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Matthew 5:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And seeing the multitudes, he went up into the mountain: and when he had sat down, his disciples came unto him:
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him:
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And seeing the multitudes, he ascended a mountain: and when he was seated, his disciples came to him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— But seeing the crowds, he went up into the mountain, and having sat down, his disciples came to him;
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain,—and, when he had taken a seat, his disciples came unto him;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And having seen the multitudes, he went up to the mount, and he having sat down, his disciples came to him,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain, and when he was set down, his disciples came unto him.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And seeing the multitudes, he went vp into a mountaine: and when he was set, his disciples came vnto him.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— BUT when Jeshu saw the multitudes, he ascended a mountain; and when he had sat down, his disciples drew near to him;
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— And when Jesus saw the multitudes, he ascended a hill; and when he was seated, his disciples drew near him:

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And 1161
{1161} Prime
δέ
de
{deh}
A primary particle (adversative or continuative); but, and, etc.
seeing 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5631
<5631> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 889
the x3793
(3793) Complement
ὄχλος
ochlos
{okh'-los}
From a derivative of G2192 (meaning a vehicle); a throng (as borne along); by implication the rabble; by extension a class of people; figuratively a riot.
multitudes, 3793
{3793} Prime
ὄχλος
ochlos
{okh'-los}
From a derivative of G2192 (meaning a vehicle); a throng (as borne along); by implication the rabble; by extension a class of people; figuratively a riot.
he went up 305
{0305} Prime
ἀναβαίνω
anabaino
{an-ab-ah'-ee-no}
From G0303 and the base of G0939; to go up (literally or figuratively).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
into 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
a mountain: 3735
{3735} Prime
ὄρος
oros
{or'-os}
Probably from an obsolete word ὄρω [[oro]] (to rise or 'rear'; perhaps akin to G0142; compare G3733); a mountain (as lifting itself above the plain).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
when he 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
was set, 2523
{2523} Prime
καθίζω
kathizo
{kath-id'-zo}
Another (active) form for G2516; to seat down, that is, set (figuratively appoint); intransitively to sit (down); figuratively to settle (hover, dwell).
z5660
<5660> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 714
his 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
disciples 3101
{3101} Prime
μαθητής
mathetes
{math-ay-tes'}
From G3129; a learner, that is, pupil.
came 4334
{4334} Prime
προσέρχομαι
proserchomai
{pros-er'-khom-ahee}
From G4314 and G2064 (including its alternate); to approach, that is, (literally) come near, visit, or (figuratively) worship, assent to.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
unto him: 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Matthew 5:1

Chapters 5-7

Sermon on the mount

_ _ That this is the same Discourse as that in Luke 6:17-49 — only reported more fully by Matthew, and less fully, as well as with considerable variation, by Luke — is the opinion of many very able critics (of the Greek commentators; of Calvin, Grotius, Maldonatus — Who stands almost alone among Romish commentators; and of most moderns, as Tholuck, Meyer, Deuteronomy Wette, Tischendorf, Stier, Wieseler, Robinson). The prevailing opinion of these critics is that Luke’s is the original form of the discourse, to which Matthew has added a number of sayings, uttered on other occasions, in order to give at one view the great outlines of our Lord’s ethical teaching. But that they are two distinct discourses — the one delivered about the close of His first missionary tour, and the other after a second such tour and the solemn choice of the Twelve — is the judgment of others who have given much attention to such matters (of most Romish commentators, including Erasmus; and among the moderns, of Lange, Greswell, Birks, Webster and Wilkinson. The question is left undecided by Alford). Augustine’s opinion — that they were both delivered on one occasion, Matthew’s on the mountain, and to the disciples; Luke’s in the plain, and to the promiscuous multitude — is so clumsy and artificial as hardly to deserve notice. To us the weight of argument appears to lie with those who think them two separate discourses. It seems hard to conceive that Matthew should have put this discourse before his own calling, if it was not uttered till long after, and was spoken in his own hearing as one of the newly chosen Twelve. Add to this, that Matthew introduces his discourse amidst very definite markings of time, which fix it to our Lord’s first preaching tour; while that of Luke, which is expressly said to have been delivered immediately after the choice of the Twelve, could not have been spoken till long after the time noted by Matthew. It is hard, too, to see how either discourse can well be regarded as the expansion or contraction of the other. And as it is beyond dispute that our Lord repeated some of His weightier sayings in different forms, and with varied applications, it ought not to surprise us that, after the lapse of perhaps a year — when, having spent a whole night on the hill in prayer to God, and set the Twelve apart, He found Himself surrounded by crowds of people, few of whom probably had heard the Sermon on the Mount, and fewer still remembered much of it — He should go over its principal points again, with just as much sameness as to show their enduring gravity, but at the same time with that difference which shows His exhaustless fertility as the great Prophet of the Church.

