Parallel Bible VersionsGreek Bible Study Tools

Matthew 4:16 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— The people that sat in darkness Saw a great light, And to them that sat in the region and shadow of death, To them did light spring up.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “THE PEOPLE WHO WERE SITTING IN DARKNESS SAW A GREAT LIGHT, AND THOSE WHO WERE SITTING IN THE LAND AND SHADOW OF DEATH, UPON THEM A LIGHT DAWNED.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— The people who sat in darkness, saw great light; and to them who sat in the region and shades of death, light hath arisen.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— —the people sitting in darkness has seen a great light, and to those sitting in [the] country and shadow of death, to them has light sprung up.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— The people that was sitting in darkness, a great light, beheld,—and, on them who were sitting in land and shade of death, Light rose on them.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— the people that is sitting in darkness saw a great light, and to those sitting in a region and shadow of death—light arose to them.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The people that sat in darkness, hath seen great light: and to them that sat in the region of the shadow of death, light is sprung up.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— The people which sate in darkenesse, saw great light: and to them which sate in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung vp.
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— The people who sat in darkness the great light hath seen; and they who have sat in the region and shadow of death, the light has arisen upon them.
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— the people that sat in darkness, have seen great light; and to them who sat in the region and shadow of death, light is arisen.

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
The x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
people 2992
{2992} Prime
λαός
laos
{lah-os'}
Apparently a primary word; a people (in general; thus differing from G1218, which denotes one's own populace).
which 3588
{3588} Prime

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
sat 2521
{2521} Prime
κάθημαι
kathemai
{kath'-ay-mahee}
From G2596 and ἧμαι [[hemai]] (to sit; akin to the base of G1476); to sit down; figuratively to remain, reside.
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
darkness 4655
{4655} Prime
σκότος
skotos
{skot'-os}
From the base of G4639; shadiness, that is, obscurity (literally or figuratively).
saw 1492
{1492} Prime
εἰδῶ
eido
{i-do'}
A primary verb; used only in certain past tenses, the others being borrowed from the equivalent, G3700 and G3708; properly to see (literally or figuratively); by implication (in the perfect only) to know.
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
great 3173
{3173} Prime
μέγας
megas
{meg'-as}
Including the prolonged forms, feminine μεγάλη [[megale]], plural μέγάλοι [[megaloi]], etc.; compare also G3176, G3187], big (literally or figuratively, in a very wide application).
light; 5457
{5457} Prime
φῶς
phos
{foce}
From an obsolete φάω [[phao]] (to shine or make manifest, especially by rays; compare G5316 and G5346); luminousness (in the widest application, natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
to them which y3588
[3588] Standard

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
sat 2521
{2521} Prime
κάθημαι
kathemai
{kath'-ay-mahee}
From G2596 and ἧμαι [[hemai]] (to sit; akin to the base of G1476); to sit down; figuratively to remain, reside.
z5740
<5740> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - Middle or Passive Deponent (See G5790)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 544
in 1722
{1722} Prime
ἐν
en
{en}
A primary preposition denoting (fixed) position (in place, time or state), and (by implication) instrumentality (medially or constructively), that is, a relation of rest (intermediate between G1519 and G1537); 'in', at, (up-) on, by, etc.
the region 5561
{5561} Prime
χώρα
chora
{kho'-rah}
Feminine of a derivative of the base of G5490 through the idea of empty expanse; room, that is, a space of territory (more or less extensive; often including its inhabitants).
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
shadow 4639
{4639} Prime
σκιά
skia
{skee'-ah}
Apparently a primary word; 'shade' or a shadow (literally or figuratively [darkness of error or an adumbration]).
of death 2288
{2288} Prime
θάνατος
thanatos
{than'-at-os}
From G2348; (properly an adjective used as a noun) death (literally or figuratively).
light 5457
{5457} Prime
φῶς
phos
{foce}
From an obsolete φάω [[phao]] (to shine or make manifest, especially by rays; compare G5316 and G5346); luminousness (in the widest application, natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative).
is sprung up. 393
{0393} Prime
ἀνατέλλω
anatello
{an-at-el'-lo}
From G0303 and the base of G5056; to (cause to) arise.
z5656
<5656> Grammar
Tense - Aorist (See G5777)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2319
y846
[0846] Standard
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Matthew 4:16

