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Micah 2:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Woe to them that devise iniquity and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Woe to those who scheme iniquity, Who work out evil on their beds! When morning comes, they do it, For it is in the power of their hands.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practice it, because it is in the power of their hand.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Woe to them that devise iniquity and work evil upon their beds! When the morning is light they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Alas for them who devise iniquity and work wickedness upon their beds,—in the light of the morning, they will execute it, for it is in the power of their hand.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Woe [to] those devising iniquity, And working evil on their beds, In the light of the morning they do it, For their hand is—to God.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Woe to you that devise that which is unprofitable, and work evil in your beds: in the morning light they execute it, because their hand is against God.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Woe to them that deuise iniquitie, and worke euill vpon their beds: when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— They meditated troubles, and wrought wickedness on their beds, and they put it in execution with the daylight; for they have not lifted up their hands to God.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Woe 1945
{1945} Prime
הוֹי
howy
{hoh'ee}
A prolonged form of H1930 (akin to H0188); oh!.
to them that devise 2803
{2803} Prime
חָשַׁב
chashab
{khaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to plait or interpenetrate, that is, (literally) to weave or (generally) to fabricate; figuratively to plot or contrive (usually in a malicious sense); hence (from the mental effort) to think, regard, value, compute.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
iniquity, 205
{0205} Prime
אָוֶן
'aven
{aw-ven'}
From an unused root perhaps meaning properly to pant (hence to exert oneself, usually in vain; to come to naught); strictly nothingness; also trouble, vanity, wickedness; specifically an idol.
and work 6466
{6466} Prime
פָּעַל
pa`al
{paw-al'}
A primitive root; to do or make (systematically and habitually), especially to practise.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
evil 7451
{7451} Prime
רָע
ra`
{rah}
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
upon x5921
(5921) Complement
עַל
`al
{al}
Properly the same as H5920 used as a preposition (in the singular or plural, often with prefix, or as conjugation with a particle following); above, over, upon, or against (yet always in this last relation with a downward aspect) in a great variety of applications.
their beds! 4904
{4904} Prime
מִשְׁכָּב
mishkab
{mish-kawb'}
From H7901; a bed (figuratively a bier); abstractly sleep; by euphemism carnal intercourse.
when the morning 1242
{1242} Prime
בֹּקֶר
boqer
{bo'-ker}
From H1239; properly dawn (as the break of day); generally morning.
is light, 216
{0216} Prime
אוֹר
'owr
{ore}
From H0215; illumination or (concretely) luminary (in every sense, including lightning, happiness, etc.).
they practise 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
it, because x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
it is 3426
{3426} Prime
יֵשׁ
yesh
{yaysh}
Perhaps from an unused root meaning to stand out, or exist; entity; used adverbially or as a copula for the substantive verb (H1961); there is or are (or any other form of the verb to be, as may suit the connection).
in the power 410
{0410} Prime
אֵל
'el
{ale}
Shortened from H0352; strength; as adjective mighty; especially the Almighty (but used also of any deity).
of their hand. 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Micah 2:1

_ _ Micah 2:1-13. Denunciation of the evils prevalent: The people’s unwillingness to hear the truth: Their expulsion from the land the fitting fruit of their sin: Yet Judah and Israel are hereafter to be restored.

_ _ devise ... work ... practise — They do evil not merely on a sudden impulse, but with deliberate design. As in the former chapter sins against the first table are reproved, so in this chapter sins against the second table. A gradation: “devise” is the conception of the evil purpose; “work” (Psalms 58:2), or “fabricate,” the maturing of the scheme; “practice,” or “effect,” the execution of it.

_ _ because it is in the power of their hand — for the phrase see Genesis 31:29; Proverbs 3:27. Might, not right, is what regulates their conduct. Where they can, they commit oppression; where they do not, it is because they cannot.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Micah 2:1-5

