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Matthew 12:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— how he entered into the house of God, and ate the showbread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them that were with him, but only for the priests?
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— How he entered into the house of God, and ate the show-bread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them who were with him, but only for the priests?
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— How he entered into the house of God, and ate the shewbread, which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for those with him, but for the priests only?
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— he entered into the house of God and, the presence-bread, did eat, which it was not, allowable, for him to eat, nor for them who were with him,—save for the priests, alone?
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— how he went into the house of God, and the loaves of the presentation did eat, which it is not lawful to him to eat, nor to those with him, except to the priests alone?
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the loaves of proposition, which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for them that were with him, but for the priests only?
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— How he entred into the house of God, and did eate the shew bread, which was not lawfull for him to eate, neither for them which were with him, but, only for the Priests?
John Etheridge Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1849)
— how he went to the house of Aloha, and the bread of the table of the Lord did he eat, -that which was not lawful for him to eat, nor for them who were with him, but for the priests only?
James Murdock Peshitta-Aramaic NT (1852)
— How he went to the house of God, and ate the bread of the Lord's table; which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor for them that were with him, but solely for the priests?

Strong's Numbers & Red-LettersGreek New TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
How 4459
{4459} Prime
πῶς
pos
{poce}
Adverb from the base of G4226; an interrogitive particle of manner; in what way? (sometimes the question is indirect, how?); also as exclamation, how much!.
he entered x1525
(1525) Complement
εἰσέρχομαι
eiserchomai
{ice-er'-khom-ahee}
From G1519 and G2064; to enter (literally or figuratively).
into 1519
{1519} Prime
εἰς
eis
{ice}
A primary preposition; to or into (indicating the point reached or entered), of place, time, or (figuratively) purpose (result, etc.); also in adverbial phrases.
y1525
[1525] Standard
εἰσέρχομαι
eiserchomai
{ice-er'-khom-ahee}
From G1519 and G2064; to enter (literally or figuratively).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
house 3624
{3624} Prime
οἶκος
oikos
{oy'-kos}
Of uncertain affinity; a dwelling (more or less extensive, literally or figuratively); by implication a family (more or less related, literally or figuratively).
of God, 2316
{2316} Prime
θεός
theos
{theh'-os}
Of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with G3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively a magistrate; by Hebraism very.
and 2532
{2532} Prime
καί
kai
{kahee}
Apparently a primary particle, having a copulative and sometimes also a cumulative force; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection (or composition) with other particles or small words.
did eat 5315
{5315} Prime
φάγω
phago
{fag'-o}
A primary verb (used as an alternate of G2068 in certain tenses); to eat (literally or figuratively).
z5627
<5627> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 2138 plus 1 in a variant reading in a footnote
the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
shewbread, 740
{0740} Prime
ἄρτος
artos
{ar'-tos}
From G0142; bread (as raised) or a loaf.
4286
{4286} Prime
πρόθεσις
prothesis
{proth'-es-is}
From G4388; a setting forth, that is, (figuratively) proposal (intention); specifically the show bread (in the Temple) as exposed before God.
which 3739
{3739} Prime
ὅς
hos
{hos}
Probably a primary word (or perhaps a form of the article G3588); the relative (sometimes demonstrative) pronoun, who, which, what, that.
was 2258
{2258} Prime
ἦν
en
{ane}
Imperfect of G1510; I (thou, etc.) was (wast or were).
z5713
<5713> Grammar
Tense - Imperfect (See G5775)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Indicative (See G5791)
Count - 532
not 3756
{3756} Prime
οὐ
ou
{oo}
A primary word; the absolutely negative (compare G3361) adverb; no or not.
lawful 1832
{1832} Prime
ἔξεστι
exesti
{ex'-es-tee}
Third person singular present indicative of a compound of G1537 and G1510; so also ἐξόν [[exon]], {ex-on'}; neuter present participle of the same (with or without some form of G1510 expressed); impersonally it is right (through the figurative idea of being out in public).
z5752
<5752> Grammar
Tense - Present (See G5774)
Voice - No Voice Stated (See G5799)
Mood - Participle (See G5796)
Count - 186
for him 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
to eat, 5315
{5315} Prime
φάγω
phago
{fag'-o}
A primary verb (used as an alternate of G2068 in certain tenses); to eat (literally or figuratively).
z5629
<5629> Grammar
Tense - Second Aorist (See G5780)
Voice - Active (See G5784)
Mood - Infinitive (See G5795)
Count - 454
neither x3761
(3761) Complement
οὐδέ
oude
{oo-deh'}
From G3756 and G1161; not however, that is, neither, nor, not even.
for y3761
[3761] Standard
οὐδέ
oude
{oo-deh'}
From G3756 and G1161; not however, that is, neither, nor, not even.
them x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
which y3326
[3326] Standard
μετά
meta
{met-ah'}
A primary preposition (often used adverbially); properly denoting accompaniment; 'amid' (local or causal); modified variously according to the case (genitive case association, or accusative case succession) with which it is joined; occupying an intermediate position between G0575 or G1537 and G1519 or G4314; less intimate than G1722, and less close than G4862).
were with x3326
(3326) Complement
μετά
meta
{met-ah'}
A primary preposition (often used adverbially); properly denoting accompaniment; 'amid' (local or causal); modified variously according to the case (genitive case association, or accusative case succession) with which it is joined; occupying an intermediate position between G0575 or G1537 and G1519 or G4314; less intimate than G1722, and less close than G4862).
him, 846
{0846} Prime
αὐτός
autos
{ow-tos'}
From the particle αὖ [[au]] (perhaps akin to the base of G0109 through the idea of a baffling wind; backward); the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compound of G1438) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons.
but 1508
{1508} Prime
εἴ μή
ei me
{i may}
From G1487 and G3361; if not.
only 3441
{3441} Prime
μόνος
monos
{mon'-os}
Probably from G3306; remaining, that is, sole or single; by implication mere.
for the x3588
(3588) Complement

