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Leviticus 5:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Or if any one swear rashly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall utter rashly with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty in one of these [things].
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever [it be] that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘Or if a person swears thoughtlessly with his lips to do evil or to do good, in whatever matter a man may speak thoughtlessly with an oath, and it is hidden from him, and then he comes to know [it], he will be guilty in one of these.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Or if a soul shall swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatever [it may be], that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Or if any one swear, talking rashly with the lips, to do evil or to do good, in everything that a man shall say rashly with an oath, and it be hid from him, when he knoweth [it], then is he guilty in one of these.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Or, any person, whensoever he shall swear, speaking unadvisedly with the lips, to harm or to help, as regardeth anything wherein the son of earth may speak unadvisedly by way of oath, and it be hidden from him,—and then, he himself, getting to know it, becometh aware of his guilt, as regardeth any one of these things.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'Or when a person sweareth, speaking wrongfully with the lips to do evil, or to do good, even anything which man speaketh wrongfully with an oath, and it hath been hid from him;—when he hath known then he hath been guilty of one of these;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— The person that sweareth, and uttereth with his lips, that he would do either evil or good, and bindeth the same with an oath, and his word: and having forgotten it afterwards understandeth his offence,
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Or if a soule sweare, pronouncing with his lips to do euill, or to do good, whatsoeuer it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and [it] be hid from him, when he knoweth [of it], then he shalbe guilty in one of these.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— That unrighteous soul, which determines with his lips to do evil or to do good according to whatsoever a man may determine with an oath, and it shall have escaped his notice, and he shall [afterwards] know [it], and [so] he should sin in some one of these things:
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever [it be] that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
if x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
a soul 5315
{5315} Prime
נֶפֶשׁ
nephesh
{neh'-fesh}
From H5314; properly a breathing creature, that is, animal or (abstractly) vitality; used very widely in a literal, accommodated or figurative sense (bodily or mental).
swear, 7650
{7650} Prime
שָׁבַע
shaba`
{shaw-bah'}
A primitive root; properly to be complete, but used only as a denominative from H7651; to seven oneself, that is, swear (as if by repeating a declaration seven times).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
pronouncing 981
{0981} Prime
בָּטָא
bata'
{baw-taw'}
A primitive root; to babble; hence to vociferate angrily.
z8763
<8763> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 790
with [his] lips 8193
{8193} Prime
שָׂפָה
saphah
{saw-faw'}
(The second form is in dual and plural); Probably from H5595 or H8192 through the idea of termination (compare H5490); the lip (as a natural boundary); by implication language; by analogy a margin (of a vessel, water, cloth, etc.).
to do evil, 7489
{7489} Prime
רָעַע
ra`a`
{raw-ah'}
A primitive root; properly to spoil (literally by breaking to pieces); figuratively to make (or be) good for nothing, that is, bad (physically, socially or morally). (associate selves and show self friendly are by mistake for H7462.).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
or x176
(0176) Complement
אוֹ
'ow
{o}
The first form is presumed to be the 'constructive' or genitival form of the second form which is short for H0185; desire (and so probably in Proverbs 31:4); hence (by way of alternative) or, also if.
to do good, 3190
{3190} Prime
יָטַב
yatab
{yaw-tab'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively) make well, literally (sound, beautiful) or figuratively (happy, successful, right).
z8687
<8687> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 1162
whatsoever x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[it be] that a man 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
shall pronounce 981
{0981} Prime
בָּטָא
bata'
{baw-taw'}
A primitive root; to babble; hence to vociferate angrily.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
with an oath, 7621
{7621} Prime
שְׁבוּעָה
sh@buw`ah
{sheb-oo-aw'}
Feminine passive participle of H7650; properly something sworn, that is, an oath.
and it be hid 5956
{5956} Prime
עָלַם
`alam
{aw-lam'}
A primitive root; to veil from sight, that is, conceal (literally or figuratively).
z8738
<8738> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 1429
from x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
him; when he x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
knoweth 3045
{3045} Prime
ידע
yada`
{yaw-dah'}
A primitive root; to know (properly to ascertain by seeing); used in a great variety of senses, figuratively, literally, euphemistically and inferentially (including observation, care, recognition; and causatively instruction, designation, punishment, etc.).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
[of it], then he shall be guilty 816
{0816} Prime
אָשַׁם
'asham
{aw-sham'}
A primitive root; to be guilty; by implication to be punished or perish.
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
in one 259
{0259} Prime
אֶחָד
'echad
{ekh-awd'}
A numeral from H0258; properly united, that is, one; or (as an ordinal) first.
of these. x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Leviticus 5:4

_ _ Leviticus 5:4-19. For swearing.

