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Psalms 22:16 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— For dogs have compassed me: A company of evil-doers have inclosed me; They pierced my hands and my feet.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— For dogs have surrounded me; A band of evildoers has encompassed me; They pierced my hands and my feet.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— For dogs have encompassed me; an assembly of evil-doers have surrounded me: they pierced my hands and my feet.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— For dogs have surrounded me,—An assembly of evil doers, have encircled me, They have pierced my hands and my feet,
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And to the dust of death thou appointest me, For surrounded me have dogs, A company of evil doers have compassed me, Piercing my hands and my feet.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— For many dogs have encompassed me: the council of the malignant hath besieged me. They have dug my hands and feet.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— For dogges haue compassed me: the assembly of the wicked haue inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feete.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— For many dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked doers has beset me round: they pierced my hands and my feet.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
For x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
dogs 3611
{3611} Prime
כֶּלֶב
keleb
{keh'-leb}
From an unused root meaning to yelp, or else to attack; a dog; hence (by euphemism) a male prostitute.
have compassed 5437
{5437} Prime
סָבַב
cabab
{saw-bab'}
A primitive root; to revolve, surround or border; used in various applications, literally and figuratively.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
me: the assembly 5712
{5712} Prime
עֵדָה
`edah
{ay-daw'}
Feminine of H5707 in the original sense of fixture; a stated assemblage (specifically a concourse, or generally a family or crowd).
of the wicked 7489
{7489} Prime
רָעַע
ra`a`
{raw-ah'}
A primitive root; properly to spoil (literally by breaking to pieces); figuratively to make (or be) good for nothing, that is, bad (physically, socially or morally). (associate selves and show self friendly are by mistake for H7462.).
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
have inclosed 5362
{5362} Prime
נָקַף
naqaph
{naw-kaf'}
A primitive root; to strike with more or less violence (beat, fell, corrode); by implication (of attack) to knock together, that is, surround or circulate.
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
me: they pierced 738
{0738} Prime
אַרִי
'ariy
{ar-ee'}
From H0717 (in the sense of violence); a lion.
y3738
[3738] Standard
כָּרָה
karah
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root; properly to dig; figuratively to plot; generally to bore or open.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
z8675
<8675> Grammar
Kethiv Reading

Where the translators of the Authorised Version followed the qere reading rather than the kethiv.
my hands 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
and my feet. 7272
{7272} Prime
רֶגֶל
regel
{reh'-gel}
From H7270; a foot (as used in walking); by implication a step; by euphemism the pudenda.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 22:16

_ _ Evildoers are well described as dogs, which, in the East, herding together, wild and rapacious, are justly objects of great abhorrence. The last clause has been a subject of much discussion (involving questions as to the genuineness of the Hebrew word translated “pierce)” which cannot be made intelligible to the English reader. Though not quoted in the New Testament, the remarkable aptness of the description to the facts of the Savior's history, together with difficulties attending any other mode of explaining the clause in the Hebrew, justify an adherence to the terms of our version and their obvious meaning.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Psalms 22:11-21.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Psalms 22:16

Dogs — So he calls his enemies for their insatiable greediness, and implacable fierceness against him. Pierced — These words cannot with any probability be applied to David, but were properly and literally verified in Christ.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 22:16

For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me: they (k) pierced my hands and my feet.

(k) Thus David complained as though he were nailed by his enemies in both hands and feet, but this was accomplished in Christ.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
dogs:

Psalms 22:1 [[To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David.]] My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? [why art thou so] far from helping me, [and from] the words of my roaring?
*title
Psalms 22:20 Deliver my soul from the sword; my darling from the power of the dog.
Psalms 59:6 They return at evening: they make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city.
Psalms 59:14 And at evening let them return; [and] let them make a noise like a dog, and go round about the city.
Matthew 7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
Philippians 3:2 Beware of dogs, beware of evil workers, beware of the concision.
Revelation 22:15 For without [are] dogs, and sorcerers, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie.

compassed:

Luke 11:53-54 And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge [him] vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things: ... Laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him.

assembly:

Psalms 86:14 O God, the proud are risen against me, and the assemblies of violent [men] have sought after my soul; and have not set thee before them.
Jeremiah 12:6 For even thy brethren, and the house of thy father, even they have dealt treacherously with thee; yea, they have called a multitude after thee: believe them not, though they speak fair words unto thee.
Matthew 26:57 And they that had laid hold on Jesus led [him] away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled.
Mark 15:16-20 And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band. ... And when they had mocked him, they took off the purple from him, and put his own clothes on him, and led him out to crucify him.
Luke 22:63-71 And the men that held Jesus mocked him, and smote [him]. ... And they said, What need we any further witness? for we ourselves have heard of his own mouth.
Luke 23:4-5 Then said Pilate to the chief priests and [to] the people, I find no fault in this man. ... And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place.
Luke 23:10-11 And the chief priests and scribes stood and vehemently accused him. ... And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked [him], and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.
Luke 23:23 And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the chief priests prevailed.

they pierced:
The textual reading is kaari, "as a lion my hands and feet;" but several manuscripts, read karoo, and others karoo in the margin, which affords the reading adopted by our translators. So the LXX ωρυξαν χειρας μου και ποδας, so also the Vulgate, Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic; and as all the Evangelists so quote the passage, and apply it to the crucifixion of Christ, there seems scarcely the shadow of a doubt that this is the genuine reading; especially when it is considered, that the other contains no sense at all. The whole difference lies between ו, wav and י, yood, which might easily be mistaken for each other.
Zechariah 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for [his] only [son], and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for [his] firstborn.
Matthew 27:35 And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.
Mark 15:24 And when they had crucified him, they parted his garments, casting lots upon them, what every man should take.
Luke 23:33 And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
John 19:23 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also [his] coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.
John 19:37 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
John 20:25 The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.
John 20:27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust [it] into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ps 22:1, 20; 59:6, 14; 86:14. Jr 12:6. Zc 12:10. Mt 7:6; 26:57; 27:35. Mk 15:16, 24. Lk 11:53; 22:63; 23:4, 10, 23, 33. Jn 19:23, 37; 20:25, 27. Php 3:2. Rv 22:15.

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