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Psalms 140:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— [[For the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David.]] Deliver me, O Jehovah, from the evil man; Preserve me from the violent man:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.]] Deliver me, O LORD, from the evil man: preserve me from the violent man;
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— [[For the choir director. A Psalm of David.]] Rescue me, O LORD, from evil men; Preserve me from violent men
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.]] Deliver me, O LORD, from the evil man: preserve me from the violent man;
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— [[To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David.]] Free me, O Jehovah, from the evil man; preserve me from the violent man:
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— [[To the Chief Musician. A Melody of David.]] Rescue me, O Yahweh, from the men of mischief, From the men of violence, wilt thou preserve me:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— To the Overseer.—A Psalm of David. Deliver me, O Jehovah, from an evil man, From one of violence Thou keepest me.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Unto the end, a psalm of David. Deliver me, O Lord, from the evil man: rescue me from the unjust man.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— [[To the chiefe Musician, A Psalme of Dauid.]] Deliuer me, O LORD, from the euill man: preserue me from the violent man.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— [[For the end, a Psalm of David.]] Rescue me, O Lord, from the evil man; deliver me from the unjust man.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm of Dawid.]] Deliver me, O Yahweh, from the evil man: preserve me from the violent man;

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
[[To the chief Musician, 5329
{5329} Prime
נָצַח
natsach
{naw-tsakh'}
A primitive root; properly to glitter from afar, that is, to be eminent (as a superintendent, especially of the Temple services and its music); also (as denominative from H5331), to be permanent.
z8764
<8764> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 685
A Psalm 4210
{4210} Prime
מִזְמוֹר
mizmowr
{miz-more'}
From H2167; properly instrumental music; by implication a poem set to notes.
of Dwi דָּוִד.]] 1732
{1732} Prime
דָּוִד
David
{daw-veed'}
From the same as H1730; loving; David, the youngest son of Jesse.
Deliver 2502
{2502} Prime
חָלַץ
chalats
{khaw-lats'}
A primitive root; to pull off; hence (intensively) to strip, (reflexively) to depart; by implication to deliver, equip (for fight); present, strengthen.
z8761
<8761> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 446
me, O Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
from the evil 7451
{7451} Prime
רָע
ra`
{rah}
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
man: 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
preserve 5341
{5341} Prime
נָצַר
natsar
{naw-tsar'}
A primitive root; to guard, in a good sense (to protect, maintain, obey, etc.) or a bad one (to conceal, etc.).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
me from the violent 2555
{2555} Prime
חָמָס
chamac
{khaw-mawce'}
From H2554; violence; by implication wrong; by metonymy unjust gain.
man; 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Psalms 140:1

_ _ Psalms 140:1-13. The style of this Psalm resembles those of David in the former part of the book, presenting the usual complaint, prayer, and confident hope of relief.

_ _ evil man — Which of David’s enemies is meant is not important.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Psalms 140:1-7

_ _ In this, as in other things, David was a type of Christ, that he suffered before he reigned, was humbled before he was exalted, and that as there were many who loved and valued him, and sought to do him honour, so there were many who hated and envied him, and sought to do him mischief, as appears by these verses, where,

_ _ I. He gives a character of his enemies, and paints them out in their own colours, as dangerous men, whom he had reason to be afraid of, but wicked men, whom he had no reason to think the righteous God would countenance. There was one that seems to have been the ring-leader of them, whom he calls the evil man and the man of violences (Psalms 140:1, Psalms 140:4), probably he means Saul. The Chaldee paraphrast (Psalms 140:9) names both Doeg and Ahithophel; but between them there was a great distance of time. Violent men are evil men. But there were many besides this one who were confederate against David, who are here represented as the genuine offspring and seed of the serpent. For, 1. They are very subtle, crafty to do mischief; they have imagined it (Psalms 140:2), have laid the scheme with all the art and cunning imaginable. They have purposed and plotted to overthrow the goings of a good man (Psalms 140:4), to draw him into sin and trouble, to ruin him by blasting his reputation, crushing his interest, and taking away his life. For this purpose they have, like mighty hunters, hidden a snare, and spread a net, and set gins (Psalms 140:5), that their designs against him, being kept undiscovered, might be the more likely to take effect, and he might fall into their hands ere he was aware. Great persecutors have often been great politicians, which has indeed made them the more formidable; but the Lord preserves the simple without all those arts. 2. They are very spiteful, as full of malice as Satan himself: They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent, that infuses his venom with his tongue; and there is so much malignity in all they say that one would think there was nothing under their lips but adders' poison, Psalms 140:3. With their calumnies, and with their counsels, they aimed to destroy David, but secretly, as a man is stung with a serpent, or a snake in the grass. And they endeavoured likewise to infuse their malice into others, and to make them seven times more the children of hell than themselves. A malignant tongue makes men like the old serpent; and poison in the lips is a certain sign of poison in the heart. 3. They are confederate; they are many of them; but they are all gathered together against me for war, Psalms 140:2. Those who can agree in nothing else can agree to persecute a good man. Herod and Pilate will unite in this, and in this they resemble Satan, who is not divided against himself, all the devils agreeing in Beelzebub. 4. They are proud (Psalms 140:5), conceited of themselves and confident of their success; and herein also they resemble Satan, whose reigning ruining sin was pride. The pride of persecutors, though at present it be the terror, yet may be the encouragement, of the persecuted, for the more haughty they are the faster are they ripening for ruin. Pride goes before destruction.