_ _ Here is, I. The injustice of man contriving the evil of sin, Micah 2:1, Micah 2:2. God was coming forth against this people to destroy them, and here he shows what was the ground of his controversy with them; it is that which is often mentioned as a sin that hastens the ruin of nations and families as much as any, the sin of oppression. Let us see the steps of it. 1. They eagerly desire that which is not their own — that is the root of bitterness, the root of all evil, Micah 2:2. They covet fields and houses, as Ahab did Naboth's vineyard. “Oh that such a one's field and house were mine! It lies convenient for me, and I would manage it better than he does; it is fitter for me than for him.” 2. They set their wits on work to invent ways of accomplishing their desire (Micah 2:4); they devise iniquity with a great deal of cursed art and policy; they plot how to do it effectually, and yet so as not to expose themselves, or bring themselves into danger, or under reproach, by it. This is called working evil! they are working it in their heads, in their families, and are as intent upon it, and with as much pleasure, as if they were doing it, and are as confident of their success (so wisely do they think they have laid the scheme) as if it were assuredly done. Note, It is bad to do mischief upon a sudden thought, but much worse to devise it, to do it with design and deliberation; when the craft and subtlety of the old serpent appear with his poison and venom, it is wickedness in perfection. They devised it upon their beds, when they should have been asleep; care to compass a mischievous design held their eyes waking. Upon their beds, where they should have been remembering God, and meditating upon him, where they should have been communing with their own hearts and examining them, they were devising iniquity. It is of great consequence to improve and employ the hours of our retirement and solitude in a proper manner. 3. They employ their power in executing what they have designed and contrived; they practise the iniquity they have devised, because it is in the power of their hand; they find that they can compass it by the help of their wealth, and the authority and interest they have, and that none dare control them, or call them to an account for it; and this, they think, will justify them and bear them out in it. Note, It is the mistake of many to think that as they can do they may do; whereas no power is given for destruction, but all for edification. 4. They are industrious and very expeditious in accomplishing the iniquity they have devised; when they have settled the matter in their thoughts, in their beds, they lose no time, but as soon as the morning is light they practice it; they are up early in the prosecution of their designs, and what ill their hand finds to do they do it with all their might, which shames our slothfulness and dilatoriness in doing good, and should shame us out of them. In the service of God, and our generation, let it never be said that we left that to be done tomorrow which we could do today. 5. They stick at nothing to compass their designs; what they covet they take away, if they can, and, (1.) They care not what wrong they do, though it be ever so gross and open; they take away men's fields by violence, not only by fraud, and underhand practices and colour of law, but by force and with a high hand. (2.) They care not to whom they do wrong nor how far the iniquity extends which they devise: They oppress a man and his house; they rob and ruin those that have numerous families to maintain, and are not concerned though they send them and their wives and children a begging. They oppress a man and his heritage; they take away from men that which they have an unquestionable title to, having received it from their ancestors, and which they have but in trust, to transmit it to their posterity; but those oppressors care not how many they impoverish, so they may but enrich themselves. Note, If covetousness reigns in the heart, commonly all compassion is banished from it; and if any man love this world, as the love of the Father, so the love of his neighbour is not in him.

_ _ II. The justice of God contriving the evil of punishment for this sin (Micah 2:3): Therefore thus saith the Lord, the righteous God, that judges between man and man, and is an avenger on those that do wrong, Behold, against this family do I devise an evil, that is, against the whole kingdom, the house of Israel, and particularly those families in it that were cruel and oppressive. They unjustly devise evil against their brethren, and God will justly devise evil against them. Infinite Wisdom will so contrive the punishment of their sin that it shall be very sure, and such as cannot be avoided, very severe, and such as they cannot bear, very signal and remarkable, and such as shall be universally observed to answer to the sin. The more there appears of a wicked wit in the sin the more there shall appear of a holy wisdom and fitness in the punishment; for the Lord will be known by the judgments he executes; he will be owned by them. 1. He finds them very secure, and confident that they shall in some way or other escape the judgment, or, though they fall under it, shall soon throw it off and get clear of it, and therefore he tells them, It is an evil from which they shall not remove their neck. They were children of Belial, that would not endure the easy yoke of God's righteous commands, but broke those bonds asunder, and cast away those cords from them; and therefore God will lay upon them the heavy yoke of his righteous judgments, and they shall not be able to withdraw their necks from that; those that will not be overruled shall be overcome. 2. He finds them very proud and stately, and therefore he tells them that they shall not go haughtily, with stretched-forth necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go (Isaiah 3:16); for this time is evil, and the events of it are very humbling and mortifying, and such as will bring down the stoutest spirit. 3. He finds them very merry and jovial, and therefore tells them their note shall be changed, their laughter shall be turned into mourning and their joy into heaviness (Micah 2:4): In that day, when God comes to punish you for your oppression, shall one take up a parable against you, and lament with a doleful lamentation, with a lamentation of lamentations (so the word is), a most lamentable lamentation, as a song of songs is a most pleasing song. Their enemies shall insult over them, and make a jest of their griefs, for they shall take up a parable against them. Their friends shall mourn over them, and lay to heart their calamities, and this shall be the general cry, “We are utterly spoiled; we are all undone.” Note, Those that were most haughty and secure in their prosperity are commonly most dejected and most ready to despair in their adversity. 4. He finds them very rich in houses and lands, which they have gained by oppression, and therefore tells them that they shall be stripped of all. (1.) They shall, in their despair, give it all up; they shall say, We are utterly spoiled; he has changed the portion of my people, so that it is now no longer theirs, but it is in the possession and occupation of their enemies: How has he removed it from me! How suddenly, how powerfully! What is unjustly got by us will not long continue with us; the righteous God will remove it. Turning away from us in wrath, he has divided our fields, and given them into the hands of strangers. Woe to those from whom God turns away. The margin reads it, “Instead of restoring, he has divided our fields; instead of putting us again in the possession of our estates, he has confirmed those in the possession of them that have taken them from us.” Note, It is just with God that those who have dealt fraudulently and violently with others should themselves be dealt fraudulently and violently with. (2.) God shall ratify what they say in their despair (Micah 2:5); so it shall be: Thou shalt have none to cast a cord by lot in the congregation of the Lord, none to divide inheritances, because there shall be no inheritances to divide, no courts to try titles to lands, or determine controversies about them, or cast lots upon them, as in Joshua's time, for all shall be in the enemies' hand. This land, which should be taken from them, they had not only an unquestionable title to, but a very comfortable enjoyment of, for it was in the congregation of the Lord, or rather the congregation of the Lord was in it; it was God's land; it was a holy land, and therefore it was the more grievous to them to be turned out of it. Note, Those are to be considered the sorest calamities which cut us off from the congregation of the Lord, or cut us short in the enjoyment of the privileges of it.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Micah 2:1

