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Psalms 3:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.]] Jehovah, how are mine adversaries increased! Many are they that rise up against me.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.]] LORD, how are they increased that trouble me! many [are] they that rise up against me.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.]] O LORD, how my adversaries have increased! Many are rising up against me.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.]] LORD, how are they multiplied that trouble me? many [are] they that rise up against me.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son.]] Jehovah, how many are they that trouble me, many they that rise up against me!
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [[A Melody of David, when he fled from before Absolom his son.]] Yahweh! how have mine adversaries multiplied, Multitudes, are rising against me;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— A Psalm of David, in his fleeing from the face of Absalom his son. Jehovah, how have my distresses multiplied! Many are rising up against me.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The psalm of David when he fled from the face of his son Absalom. Why, O Lord, are they multiplied that afflict me? many are they who rise up against me.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [[A Psalme of Dauid when he fled from Absalom his sonne.]] LORD, how are they increased that trouble mee? many are they that rise vp against me.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[A Psalm of David, when he fled from the presence of his son Absalom{gr.Abessalom}.]] O Lord, why are they that afflict me multiplied? many rise up against me.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [[A Psalm of Dawid, when he fled from Avshalom his son.]] Yahweh, how are they increased that trouble me! many [are] they that rise up against me.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[[A Psalm 4210
{4210} Prime
From H2167; properly instrumental music; by implication a poem set to notes.
of Dwi דָּוִד, 1732
{1732} Prime
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
when he fled 1272
{1272} Prime
A primitive root; to bolt, that is, figuratively to flee suddenly.
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
from 6440
{6440} Prime
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
(4480) Complement
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Avlm אַבשָׁלוֹם 53
{0053} Prime
From H0001 and H7965; father of peace (that is, friendly); Abshalom, a son of David; also (the fuller form) a later Israelite.
his son.]] 1121
{1121} Prime
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
how x4100
(4100) Complement
A primitive particle; properly interrogitive what? (including how?, why? and when?); but also exclamations like what! (including how!), or indefinitely what (including whatever, and even relatively that which); often used with prefixes in various adverbial or conjugational senses.
are they increased 7231
{7231} Prime
A primitive root; properly to cast together (compare H7241), that is, increase, especially in number; also (as denominative from H7233) to multiply by the myriad.
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
that trouble 6862
{6862} Prime
From H6887; narrow; (as a noun) a tight place (usually figuratively, that is, trouble); also a pebble (as in H6864); (transitively) an opponent (as crowding).
me! many 7227
{7227} Prime
By contraction from H7231; abundant (in quantity, size, age, number, rank, quality).
[are] they that rise up 6965
{6965} Prime
A primitive root; to rise (in various applications, literally, figuratively, intensively and causatively).
<8801> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 309
against x5921
(5921) Complement
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 3:1

_ _ Psalms 3:1-8. For the historical occasion mentioned, compare 2 Samuel 15:1-17:29. David, in the midst of great distress, with filial confidence, implores God’s aid, and, anticipating relief, offers praise.

_ _ Lord ... increased — The extent of the rebellion (2 Samuel 15:13) surprises and grieves him.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 3:1-3