_ _ The people which sat in darkness saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death light is sprung up — The prophetic strain to which these words belong commences with the seventh chapter of Isaiah, to which the sixth chapter is introductory, and goes down to the end of the twelfth chapter, which hymns the spirit of that whole strain of prophecy. It belongs to the reign of Ahaz and turns upon the combined efforts of the two neighboring kingdoms of Syria and Israel to crush Judah. In these critical circumstances Judah and her king were, by their ungodliness, provoking the Lord to sell them into the hands of their enemies. What, then, is the burden of this prophetic strain, on to the passage here quoted? First, Judah shall not, cannot perish, because IMMANUEL, the Virgin’s Son, is to come forth from his loins. Next, one of the invaders shall soon perish, and the kingdoms of neither be enlarged. Further, while the Lord will be the Sanctuary of such as confide in these promises and await their fulfillment, He will drive to confusion, darkness, and despair the vast multitude of the nation who despised His oracles, and, in their anxiety and distress, betook themselves to the lying oracles of the heathen. This carries us down to the end of the eighth chapter. At the opening of the ninth chapter a sudden light is seen breaking in upon one particular part of the country, the part which was to suffer most in these wars and devastations — “the land of Zebulun, and the land of Naphtali, the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee and the Gentiles.” The rest of the prophecy stretches over both the Assyrian and the Chaldean captivities and terminates in the glorious Messianic prophecy of the eleventh chapter and the choral hymn of the twelfth chapter. Well, this is the point seized on by our Evangelist. By Messiah’s taking up His abode in those very regions of Galilee, and shedding His glorious light upon them, this prediction, He says, of the Evangelical prophet was now fulfilled; and if it was not thus fulfilled, we may confidently affirm it was not fulfilled in any age of the Jewish ceremony, and has received no fulfillment at all. Even the most rationalistic critics have difficulty in explaining it in any other way.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Matthew 4:12-17.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Matthew 4:16

Here is a beautiful gradation, first, they walked, then they sat in darkness, and lastly, in the region of the shadow of death.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
which sat in darkness:

Psalms 107:10-14 Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, [being] bound in affliction and iron; ... He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and brake their bands in sunder.
Isaiah 42:6-7 I the LORD have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, for a light of the Gentiles; ... To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, [and] them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.
Isaiah 60:1-3 Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee. ... And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.
Micah 7:8 Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy: when I fall, I shall arise; when I sit in darkness, the LORD [shall be] a light unto me.
Luke 1:78-79 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us, ... To give light to them that sit in darkness and [in] the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.
Luke 2:32 A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.

shadow:

Job 3:5 Let darkness and the shadow of death stain it; let a cloud dwell upon it; let the blackness of the day terrify it.
Job 10:22 A land of darkness, as darkness [itself; and] of the shadow of death, without any order, and [where] the light [is] as darkness.
Job 34:22 [There is] no darkness, nor shadow of death, where the workers of iniquity may hide themselves.
Psalms 44:19 Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death.
Jeremiah 13:16 Give glory to the LORD your God, before he cause darkness, and before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains, and, while ye look for light, he turn it into the shadow of death, [and] make [it] gross darkness.
Amos 5:8 [Seek him] that maketh the seven stars and Orion, and turneth the shadow of death into the morning, and maketh the day dark with night: that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD [is] his name:
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Jb 3:5; 10:22; 34:22. Ps 44:19; 107:10. Is 42:6; 60:1. Jr 13:16. Am 5:8. Mi 7:8. Lk 1:78; 2:32.

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