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Micah 5:2 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, [Too] little to be among the clans of Judah, From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But thou, Beth-lehem Ephratah, [though] thou art little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth to me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— (And thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall he come forth unto me [who is] to be Ruler in Israel: whose goings forth are from of old, from the days of eternity.)
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Thou, therefore, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though, little, to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee, shall Mine come forth, to be ruler in Israel,—whose comings forth, have been from of old, from the days of age-past time.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And thou, Beth-Lehem Ephratah, Little to be among the chiefs of Judah! From thee to Me he cometh forth—to be ruler in Israel, And his comings forth [are] of old, From the days of antiquity.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And thou Bethlehem Ephrata, art a little one among the thousands of Juda, out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be the ruler in Israel: and his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But thou Beth-leem Ephratah, [though] thou bee little among the thousands of Iudah, [yet] out of thee shall he come foorth vnto mee, [that is] to be ruler in Israel: whose goings foorth [haue bene] from of old, from euerlasting.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And thou, Bethlehem{gr.Bethleem}, house of Ephrath{gr.Ephratha}, art few in number to be [reckoned] among the thousands of Judah{gr.Juda}; [yet] out of thee shall one come forth to me, to be a ruler of Israel; and his goings forth were from the beginning, [even] from eternity.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— But thou, Beth Lachem Efrathah, [though] thou be little among the thousands of Yehudah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Yisrael; whose goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But thou, x859
(0859) Complement
אַתָּה
'attah
{at-taw'}
A primitive pronoun of the second person; thou and thee, or (plural) ye and you.
B Lem בֵּית־לָחֶם 1035
{1035} Prime
בֵּית לֶחֶם
Beyth Lechem
{bayth leh'-khem}
From H1004 and H3899; house of bread; Beth-Lechem, a place in Palestine.
Efr אֶפרָתָה, 672
{0672} Prime
אֶפְרָת
'Ephraath
{ef-rawth'}
From H6509; fruitfulness; Ephrath, another name for Bethlehem; once used in Psalms 132:6 perhaps for Ephraim; also of an Israelitish woman.
[though] thou be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
little 6810
{6810} Prime
צָעִיר
tsa`iyr
{tsaw-eer'}
From H6819; little; (in number) few; (in age) young, (in value) ignoble.
among the thousands 505
{0505} Prime
אֶלֶף
'eleph
{eh'-lef}
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
of Yh יְהוּדָה, 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
[yet] out of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
thee shall he come forth 3318
{3318} Prime
יָצָא
yatsa'
{yaw-tsaw'}
A primitive root; to go (causatively bring) out, in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively, direct and proximate.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
unto me [that is] to be x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
ruler 4910
{4910} Prime
מָשַׁל
mashal
{maw-shal'}
A primitive root; to rule.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל; 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
whose goings forth 4163
{4163} Prime
מוֹצָאָה
mowtsa'ah
{mo-tsaw-aw'}
Feminine of H4161; a family descent; also a sewer (compare H6675).
[have been] from of old, 6924
{6924} Prime
קֶדֶם
qedem
{keh'-dem}
From H6923; the front, of palce (absolutely the fore part, relatively the East) or time (antiquity); often used adverbially (before, anciently, eastward).
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
from everlasting. 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
5769
{5769} Prime
עוֹלָם
`owlam
{o-lawm'}
From H5956; properly concealed, that is, the vanishing point; generally time out of mind (past or future), that is, (practically) eternity; frequentative adverbially (especially with prepositional prefix) always.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Micah 5:2

_ _ Beth-lehem Ephratah — (Genesis 48:7), or, Beth-lehem Judah; so called to distinguish it from Beth-lehem in Zebulun. It is a few miles southwest of Jerusalem. Beth-lehem means “the house of bread”; Ephratah means “fruitful”: both names referring to the fertility of the region.

_ _ though thou be little amongthough thou be scarcely large enough to be reckoned among, etc. It was insignificant in size and population; so that in Joshua 15:21, etc., it is not enumerated among the cities of Judah; nor in the list in Nehemiah 11:25, etc. Under Rehoboam it became a city: 2 Chronicles 11:6, “He built Beth-lehem.” Matthew 2:6 seems to contradict Micah, “thou art not the least,” But really he, by an independent testimony of the Spirit, confirms the prophet, Little in worldly importance, thou art not least (that is, far from least, yea, the very greatest) among the thousands, of princes of Judah, in the spiritual significance of being the birthplace of Messiah (John 7:42). God chooses the little things of the world to eclipse in glory its greatest things (Judges 6:15; John 1:46; 1 Corinthians 1:27, 1 Corinthians 1:28). The low state of David’s line when Messiah was born is also implied here.

