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Numbers 35:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the cities shall be unto you for refuge from the avenger, that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation for judgment.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And they shall be unto you cities for refuge from the avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation in judgment.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘The cities shall be to you as a refuge from the avenger, so that the manslayer will not die until he stands before the congregation for trial.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And they shall be to you cities for refuge from the avenger; that the man-slayer may not die, until he stands before the congregation in judgment.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And ye shall have these cities for refuge from the avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he have stood before the assembly in judgment.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So shall the cities serve you for places of refuge from the redeemer,—that the manslayer may not die, until he has stood before the assembly, for judgment.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and the cities have been to you for a refuge from the redeemer, and the man-slayer doth not die till his standing before the company for judgment.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And when the fugitive shall be in them, the kinsman of him that is slain may not have power to kill him, until he stand before the multitude, and his cause be judged.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And they shall be vnto you cities for refuge from the auenger, that the man-slayer die not, vntill he stand before the Congregation in iudgement.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the cities shall be to you places of refuge from the avenger of blood, and the slayer shall not die until he stands before the congregation for judgment.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And they shall be unto you cities for refuge from the avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation in judgment.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And they shall be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
unto you cities 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
for refuge 4733
{4733} Prime
מִקְלָט
miqlat
{mik-lawt'}
From H7038 in the sense of taking in; an asylum (as a receptacle).
from the avenger; 1350
{1350} Prime
גָּאַל
ga'al
{gaw-al'}
A primitive root, to redeem (according to the Oriental law of kinship), that is, to be the next of kin (and as such to buy back a relative's property, marry his widow, etc.).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
that the manslayer 7523
{7523} Prime
רָצַח
ratsach
{raw-tsakh'}
A primitive root; properly to dash in pieces, that is, kill (a human being), especially to murder.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
die 4191
{4191} Prime
מָמוֹת
muwth
{mooth}
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
not, x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
until x5704
(5704) Complement
עַד
`ad
{ad}
Properly the same as H5703 (used as a preposition, adverb or conjugation; especially with a preposition); as far (or long, or much) as, whether of space (even unto) or time (during, while, until) or degree (equally with).
he stand 5975
{5975} Prime
עָמַד
`amad
{aw-mad'}
A primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literally and figuratively, intransitively and transitively).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
the congregation 5712
{5712} Prime
עֵדָה
`edah
{ay-daw'}
Feminine of H5707 in the original sense of fixture; a stated assemblage (specifically a concourse, or generally a family or crowd).
in judgment. 4941
{4941} Prime
מִשְׁפָּט
mishpat
{mish-pawt'}
From H8199; properly a verdict (favorable or unfavorable) pronounced judicially, especially a sentence or formal decree (human or (particularly) divine law, individual or collectively), including the act, the place, the suit, the crime, and the penalty; abstractly justice, including a particular right, or privilege (statutory or customary), or even a style.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

[[no comment]]

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Numbers 35:9-34.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Numbers 35:12

From the avenger — Heb. from the redeemer, or, from the next kinsman, to whom by the law belonged the right of redemption of the lands of; and vindication of the injury done to, the person deceased. Die not — Be not killed by the avenger meeting him in some other place. Before the congregation — Before the judges or elders who were appointed in every city for the decision of criminal causes, who were to examine, and that publickly before the people, whether the murder was wilful or casual.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Numbers 35:12

And they shall be unto you cities for refuge from the (d) avenger; that the manslayer die not, until he stand before the congregation in judgment.

(d) Meaning, from the next of the kindred, who ought to pursue the cause.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
from the avenger:

Numbers 35:19 The revenger of blood himself shall slay the murderer: when he meeteth him, he shall slay him.
Numbers 35:25-27 And the congregation shall deliver the slayer out of the hand of the revenger of blood, and the congregation shall restore him to the city of his refuge, whither he was fled: and he shall abide in it unto the death of the high priest, which was anointed with the holy oil. ... And the revenger of blood find him without the borders of the city of his refuge, and the revenger of blood kill the slayer; he shall not be guilty of blood:
Deuteronomy 19:6 Lest the avenger of the blood pursue the slayer, while his heart is hot, and overtake him, because the way is long, and slay him; whereas he [was] not worthy of death, inasmuch as he hated him not in time past.
Joshua 20:3-6 That the slayer that killeth [any] person unawares [and] unwittingly may flee thither: and they shall be your refuge from the avenger of blood. ... And he shall dwell in that city, until he stand before the congregation for judgment, [and] until the death of the high priest that shall be in those days: then shall the slayer return, and come unto his own city, and unto his own house, unto the city from whence he fled.
Joshua 20:9 These were the cities appointed for all the children of Israel, and for the stranger that sojourneth among them, that whosoever killeth [any] person at unawares might flee thither, and not die by the hand of the avenger of blood, until he stood before the congregation.
2 Samuel 14:7 And, behold, the whole family is risen against thine handmaid, and they said, Deliver him that smote his brother, that we may kill him, for the life of his brother whom he slew; and we will destroy the heir also: and so they shall quench my coal which is left, and shall not leave to my husband [neither] name nor remainder upon the earth.

until he stand:

Numbers 35:24 Then the congregation shall judge between the slayer and the revenger of blood according to these judgments:
Deuteronomy 19:11-12 But if any man hate his neighbour, and lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and smite him mortally that he die, and fleeth into one of these cities: ... Then the elders of his city shall send and fetch him thence, and deliver him into the hand of the avenger of blood, that he may die.
Joshua 20:4-6 And when he that doth flee unto one of those cities shall stand at the entering of the gate of the city, and shall declare his cause in the ears of the elders of that city, they shall take him into the city unto them, and give him a place, that he may dwell among them. ... And he shall dwell in that city, until he stand before the congregation for judgment, [and] until the death of the high priest that shall be in those days: then shall the slayer return, and come unto his own city, and unto his own house, unto the city from whence he fled.
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Nu 35:19, 24, 25. Dt 19:6, 11. Jsh 20:3, 4, 9. 2S 14:7.

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