_ _ The title of this psalm and many others is as a key hung ready at the door, to open it, and let us into the entertainments of it; when we know upon what occasion a psalm was penned we know the better how to expound it. This was composed, or at least the substance of it was meditated and digested in David's thought, and offered up to God, when he fled from Absalom his son, who formed a conspiracy against him, to take away, not his crown only, but his life; we have the story, 2 Sa. 15, etc. 1. David was now in great grief; when, in his flight, he went up the Mount of Olives, he wept greatly, with his head covered, and marching bare-foot; yet then he composed this comfortable psalm. He wept and prayed, wept and sung, wept and believed; this was sowing in tears. Is any afflicted? Let him pray; nay, let him sing psalms, let him sing this psalm. Is any afflicted with undutiful disobedient children? David was; and yet that did not hinder his joy in God, nor put him out of tune for holy songs. 2. He was now in great danger; the plot against him was laid deep, the party that sought his ruin was very formidable, and his own son at the head of them, so that his affairs seemed to be at the last extremity; yet then he kept hold of his interest in God and improved that. Perils and frights should drive us to God, not drive us from him. 3. He had now a great deal of provocation given him by those from whom he had reason to expect better things, from his son, whom he had been indulgent of, from his subjects, whom he had been so great a blessing to; this he could not but resent, and it was enough to break in upon any man's temper; yet he was so far from any indecent expressions of passion and indignation that he had calmness enough for those acts of devotion which require the greatest fixedness and freedom of thought. The sedateness of his mind was evinced by the Spirit's coming upon him; for the Spirit chooses to move upon the still waters. Let no unkindness, no, not of a child or a friend, ever be laid so much to heart as to disfit us for communion with God. 4. He was now suffering for his sin in the matter of Uriah; this was the evil which, for that sin, God threatened to raise up against him out of his own house (2 Samuel 12:11), which, no doubt, he observed, and took occasion thence to renew his repentance for it. Yet he did not therefore cast away his confidence in the divine power and goodness, nor despair of succour. Even our sorrow for sin must not hinder either our joy in God or our hope in God. 5. He seemed cowardly in fleeing from Absalom, and quitting his royal city, before he had had one struggle for it; and yet, by this psalm, it appears he was full of true courage arising from his faith in God. True Christian fortitude consists more in a gracious security and serenity of mind, in patiently bearing and patiently waiting, than in daring enterprises with sword in hand.

_ _ In these three verses he applies to God. Whither else should we go but to him when any thing grieves us or frightens us? David was now at a distance from his own closet, and from the courts of God's house, where he used to pray; and yet he could find a way open heaven-ward. Wherever we are we may have access to God, and may draw nigh to him whithersoever we are driven. David, in his flight, attends his God,

_ _ I. With a representation of his distress, Psalms 3:1, Psalms 3:2. He looks round, and as it were takes a view of his enemies' camp, or receives information of their designs against him, which he brings to God, not to his own council-board. Two things he complains of, concerning his enemies: — 1. That they were very many: Lord, how are they increased! beyond what they were at first, and beyond whatever he thought they would have been. Absalom's faction, like a snow-ball, strangely gathered in its motion. He speaks of it as one amazed, and well he might, that a people he had so many ways obliged should almost generally revolt from him, rebel against him, and choose for their head such a foolish and giddy young man as Absalom was. How slippery and deceitful are the many! And how little fidelity and constancy are to be found among men! David had had the hearts of his subjects as much as ever any king had, and yet now, of a sudden, he had lost them. As people must not trust too much to princes (Psalms 146:3), so princes must not build too much upon their interest in the people. Christ, the Son of David, had many enemies. When a great multitude came to seize him, when the crowd cried, Crucify him, Crucify him, how were those then increased that troubled him! Even good people must not think it strange if the stream be against them and the powers that threaten them grow more and more formidable. 2. That they were very malicious. They rose up against him; they aimed to trouble him; but that was not all: they said of his soul, There is no help for him in God. That is, (1.) They put a spiteful and invidious construction upon his troubles, as Job's friends did upon him, concluding that, because his servants and subjects forsook him thus and did not help him, God had deserted him and abandoned his cause, and he was therefore to be looked on, or rather to be looked off, as a hypocrite and a wicked man. (2.) They blasphemously reflected upon God as unable to relieve him: “His danger is so great that God himself cannot help him.” It is strange that so great unbelief should be found in any, especially in many, in Israel, as to think any party of men too strong for Omnipotence to deal with. (3.) They endeavoured to shake his confidence in God and drive him to despair of relief from him: “They have said it to my soul;” so it may be read; compare Psalms 11:1; Psalms 42:10. This grieved him worst of all, that they had so bad an opinion of him as to think it possible to take him off from that foundation. The mere temptation was a buffeting to him, a thorn in his flesh, nay, a sword in his bones. Note, A child of God startles at the very thought of despairing of help in God; you cannot vex him with any thing so much as if you offer to persuade him that there is no help for him in God. David comes to God, and tells him what his enemies said of him, as Hezekiah spread Rabshakeh's blasphemous letter before the Lord. “They say, There is no help for me in thee; but, Lord, if it be so, I am undone. They say to my soul, There is no salvation” (for so the word is) “for him in God; but, Lord, do thou say unto my soul, I am thy salvation (Psalms 35:3) and that shall satisfy me, and in due time silence them.” To this complaint he adds Selah, which occurs about seventy times in the book of Psalms. Some refer it to the music with which, in David's time, the psalms were sung; others to the sense, and that it is a note commanding a solemn pause. SelahMark that, or, “Stop there, and consider a little.” As here, they say, There is no help for him in God, Selah. “Take time for such a thought as this. Get thee behind me, Satan. The Lord rebuke thee! Away with such a vile suggestion!”