ho
{ho}
The masculine, feminine (second) and neuter (third) forms, in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom).
priests? 2409
{2409} Prime
ἱερεύς
hiereus
{hee-er-yooce'}
From G2413; a priest (literally or figuratively).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Matthew 12:4

_ _ How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the showbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? — No example could be more apposite than this. The man after God’s own heart, of whom the Jews ever boasted, when suffering in God’s cause and straitened for provisions, asked and obtained from the high priest what, according to the law, it was illegal for anyone save the priests to touch. Mark (Mark 2:26) says this occurred “in the days of Abiathar the high priest.” But this means not during his high priesthood — for it was under that of his father Ahimelech — but simply, in his time. Ahimelech was soon succeeded by Abiathar, whose connection with David, and prominence during his reign, may account for his name, rather than his father’s, being here introduced. Yet there is not a little confusion in what is said of these priests in different parts of the Old Testament. Thus he is called both the son of the father of Ahimelech (1 Samuel 22:20; 2 Samuel 8:17); and Ahimelech is called Ahiah (1 Samuel 14:3), and Abimelech (1 Chronicles 18:16).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Matthew 12:1-13.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Matthew 12:4

He entered into the house of God — Into the tabernacle. The temple was not yet built. The show bread — So they called the bread which the priest, who served that week, put every Sabbath day on the golden table that was in the holy place, before the Lord. The loaves were twelve in number, and represented the twelve tribes of Israel: when the new were brought, the stale were taken away, but were to be eaten by the priests only. 1 Samuel 21:6.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Matthew 12:4

How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the (a) shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?

(a) The Hebrews call it "bread of faces", because it stood before the Lord all the week upon the golden table appointed for that service; (Leviticus 24:6).

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the shew-bread,
Exodus 25:30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbread before me alway.
Leviticus 24:5-9 And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake twelve cakes thereof: two tenth deals shall be in one cake. ... And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it [is] most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire by a perpetual statute.

but:

Exodus 29:32-33 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the flesh of the ram, and the bread that [is] in the basket, [by] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. ... And they shall eat those things wherewith the atonement was made, to consecrate [and] to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not eat [thereof], because they [are] holy.
Leviticus 8:31 And Moses said unto Aaron and to his sons, Boil the flesh [at] the door of the tabernacle of the congregation: and there eat it with the bread that [is] in the basket of consecrations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall eat it.
Leviticus 24:9 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons'; and they shall eat it in the holy place: for it [is] most holy unto him of the offerings of the LORD made by fire by a perpetual statute.
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Ex 25:30; 29:32. Lv 8:31; 24:5, 9.

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