_ _ thousands — Each tribe was divided into clans or “thousands” (each thousand containing a thousand families: like our old English division of counties into hundreds), which had their several heads or “princes”; hence in Matthew 2:6 it is quoted “princes,” substantially the same as in Micah, and authoritatively explained in Matthew. It is not so much this thousand that is preferred to the other thousands of Judah, but the Governor or Chief Prince out of it, who is preferred to the governors of all the other thousands. It is called a “town” (rather in the Greek, “village”), John 7:42; though scarcely containing a thousand inhabitants, it is ranked among the “thousands” or larger divisions of the tribe, because of its being the cradle of David’s line, and of the Divine Son of David. Moses divided the people into thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, with their respective “rulers” (Exodus 18:25; compare 1 Samuel 10:19).

_ _ unto me — unto God the Father (Luke 1:32): to fulfil all the Father’s will and purpose from eternity. So the Son declares (Psalms 2:7; Psalms 40:7, Psalms 40:8; John 4:34); and the Father confirms it (Matthew 3:17; Matthew 12:18, compare with Isaiah 42:1). God’s glory is hereby made the ultimate end of redemption.

_ _ ruler — the “Shiloh,” “Prince of peace,” “on whose shoulders the government is laid” (Genesis 49:10; Isaiah 9:6). In 2 Samuel 23:3, “He that ruleth over men must be just,” the same Hebrew word is employed; Messiah alone realizes David’s ideal of a ruler. Also in Jeremiah 30:21, “their governor shall proceed from the midst of them”; answering closely to “out of thee shall come forth the ruler,” here (compare Isaiah 11:1-4).

_ _ goings forth ... from everlasting — The plain antithesis of this clause, to “come forth out of thee” (from Beth-lehem), shows that the eternal generation of the Son is meant. The terms convey the strongest assertion of infinite duration of which the Hebrew language is capable (compare Psalms 90:2; Proverbs 8:22, Proverbs 8:23; John 1:1). Messiah’s generation as man coming forth unto God to do His will on earth is from Beth-lehem; but as Son of God, His goings forth are from everlasting. The promise of the Redeemer at first was vaguely general (Genesis 3:15). Then the Shemitic division of mankind is declared as the quarter in which He was to be looked for (Genesis 9:26, Genesis 9:27); then it grows clearer, defining the race and nation whence the Deliverer should come, namely, the seed of Abraham, the Jews (Genesis 12:3); then the particular tribe, Judah (Genesis 49:10); then the family, that of David (Psalms 89:19, Psalms 89:20); then the very town of His birth, here. And as His coming drew nigh, the very parentage (Matthew 1:1-17; Luke 1:26-35; Luke 2:1-7); and then all the scattered rays of prophecy concentrate in Jesus, as their focus (Hebrews 1:1, Hebrews 1:2).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Micah 5:1-6.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Micah 5:2

Bethlehem — Bethlehem of Judah was called Ephratah, from the fruitfulness of the land where it stood: the word whence it is derived importing fruitfulness. Art thou little — If thou art the least in other respects in this thou art honoured above them all. Ruler — King and sovereign. In Israel — Amidst the Israel of God. Going forth — Whose generation, as he is the Son of God, equal with his father, is eternal.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Micah 5:2

But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, [though] thou be (b) little among the thousands of Judah, [yet] out of thee shall he come forth unto me [that is] to be ruler in Israel; whose (c) goings forth [have been] from of old, from everlasting.

(b) For so the Jews divided their country that for every thousand there was a chief captain: and because Bethlehem was not able to make a thousand, he calls it little. But yet God will raise up his captain and governor in it: and thus it is not the least by reason of this benefit. See Matthew 2:6

(c) He shows that the coming of Christ and all his ways were appointed by God from all eternity.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
But thou:

Matthew 2:6 And thou Bethlehem, [in] the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
John 7:42 Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?