_ _ II. With a profession of his dependence upon God, Psalms 3:3. An active believer, the more he is beaten off from God, either by the rebukes of Providence or the reproaches of enemies, the faster hold he will take of him and the closer will he cleave to him; so David here, when his enemies said, There is no help for him in God, cries out with so much the more assurance, “But thou, O Lord! art a shield for me; let them say what they will, I am sure thou wilt never desert me, and I am resolved I will never distrust thee.” See what God is to his people, what he will be, what they have found him, what David found in him. 1. Safety: “Thou art a shield for me, a shield about me” (so some), “to secure me on all sides, since my enemies surrounded me.” Not only my shield (Genesis 15:1), which denotes an interest in the divine protection, but a shield for me, which denotes the present benefit and advantage of that protection. 2. Honour: Thou art my glory. Those whom God owns for his are not safe and easy, but really look great, and have true honour put upon them, far above that which the great ones of the earth are proud of. David was now in disgrace; the crown had fallen from his head; but he will not think the worse of himself while he has God for his glory, Isaiah 60:19. “Thou art my glory; thy glory I reckon mine” (so some); “this is what I aim at, and am ambitious of, whatever my lot is, and whatever becomes of my honour — that I may be to my God for a name and a praise.” 3. Joy and deliverance: “Thou art the lifter up of my head; thou wilt lift up my head out of my troubles, and restore me to my dignity again, in due time; or, at least, thou wilt lift up my head under my troubles, so that I shall not droop nor be discouraged, nor shall my spirits fail.” If, in the worst of times, God's people can lift up their heads with joy, knowing that all shall work for good to them, they will own it is God that is the lifter up of their head, that gives them both cause to rejoice and hearts to rejoice.

_ _ In singing this, and praying it over, we should possess ourselves with an apprehension of the danger we are in from the multitude and malice of our spiritual enemies, who seek the ruin of our souls by driving us from our God, and we should concern ourselves in the distresses and dangers of the church of God, which is every where spoken again, every where fought against; but, in reference to both, we should encourage ourselves in our God, who owns and protects and will in due time crown his own interest both in the world and in the hearts of his people.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 3:1

"A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son." LORD, how are they (a) increased that trouble me! many [are] they that rise up against me.

(a) This was a token of his stable faith, that for all his troubles he turned to God.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2983, bc 1021 (Title), Psalm, Mizmor, from the verb to cut, prune, sing, a poem cut into short sentences, divided into syllables, pruned from every redundancy, and thus adapted for singing.


2 Samuel 15:1-18:33 And it came to pass after this, that Absalom prepared him chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him. ... And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept: and as he went, thus he said, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!


2 Samuel 15:12 And Absalom sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David's counsellor, from his city, [even] from Giloh, while he offered sacrifices. And the conspiracy was strong; for the people increased continually with Absalom.
2 Samuel 16:15 And Absalom, and all the people the men of Israel, came to Jerusalem, and Ahithophel with him.
2 Samuel 17:11-13 Therefore I counsel that all Israel be generally gathered unto thee, from Dan even to Beersheba, as the sand that [is] by the sea for multitude; and that thou go to battle in thine own person. ... Moreover, if he be gotten into a city, then shall all Israel bring ropes to that city, and we will draw it into the river, until there be not one small stone found there.
Matthew 27:25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood [be] on us, and on our children.


Psalms 17:7 Shew thy marvellous lovingkindness, O thou that savest by thy right hand them which put their trust [in thee] from those that rise up [against them].
Matthew 10:21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against [their] parents, and cause them to be put to death.
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2S 15:1, 12; 16:15; 17:11. Ps 17:7. Mt 10:21; 27:25.

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