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Nehemiah 11:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And the princes of the people dwelt in Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts in the [other] cities.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts [to dwell] in [other] cities.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Now the leaders of the people lived in Jerusalem, but the rest of the people cast lots to bring one out of ten to live in Jerusalem, the holy city, while nine-tenths [remained] in the [other] cities.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts [to dwell] in [other] cities.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the princes of the people dwelt in Jerusalem; and the rest of the people cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem, the holy city, and nine parts in the cities.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And the rulers of the people dwelt in Jerusalem,—and, the rest of the people, cast lots, to bring in one out of ten to dwell in Jerusalem, the holy city, and nine parts in [other] cities.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the heads of the people dwell in Jerusalem, and the rest of the people have caused to fall lots to bring in one out of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts in the cities,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the princes of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: but the rest of the people cast lots, to take one part in ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts in the other cities.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And the rulers of the people dwelt at Ierusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of tenne, to dwell in Ierusalem, the holy citie, and nine parts [to dwell] in [other] cities.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the chiefs of the people dwelt in Jerusalem: and the rest of the people cast lots, to bring one of [every] ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts in the [other] cities.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And the rulers of the people dwelt at Yerushalaim: the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Yerushalaim the holy city, and nine parts [to dwell] in [other] cities.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And the rulers 8269
{8269} Prime
שַׂר
sar
{sar}
From H8323; a head person (of any rank or class).
of the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
dwelt 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
at Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם: 3389
{3389} Prime
יְרוּשָׁלִַם
Y@ruwshalaim
{yer-oo-shaw-lah'-im}
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
the rest 7605
{7605} Prime
שְׁאָר
sh@'ar
{sheh-awr'}
From H7604; a remainder.
of the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
also cast 5307
{5307} Prime
נָפַל
naphal
{naw-fal'}
A primitive root; to fall, in a great variety of applications (intransitively or causatively, literally or figuratively).
z8689
<8689> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 2675
lots, 1486
{1486} Prime
גּוֹרָל
gowral
{go-rawl'}
From an unused root meaning to be rough (as stone); properly a pebble, that is, a lot (small stones being used for that purpose); figuratively a portion or destiny (as if determined by lot).
to bring 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
one 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
ten 6235
{6235} Prime
עֶשֶׂר
`eser
{eh'-ser}
From H6237; ten (as an accumulation to the extent of the digits).
to dwell 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
in Yrlaim יְרוּשָׁלִַם 3389
{3389} Prime
יְרוּשָׁלִַם
Y@ruwshalaim
{yer-oo-shaw-lah'-im}
A dual (in allusion to its two main hills (the true pointing, at least of the former reading, seems to be that of H3390)); probably from (the passive participle of) H3384 and H7999; founded peaceful; Jerushalaim or Jerushalem, the capital city of Palestine.
the holy 6944
{6944} Prime
קֹדֶשׁ
qodesh
{ko'-desh}
From H6942; a sacred place or thing; rarely abstractly sanctity.
city, 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
and nine 8672
{8672} Prime
תֵּשַׁע
tesha`
{tay'-shah}
The second form is the masculine of the first; perhaps from H8159 through the idea of a turn to the next or full number ten; nine or (ordinal) ninth.
parts 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
[to dwell] in [other] cities. 5892
{5892} Prime
עִיר
`iyr
{eer}
From H5782 a city (a place guarded by waking or a watch) in the widest sense (even of a mere encampment or post).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Nehemiah 11:1

_ _ Nehemiah 11:1, Nehemiah 11:2. The rulers, voluntary men, and every tenth man chosen by lot, dwell at Jerusalem.

_ _ the rulers ... dwelt at Jerusalem — That city being the metropolis of the country, it was right and proper that the seat of government should be there. But the exigency of the times required that special measures should be taken to insure the residence of an adequate population for the custody of the buildings and the defense of the city. From the annoyances of restless and malignant enemies, who tried every means to demolish the rising fortifications, there was some danger attending a settlement in Jerusalem. Hence the greater part of the returned exiles, in order to earn as well as secure the rewards of their duty, preferred to remain in the country or the provincial towns. To remedy this state of things, it was resolved to select every tenth man of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin by lot, to become a permanent inhabitant of the capital. The necessity of such an expedient commended it to the general approval. It was the more readily submitted to because the lot was resorted to on all the most critical conjunctures of the Jewish history, and regarded by the people as a divine decision (Proverbs 18:18). This awakened strongly the national spirit; and patriotic volunteers came forward readily to meet the wishes of the authorities, a service which, implying great self-denial as well as courage, was reckoned in the circumstances of so much importance as entitled them to the public gratitude. No wonder that the conduct of these volunteers drew forth the tribute of public admiration; for they sacrificed their personal safety and comfort for the interests of the community because Jerusalem was at that time a place against which the enemies of the Jews were directing a thousand plots. Therefore, residence in it at such a juncture was attended with expense and various annoyances from which a country life was entirely free.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Nehemiah 11:1-19