_ _ Matthew 5:1-16. The beatitudes, and their bearing upon the world.

_ _ And seeing the multitudes — those mentioned in Matthew 4:25.

_ _ he went up into a mountain — one of the dozen mountains which Robinson says there are in the vicinity of the Sea of Galilee, any one of them answering about equally well to the occasion. So charming is the whole landscape that the descriptions of it, from Josephus downwards [Wars of the Jews, 4.10, 8], are apt to be thought a little colored.

_ _ and when he was set — had sat or seated Himself.

_ _ his disciples came unto him — already a large circle, more or less attracted and subdued by His preaching and miracles, in addition to the smaller band of devoted adherents. Though the latter only answered to the subjects of His kingdom, described in this discourse, there were drawn from time to time into this inner circle souls from the outer one, who, by the power of His matchless word, were constrained to forsake their all for the Lord Jesus.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Matthew 5:1-2

_ _ We have here a general account of this sermon.

_ _ I. The Preacher was our Lord Jesus, the Prince of preachers, the great Prophet of his church, who came into the world, to be the Light of the world. The prophets and John had done virtuously in preaching, but Christ excelled them all. He is the eternal Wisdom, that lay in the bosom of the Father, before all worlds, and perfectly knew his will (John 1:18); and he is the eternal Word, by whom he has in these last days spoken to us. The many miraculous cures wrought by Christ in Galilee, which we read of in the close of the foregoing chapter, were intended to make way for this sermon, and to dispose people to receive instructions from one in whom there appeared so much of a divine power and goodness; and, probably, this sermon was the summary, or rehearsal, of what he had preached up and down in the synagogues of Galilee. His text was, Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. This is a sermon on the former part of that text, showing what it is to repent; it is to reform, both in judgment and practice; and here he tells us wherein, in answer to that question (Malachi 3:7), Wherein shall we return? He afterward preached upon the latter part of the text, when, in divers parables, he showed what the kingdom of heaven is like, ch. 13.

_ _ II. The place was a mountain in Galilee. As in other things, so in this, our Lord Jesus was but ill accommodated; he had no convenient place to preach in, any more than to lay his head on. While the scribes and Pharisees had Moses' chair to sit in, with all possible ease, honour, and state, and there corrupted the law; our Lord Jesus, the great Teacher of truth, is driven out to the desert, and finds no better a pulpit than a mountain can afford; and not one of the holy mountains neither, not one of the mountains of Zion, but a common mountain; by which Christ would intimate that there is no such distinguishing holiness of places now, under the gospel, as there was under the law; but that it is the will of God that men should pray and preach every where, any where, provided it be decent and convenient. Christ preached this sermon, which was an exposition of the law, upon a mountain, because upon a mountain the law was given; and this was also a solemn promulgation of the Christian law. But observe the difference: when the law was given, the Lord came down upon the mountain; now the Lord went up: then, he spoke in thunder and lightning; now, in a still small voice: then the people were ordered to keep their distance; now they are invited to draw near: a blessed change! If God's grace and goodness are (as they certainly are) his glory, then the glory of the gospel is the glory that excels, for grace and truth came by Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:7; Hebrews 12:18, etc. It was foretold of Zebulun and Issachar, two of the tribes of Galilee (Deuteronomy 33:19), that they shall call the people to the mountain; to this mountain we are called, to learn to offer the sacrifices of righteousness. Now was this the mountain of the Lord, where he taught us his ways, Isaiah 2:2, Isaiah 2:3; Micah 4:1, Micah 4:2.