_ _ if a soul swear — a rash oath, without duly considering the nature and consequences of the oath, perhaps inconsiderately binding himself to do anything wrong, or neglecting to perform a vow to do something good. In all such cases a person might have transgressed one of the divine commandments unwittingly, and have been afterwards brought to a sense of his delinquency.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Leviticus 5:1-6.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Leviticus 5:4

If a soul swear — Rashly, without consideration either of God's law, or his own power or right, as David did, 1 Samuel 25:22. To do evil — To himself, to punish himself either in his body, or estate, or something else which is dear to him. Or rather to his neighbour. And it be hid from him — That is, he did not know, or not consider, that what he swore to do, was or would be impossible, or unlawful: When he discovers it to be so, either by his own consideration, or by information from others, whether it was good or evil which he swore to do.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Leviticus 5:4

Or if a soul (b) swear, pronouncing with [his] lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever [it be] that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth [of it], then he shall be guilty in one of these.

(b) Or, vow rashly without just examination of the circumstances, and not knowing what shall be the issue of the same.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
if a soul:
This relates to rash oaths or vows, which a man was afterwards unable, or which it would have been sinful, to perform.

to do evil:

Leviticus 27:2-34 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When a man shall make a singular vow, the persons [shall be] for the LORD by thy estimation. ... These [are] the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai.
Joshua 2:14 And the men answered her, Our life for yours, if ye utter not this our business. And it shall be, when the LORD hath given us the land, that we will deal kindly and truly with thee.
Joshua 9:15 And Joshua made peace with them, and made a league with them, to let them live: and the princes of the congregation sware unto them.
Judges 9:19 If ye then have dealt truly and sincerely with Jerubbaal and with his house this day, [then] rejoice ye in Abimelech, and let him also rejoice in you:
Judges 11:31 Then it shall be, that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the LORD'S, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.
Judges 21:7 How shall we do for wives for them that remain, seeing we have sworn by the LORD that we will not give them of our daughters to wives?
Judges 21:18 Howbeit we may not give them wives of our daughters: for the children of Israel have sworn, saying, Cursed [be] he that giveth a wife to Benjamin.
1 Samuel 1:11 And she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no razor come upon his head.
1 Samuel 14:24-28 And the men of Israel were distressed that day: for Saul had adjured the people, saying, Cursed [be] the man that eateth [any] food until evening, that I may be avenged on mine enemies. So none of the people tasted [any] food. ... Then answered one of the people, and said, Thy father straitly charged the people with an oath, saying, Cursed [be] the man that eateth [any] food this day. And the people were faint.
1 Samuel 24:21-22 Swear now therefore unto me by the LORD, that thou wilt not cut off my seed after me, and that thou wilt not destroy my name out of my father's house. ... And David sware unto Saul. And Saul went home; but David and his men gat them up unto the hold.
1 Samuel 25:22 So and more also do God unto the enemies of David, if I leave of all that [pertain] to him by the morning light any that pisseth against the wall.
2 Samuel 21:7 But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, because of the LORD'S oath that [was] between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul.
2 Kings 6:31 Then he said, God do so and more also to me, if the head of Elisha the son of Shaphat shall stand on him this day.
Psalms 132:2-5 How he sware unto the LORD, [and] vowed unto the mighty [God] of Jacob; ... Until I find out a place for the LORD, an habitation for the mighty [God] of Jacob.
Ecclesiastes 5:2-6 Be not rash with thy mouth, and let not thine heart be hasty to utter [any] thing before God: for God [is] in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few. ... Suffer not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin; neither say thou before the angel, that it [was] an error: wherefore should God be angry at thy voice, and destroy the work of thine hands?
Ezekiel 17:18-19 Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these [things], he shall not escape. ... Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; [As] I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head.
Matthew 14:7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask.
Matthew 14:9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded [it] to be given [her].
Mark 6:23 And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give [it] thee, unto the half of my kingdom.
Acts 23:12 And when it was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Lv 27:2. Jsh 2:14; 9:15. Jg 9:19; 11:31; 21:7, 18. 1S 1:11; 14:24; 24:21; 25:22. 2S 21:7. 2K 6:31. Ps 132:2. Ec 5:2. Ezk 17:18. Mt 14:7, 9. Mk 6:23. Ac 23:12.

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