_ _ Jerusalem is called here the holy city (Nehemiah 11:1), because there the temple was, and that was the place God had chosen to put his name there; upon this account, one would think, the holy seed should all have chosen to dwell there and have striven for a habitation there; but, on the contrary, it seems they declined dwelling there, 1. Because a greater strictness of conversation was expected from the inhabitants of Jerusalem than from others, which they were not willing to come up to. Those who care not for being holy themselves are shy of dwelling in a holy city; they would not dwell in the New Jerusalem itself for that reason, but would wish to have a continuing city here upon earth. Or, 2. Because Jerusalem, of all places, was most hated by the heathen their neighbours, and against it their malicious designs were levelled, which made that the post of danger (as the post of honour usually is) and therefore they were not willing to expose themselves there. Fear of persecution and reproach, and of running themselves into trouble, keeps many out of the holy city, and makes them backward to appear for God and religion, not considering that, as Jerusalem is with a special malice threatened and insulted by its enemies, so it is with a special care protected by its God and made a quiet habitation, Isaiah 33:20; Psalms 46:4, Psalms 46:5. Or, 3. Because it was more for their worldly advantage to dwell in the country. Jerusalem was no trading city, and therefore there was no money to be got there by merchandise, as there was in the country by corn and cattle. Note, All seek their own, not the things that are Jesus Christ's, Philippians 2:21. It is a general and just complaint that most people prefer their own wealth, credit, pleasure, ease, and safety, before the glory of God and the public good. People being thus backward to dwell at Jerusalem, now that it was poor, we are here told,

_ _ I. By what means it was replenished. 1. The rulers dwelt there, Nehemiah 11:1. That was the proper place for them to reside in, because there were set the thrones of judgment (Psalms 122:5), and thither, in all difficult matters, the people resorted with their last appeals. And if it were an instance of eminent affection to the house of God, zeal for the public good, and of faith, and holy courage, and self-denial, to dwell there at this time, the rulers would be examples of these to their inferiors. Their dwelling there would invite and encourage others to dwell there too. Magnates magnetesthe mighty are magnetic. When great men choose the holy city for their habitation their example brings holiness into reputation, and their zeal will provoke very many. 2. There were some that willingly offered themselves to dwell at Jerusalem, nobly foregoing their own secular interest for the public welfare, Nehemiah 11:2. It is upon record, to their honour, that when others were shy of venturing upon difficulty, loss, and danger, they sought the good of Jerusalem, because of the house of the Lord their God. Those shall prosper that thus love Zion, Psalms 122:6, Psalms 122:9. It is said, The people blessed them. They praised them; they prayed for them; they praised God for them. Many that do not appear forward themselves for the public good will yet give a good word to those that do. God and man will bless those that are public blessings, which should encourage us to be zealous in doing good. 3. They, finding that yet there was room, concluded upon a review of their whole body to bring one in ten to dwell in Jerusalem; who they should be was determined by lot, the disposal whereof, all knew, was of the Lord. This would prevent strife, and would be a great satisfaction to those on whom the lot fell to dwell at Jerusalem, that they plainly saw God appointing the bounds of their habitation. They observed the proportion of one in ten, as we may suppose, to bring the balance between the city and country to a just and equal poise; so it seems to refer to the ancient rule of giving the tenth to God; and what is given to the holy city he reckons given to himself.