_ _ III. The auditors were his disciples, who came unto him; came at his call, as appears by comparing Mark 3:13, Luke 6:13. To them he directed his speech, because they followed him for love and learning, while others attended him only for cures. He taught them, because they were willing to be taught (the meek will he teach his way); because they would understand what he taught, which to others was foolishness; and because they were to teach others; and it was therefore requisite that they should have a clear and distinct knowledge of these things themselves. The duties prescribed in this sermon were to be conscientiously performed by all those that would enter into that kingdom of heaven which they were sent to set up, with hope to have the benefit of it. But though this discourse was directed to the disciples, it was in the hearing of the multitude; for it is said (Matthew 7:28), The people were astonished. No bounds were set about this mountain, to keep the people off, as were about mount Sinai (Exodus 19:12); for, through Christ, we have access to God, not only to speak to him, but to hear from him. Nay, he had an eye to the multitude, in preaching this sermon. When the fame of his miracles had brought a vast crowd together, he took the opportunity of so great a confluence of people, to instruct them. Note, It is an encouragement to a faithful minister to cast the net of the gospel where there are a great many fishes, in hope that some will be caught. The sight of a multitude puts life into a preacher, which yet must arise from a desire of their profit, not his own praise.

_ _ IV. The solemnity of his sermon is intimated in that word, when he was set. Christ preached many times occasionally, and by interlocutory discourses; but this was a set sermon, kathisantos autou, when he had placed himself so as to be best heard. He sat down as a Judge or Lawgiver. It intimates with what sedateness and composure of mind the things of God should be spoken and heard. He sat, that the scriptures might be fulfilled (Malachi 3:3), He shall sit as a refiner, to purge away the dross, the corrupt doctrines of the sons of Levi. He sat as in the throne, judging right (Psalms 9:4); for the word he spoke shall judge us. That phrase, He opened his mouth, is only a Hebrew periphrasis of speaking, as Job 3:1. Yet some think it intimates the solemnity of this discourse; the congregation being large, he raised his voice, and spoke louder than usual. He had spoken long by his servants the prophets, and opened their mouths (Ezekiel 3:27; Ezekiel 24:27; Ezekiel 33:22); but now he opened his own, and spoke with freedom, as one having authority. One of the ancients has this remark upon it; Christ taught much without opening his mouth. that is, by his holy and exemplary life; nay, he taught, when, being led as a lamb to the slaughter, he opened not his mouth, but now he opened his mouth, and taught, that the scriptures might be fulfilled, Proverbs 8:1, Proverbs 8:2, Proverbs 8:6. Doth not wisdom cry — cry on the top of high places? And the opening of her lips shall be right things. He taught them, according to the promise (Isaiah 54:13), All thy children shall be taught of the Lord; for this purpose he had the tongue of the learned (Isaiah 50:4), and the Spirit of the Lord, Isaiah 61:1. He taught them, what was the evil they should abhor, and what was the good they should abide and abound in; for Christianity is not a matter of speculation, but is designed to regulate the temper of our minds and the tenour of our conversations; gospel-time is a time of reformation (Hebrews 9:10); and by the gospel we must be reformed, must be made good, must be made better. The truth, as it is in Jesus, is the truth which is according to godliness, Titus 1:1.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Matthew 5:1

And seeing the multitudes — At some distance, as they were coming to him from every quarter. He went up into the mountain — Which was near: where there was room for them all. His disciples — not only his twelve disciples, but all who desired to learn of him.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
seeing:

Matthew 4:25 And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and [from] Decapolis, and [from] Jerusalem, and [from] Judaea, and [from] beyond Jordan.
Matthew 13:2 And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore.
Mark 4:1 And he began again to teach by the sea side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea on the land.

he went:

Matthew 15:29 And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a mountain, and sat down there.
Mark 3:13 And he goeth up into a mountain, and calleth [unto him] whom he would: and they came unto him.
Mark 3:20 And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread.
John 6:2-3 And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased. ... And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.

his:

Matthew 4:18-22 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. ... And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed him.
Matthew 10:2-4 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James [the son] of Zebedee, and John his brother; ... Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.
Luke 6:13-16 And when it was day, he called [unto him] his disciples: and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named apostles; ... And Judas [the brother] of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.
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Mt 4:18, 25; 10:2; 13:2; 15:29. Mk 3:13, 20; 4:1. Lk 6:13. Jn 6:2.

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