_ _ II. He prays to God to keep him from them and from being swallowed up by them: “Lord, deliver me, preserve me, keep me (Psalms 140:1, Psalms 140:4); let them not prevail to take away my life, my reputation, my interest, my comfort, and to prevent my coming to the throne. Keep me from doing as they do, or as they would have me do, or as they promise themselves I shall do.” Note, The more malice appears in our enemies against us the more earnest we should be in prayer to God to take us under his protection. In him believers may count upon a security, and may enjoy it and themselves with a holy serenity. Those are safe whom God preserves. If he be for us, who can be against us?

_ _ III. He triumphs in God, and thereby, in effect, he triumphs over his persecutors, Psalms 140:6, Psalms 140:7. When his enemies sharpened their tongues against him, did he sharpen his against them? No; adders' poison was under their lips, but grace was poured into his lips, witness what he here said unto the Lord, for to him he looked, to him he directed himself, when he saw himself in so much danger, through the malice of his enemies: and it is well for us that we have a God to go to. He comforted himself, 1. In his interest in God: “I said, Thou art my God; and, if my God, then my shield and mighty protector.” In troublous dangerous times it is good to claim relation to God, and by faith to keep hold of him. 2. In his access to God. This comforted him, that he was not only taken into covenant with God, but into communion with him, that he had leave to speak to him, and might expect an answer of peace from him, and could say, with a humble confidence, Hear the voice of my supplications, O Lord! 3. In the assurance he had of help from God and happiness in him: “O God the LordJehovah Adonai! as Jehovah thou art self-existent and self-sufficient, an infinitely perfect being; as Adonai thou art my stay and support, my ruler and governor, and therefore the strength of my salvation, my strong Saviour; nay, not only my Saviour, but my salvation itself, from whom, in whom, my salvation is; not only a strong Saviour, but the very strength of my salvation, on whom the stress of my hope is laid; all in all, to make me happy, and to preserve me to my happiness.” 4. In the experience he had had formerly of God's care of him: Thou hast covered my head in the day of battle. As he pleaded with Saul, that, for the service of his country, he many a time jeoparded his life in the high places of the field, so he pleads with God that, in those services, he had wonderfully protected him, and provided him a better helmet for the securing of his head than Goliath's was: “Lord, thou hast kept me in the day of battle with the Philistines, suffer me not to fall by the treacherous intrigues of false-hearted Israelites.” God is as able to preserve his people from secret fraud as from open force; and the experience we have had of his power and care, in dangers of one kind, may encourage us to trust in him and depend upon him in dangers of another nature; for nothing can shorten the Lord's right hand.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

[[no comment]]

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Psalms 140:1

"To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David." Deliver me, O LORD, from the evil man: preserve me from the (a) violent man;

(a) Who persecutes me out of malice and without cause.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2942, bc 1062

Deliver:

Psalms 43:1 Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man.
Psalms 59:1-3 [[To the chief Musician, Altaschith, Michtam of David; when Saul sent, and they watched the house to kill him.]] Deliver me from mine enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me. ... For, lo, they lie in wait for my soul: the mighty are gathered against me; not [for] my transgression, nor [for] my sin, O LORD.
Psalms 71:4 Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel man.

violent man:
Heb. man of violences,
Psalms 140:4 Keep me, O LORD, from the hands of the wicked; preserve me from the violent man; who have purposed to overthrow my goings.
Psalms 140:11 Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow [him].
Psalms 18:48 He delivereth me from mine enemies: yea, thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me: thou hast delivered me from the violent man.
*marg.
Habakkuk 1:2-3 O LORD, how long shall I cry, and thou wilt not hear! [even] cry out unto thee [of] violence, and thou wilt not save! ... Why dost thou shew me iniquity, and cause [me] to behold grievance? for spoiling and violence [are] before me: and there are [that] raise up strife and contention.
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Ps 18:48; 43:1; 59:1; 71:4; 140:4, 11. Hab 1:2.

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