That devise — Contrive and frame mischief. Evil work — Contrive how to work it. It is in the power — Because they can; without regarding right or wrong.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Micah 2:1

Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil upon their beds! (a) when the morning is light, they practise it, because it is in the power of their hand.

(a) As soon as they rise, they execute their wicked devices of the night, and according to their ability hurt others.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Cir, am 3274, bc 730

to:

Esther 3:8 And Haman said unto king Ahasuerus, There is a certain people scattered abroad and dispersed among the people in all the provinces of thy kingdom; and their laws [are] diverse from all people; neither keep they the king's laws: therefore it [is] not for the king's profit to suffer them.
Esther 5:14 Then said Zeresh his wife and all his friends unto him, Let a gallows be made of fifty cubits high, and to morrow speak thou unto the king that Mordecai may be hanged thereon: then go thou in merrily with the king unto the banquet. And the thing pleased Haman; and he caused the gallows to be made.
Esther 9:25 But when [Esther] came before the king, he commanded by letters that his wicked device, which he devised against the Jews, should return upon his own head, and that he and his sons should be hanged on the gallows.
Psalms 7:14-16 Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood. ... His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall come down upon his own pate.
Psalms 140:1-8 [[To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.]] Deliver me, O LORD, from the evil man: preserve me from the violent man; ... Grant not, O LORD, the desires of the wicked: further not his wicked device; [lest] they exalt themselves. Selah.
Proverbs 6:12-19 A naughty person, a wicked man, walketh with a froward mouth. ... A false witness [that] speaketh lies, and he that soweth discord among brethren.
Proverbs 12:2 A good [man] obtaineth favour of the LORD: but a man of wicked devices will he condemn.
Isaiah 32:7 The instruments also of the churl [are] evil: he deviseth wicked devices to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.
Isaiah 59:3 For your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies, your tongue hath muttered perverseness.
Jeremiah 18:18 Then said they, Come, and let us devise devices against Jeremiah; for the law shall not perish from the priest, nor counsel from the wise, nor the word from the prophet. Come, and let us smite him with the tongue, and let us not give heed to any of his words.
Ezekiel 11:2 Then said he unto me, Son of man, these [are] the men that devise mischief, and give wicked counsel in this city:
Nahum 1:11 There is [one] come out of thee, that imagineth evil against the LORD, a wicked counsellor.
Luke 20:19 And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
Luke 22:2-6 And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might kill him; for they feared the people. ... And he promised, and sought opportunity to betray him unto them in the absence of the multitude.
Acts 23:12 And when it was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul.
Romans 1:30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,

work:

Psalms 36:4 He deviseth mischief upon his bed; he setteth himself in a way [that is] not good; he abhorreth not evil.
Proverbs 4:16 For they sleep not, except they have done mischief; and their sleep is taken away, unless they cause [some] to fall.

when:

Hosea 7:6-7 For they have made ready their heart like an oven, whiles they lie in wait: their baker sleepeth all the night; in the morning it burneth as a flaming fire. ... They are all hot as an oven, and have devoured their judges; all their kings are fallen: [there is] none among them that calleth unto me.
Matthew 27:1-2 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: ... And when they had bound him, they led [him] away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor.
Mark 15:1 And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus, and carried [him] away, and delivered [him] to Pilate.
Acts 23:15 Now therefore ye with the council signify to the chief captain that he bring him down unto you to morrow, as though ye would enquire something more perfectly concerning him: and we, or ever he come near, are ready to kill him.

because:

Genesis 31:29 It is in the power of my hand to do you hurt: but the God of your father spake unto me yesternight, saying, Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad.
Deuteronomy 28:32 Thy sons and thy daughters [shall be] given unto another people, and thine eyes shall look, and fail [with longing] for them all the day long: and [there shall be] no might in thine hand.
Proverbs 3:27 Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in the power of thine hand to do [it].
John 19:11 Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power [at all] against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Gn 31:29. Dt 28:32. Es 3:8; 5:14; 9:25. Ps 7:14; 36:4; 140:1. Pv 3:27; 4:16; 6:12; 12:2. Is 32:7; 59:3. Jr 18:18. Ezk 11:2. Ho 7:6. Na 1:11. Mt 27:1. Mk 15:1. Lk 20:19; 22:2. Jn 19:11. Ac 23:12, 15. Ro 1:30.

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