_ _ II. By what persons it was replenished. A general account is here given of the inhabitants of Jerusalem because the governors of Judah looked upon them as their strength in the Lord of hosts their God, and valued them accordingly, Zechariah 12:5. 1. Many of the children of Judah and Benjamin dwelt there; for, originally, part of the city law in the lot of one of those tribes and part in that of the other; but the greater part was in the lot of Benjamin, and therefore here we find of the children of Judah only 468 families in Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:6), but of Benjamin 928, Nehemiah 11:7, Nehemiah 11:8. Thus small were its beginnings, but afterwards, before our Saviour's time, it grew much more populous. Those of Judah all descended from Perez, or Pharez, that son of Judah of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came. And, though the Benjamites were more in number, yet of the men of Judah it is said (Nehemiah 11:6) that they were valiant men, fit for service, and able to defend the city in case of an attack. Judah has not lost its ancient character of a lion's whelp, bold and daring. Of the Benjamites that dwelt in Jerusalem we are here told who was overseer, and who was second, Nehemiah 11:9. For it is as necessary for a people to have good order kept up among themselves as to be fortified against the attacks of their enemies from abroad, to have good magistrates as to have good soldiers. 2. The priests and Levites did many of them settle at Jerusalem; where else should men that were holy to God dwell, but in the holy city? (1.) Most of the priests, we may suppose, dwelt there, for their business lay where the temple was. Of those that did the work of the house in their courses here were 822 of one family, 242 of another, and 128 of another, Nehemiah 11:12-14. It was well that those labourers were not few. It is said of some of them that they were mighty men of valour (Nehemiah 11:14); it was necessary that they should be so, for the priesthood was not only a work, which required might, but a warfare, which required valour, especially now. Of one of these priests it is said that he was the son of one of the great men. It was no disparagement to the greatest man they had to have his son in the priesthood; he might magnify his office, for his office did not in the least diminish him. (2.) Some of the Levites also came and dwelt at Jerusalem, yet but few in comparison, 284 in all (Nehemiah 11:18), with 172 porters (Nehemiah 11:19), for much of their work was to teach the good knowledge of God up and down the country, for which purpose they were to be scattered in Israel. As many as there was occasion for attended at Jerusalem; the rest were doing good elsewhere. [1.] It is said of one of the Levites that he had the oversight of the outward business of the house of God, Nehemiah 11:16. The priests were chief managers of the business within the temple gates; but this Levite was entrusted with the secular concerns of God's house, that were in ordine ad spiritualiasubservient to its spiritual concerns, the collecting of the contributions, the providing of materials for the temple service, and the like, which it was necessary to oversee, else the inward business would have been starved and have stood still. Those who take care of the ta ex the outward concerns of the church, the serving of its tables, are as necessary in their place as those who take care of its ta es its inward concerns, who give themselves to the word and prayer. [2.] It is said of another that he was the principal to begin the thanksgiving in prayer. Probably he had a good ear and a good voice, and was a scientific singer, and therefore was chosen to lead the psalm. He was precentor in the temple. Observe, Thanksgiving is necessary in prayer; they should go together; giving thanks for former mercies is a becoming way of begging further mercies. And care should be taken in public service that every thing be done in the best manner, decently and in good order — in prayer, that one speak and the rest join-in singing, that one begin and the rest follow.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Nehemiah 11:1

To dwell — That the buildings of the city might be compleated, and the safety of it better provided for.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Nehemiah 11:1

And the rulers of the people dwelt at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots, (a) to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts [to dwell] in [other] cities.

(a) Because their enemies dwelt round about them, they provided that it might be replenished with men, and used this policy because there were few who offered themselves willingly.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the rulers:

Nehemiah 7:4-5 Now the city [was] large and great: but the people [were] few therein, and the houses [were] not builded. ... And my God put into mine heart to gather together the nobles, and the rulers, and the people, that they might be reckoned by genealogy. And I found a register of the genealogy of them which came up at the first, and found written therein,
Deuteronomy 17:8-9 If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, [being] matters of controversy within thy gates: then shalt thou arise, and get thee up into the place which the LORD thy God shall choose; ... And thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and enquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment:
Psalms 122:5 For there are set thrones of judgment, the thrones of the house of David.

cast lots:
Jerusalem certainly had many inhabitants at this time, but not sufficient to preserve the city, which was now encompassed with a wall, the building of which was going on fast. Nehemiah, therefore, obliged one-tenth of the country people to come and dwell in it, that the population might be sufficient for the defence of the city. Some volunteered their services, which was at that time considered a sacrifice to patriotism; as Jerusalem then afforded very few advantages, and was a place of considerable danger. Hence "the people blessed them that willingly offered themselves."
Nehemiah 10:34 And we cast the lots among the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood offering, to bring [it] into the house of our God, after the houses of our fathers, at times appointed year by year, to burn upon the altar of the LORD our God, as [it is] written in the law:
Joshua 18:10 And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the LORD: and there Joshua divided the land unto the children of Israel according to their divisions.
1 Chronicles 26:13 And they cast lots, as well the small as the great, according to the house of their fathers, for every gate.
Proverbs 16:33 The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof [is] of the LORD.
Acts 1:24 And they prayed, and said, Thou, Lord, which knowest the hearts of all [men], shew whether of these two thou hast chosen,

one of ten:

Judges 20:9-10 But now this [shall be] the thing which we will do to Gibeah; [we will go up] by lot against it; ... And we will take ten men of an hundred throughout all the tribes of Israel, and an hundred of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand, to fetch victual for the people, that they may do, when they come to Gibeah of Benjamin, according to all the folly that they have wrought in Israel.

the holy:

Nehemiah 11:18 All the Levites in the holy city [were] two hundred fourscore and four.
Isaiah 48:2 For they call themselves of the holy city, and stay themselves upon the God of Israel; The LORD of hosts [is] his name.
Isaiah 52:1 Awake, awake; put on thy strength, O Zion; put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city: for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean.
Matthew 4:5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,
Matthew 27:53 And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 17:8. Jsh 18:10. Jg 20:9. 1Ch 26:13. Ne 7:4; 10:34; 11:18. Ps 122:5. Pv 16:33. Is 48:2; 52:1. Mt 4:5; 27:53. Ac 1:24.

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