Numbers 16:1 Now Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, and Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took [men]:
Numbers 16:32 And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men that [appertained] unto Korah, and all [their] goods.
Numbers 26:11 Notwithstanding the children of Korah died not.
1 Chronicles 6:33-37 And these [are] they that waited with their children. Of the sons of the Kohathites: Heman a singer, the son of Joel, the son of Shemuel, ... The son of Tahath, the son of Assir, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah,
1 Chronicles 25:1-5 Moreover David and the captains of the host separated to the service of the sons of Asaph, and of Heman, and of Jeduthun, who should prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals: and the number of the workmen according to their service was: ... All these [were] the sons of Heman the king's seer in the words of God, to lift up the horn. And God gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters.

panteth:
Heb. brayeth

so panteth:

Psalms 63:1-2 [[A Psalm of David, when he was in the wilderness of Judah.]] O God, thou [art] my God; early will I seek thee: my soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for thee in a dry and thirsty land, where no water is; ... To see thy power and thy glory, so [as] I have seen thee in the sanctuary.
Psalms 84:2 My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for the courts of the LORD: my heart and my flesh crieth out for the living God.
Psalms 143:6-7 I stretch forth my hands unto thee: my soul [thirsteth] after thee, as a thirsty land. Selah. ... Hear me speedily, O LORD: my spirit faileth: hide not thy face from me, lest I be like unto them that go down into the pit.
Isaiah 26:8-9 Yea, in the way of thy judgments, O LORD, have we waited for thee; the desire of [our] soul [is] to thy name, and to the remembrance of thee. ... With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: for when thy judgments [are] in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.
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Nu 16:1, 32; 26:11. 1Ch 6:33; 25:1. Ps 44:1; 45:1; 46:1; 47:1; 48:1; 49:1; 63:1; 84:1, 2; 85:1; 143:6. Is 26:8.

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