Ephratah:

Genesis 35:19 And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which [is] Bethlehem.
Genesis 48:7 And as for me, when I came from Padan, Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in the way, when yet [there was] but a little way to come unto Ephrath: and I buried her there in the way of Ephrath; the same [is] Bethlehem.
, Ephrath,
Ruth 4:11 And all the people that [were] in the gate, and the elders, said, [We are] witnesses. The LORD make the woman that is come into thine house like Rachel and like Leah, which two did build the house of Israel: and do thou worthily in Ephratah, and be famous in Bethlehem:
1 Samuel 17:12 Now David [was] the son of that Ephrathite of Bethlehemjudah, whose name [was] Jesse; and he had eight sons: and the man went among men [for] an old man in the days of Saul.
1 Chronicles 2:50-51 These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah; Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim, ... Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hareph the father of Bethgader.
1 Chronicles 2:54 The sons of Salma; Bethlehem, and the Netophathites, Ataroth, the house of Joab, and half of the Manahethites, the Zorites.
1 Chronicles 4:4 And Penuel the father of Gedor, and Ezer the father of Hushah. These [are] the sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, the father of Bethlehem.
Psalms 132:6 Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah: we found it in the fields of the wood.

among:

1 Samuel 10:19 And ye have this day rejected your God, who himself saved you out of all your adversities and your tribulations; and ye have said unto him, [Nay], but set a king over us. Now therefore present yourselves before the LORD by your tribes, and by your thousands.
1 Samuel 23:23 See therefore, and take knowledge of all the lurking places where he hideth himself, and come ye again to me with the certainty, and I will go with you: and it shall come to pass, if he be in the land, that I will search him out throughout all the thousands of Judah.

thousands:

Exodus 18:21 Moreover thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place [such] over them, [to be] rulers of thousands, [and] rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens:
Exodus 18:25 And Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens.
Deuteronomy 1:15 So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.
1 Samuel 8:12 And he will appoint him captains over thousands, and captains over fifties; and [will set them] to ear his ground, and to reap his harvest, and to make his instruments of war, and instruments of his chariots.
1 Samuel 17:18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the captain of [their] thousand, and look how thy brethren fare, and take their pledge.

yet:

Isaiah 11:1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots:
Isaiah 53:2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he hath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, [there is] no beauty that we should desire him.
Ezekiel 17:22-24 Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set [it]; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant [it] upon an high mountain and eminent: ... And all the trees of the field shall know that I the LORD have brought down the high tree, have exalted the low tree, have dried up the green tree, and have made the dry tree to flourish: I the LORD have spoken and have done [it].
Amos 9:11 In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of old:
Luke 2:4-7 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) ... And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.
1 Corinthians 1:27-28 But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; ... And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, [yea], and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are:

that is:

Genesis 49:10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him [shall] the gathering of the people [be].
1 Chronicles 5:2 For Judah prevailed above his brethren, and of him [came] the chief ruler; but the birthright [was] Joseph's:)
Isaiah 9:6-7 For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. ... Of the increase of [his] government and peace [there shall be] no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.
Jeremiah 13:5-6 So I went, and hid it by Euphrates, as the LORD commanded me. ... And it came to pass after many days, that the LORD said unto me, Arise, go to Euphrates, and take the girdle from thence, which I commanded thee to hide there.
Ezekiel 34:23-24 And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, [even] my servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd. ... And I the LORD will be their God, and my servant David a prince among them; I the LORD have spoken [it].
Ezekiel 37:22-25 And I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king to them all: and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all: ... And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, [even] they, and their children, and their children's children for ever: and my servant David [shall be] their prince for ever.
Zechariah 9:9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he [is] just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.
Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.
Luke 1:31-33 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS. ... And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
Luke 23:2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this [fellow] perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
Luke 23:38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
John 19:14-22 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! ... Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.
Revelation 19:16 And he hath on [his] vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

whose:

Psalms 90:2 Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou [art] God.
Psalms 102:25-27 Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens [are] the work of thy hands. ... But thou [art] the same, and thy years shall have no end.
Proverbs 8:22 The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old.
John 1:1-3 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. ... All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
Colossians 1:17 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist.
Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.
1 John 1:1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have handled, of the Word of life;
Revelation 1:11-18 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send [it] unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea. ... I [am] he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
Revelation 2:8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
Revelation 21:6 And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely.

everlasting:
or, the days of eternity
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Gn 35:19; 48:7; 49:10. Ex 18:21, 25. Dt 1:15. Ru 4:11. 1S 8:12; 10:19; 17:12, 18; 23:23. 1Ch 2:50, 54; 4:4; 5:2. Ps 90:2; 102:25; 132:6. Pv 8:22. Is 9:6; 11:1; 53:2. Jr 13:5. Ezk 17:22; 34:23; 37:22. Am 9:11. Zc 9:9. Mt 2:6; 28:18. Lk 1:31; 2:4; 23:2, 38. Jn 1:1; 7:42; 19:14. 1Co 1:27. Col 1:17. He 13:8. 1Jn 1:1. Rv 1:11; 2:8; 19:16; 21:6.

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