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Leviticus 3:1 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace-offerings; if he offer of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before Jehovah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And if his oblation [be] a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer [it] of the herd; whether [it be] a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘Now if his offering is a sacrifice of peace offerings, if he is going to offer out of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without defect before the LORD.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And if his oblation [shall be] a sacrifice of peace-offering, if he shall offer [it] of the herd, whether a male or female; he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And if his offering be a sacrifice of peace-offering,—if he present [it] of the herd, whether a male or female, he shall present it without blemish before Jehovah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— But, if, a peace-offering, be his oblation, if, of the herd, he himself, be bringing near,—whether male or female, without defect, shall he bring it near, before Yahweh.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And if his offering [is] a sacrifice of peace-offerings, if out of the herd he is bringing near, whether male or female, a perfect one he doth bring near before Jehovah,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace offerings, and he will offer of the herd, whether male or female: he shall offer them without blemish before the Lord.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And if his oblation [be] a sacrifice of peace offering, if hee offer [it] of the herd, whether it be a male or female, he shal offer it without blemish before the LORD.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And if his gift to the Lord be a peace-offering, if he should bring it of the oxen, whether it be male or whether it be female, he shall bring it unblemished before the Lord.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And if his oblation [be] a sacrifice of peace offering, if he offer [it] of the herd; whether [it be] a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before Yahweh.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And if x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
his oblation 7133
{7133} Prime
קֹרְבָּן
qorban
{kor-bawn'}
From H7126; something brought near the altar, that is, a sacrificial present.
[be] a sacrifice 2077
{2077} Prime
זֶבַח
zebach
{zeh'-bakh}
From H2076; properly a slaughter, that is, the flesh of an animal; by implication a sacrifice (the victim or the act).
of peace offering, 8002
{8002} Prime
שֶׁלֶם
shelem
{sheh'-lem}
From H7999; properly requital, that is, a (voluntary) sacrifice in thanks.
if x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
he x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
offer 7126
{7126} Prime
קָרַב
qarab
{kaw-rab'}
A primitive root; to approach (causatively bring near) for whatever purpose.
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
[it] of x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the herd; 1241
{1241} Prime
בָּקָר
baqar
{baw-kawr'}
From H1239; a beeve or animal of the ox kind of either gender (as used for ploughing); collectively a herd.
whether x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
[it be] a male 2145
{2145} Prime
זָכָר
zakar
{zaw-kawr'}
From H2142; properly remembered, that is, a male (of man or animals, as being the most noteworthy sex).
or x518
(0518) Complement
אִם
'im
{eem}
A primitive particle; used very widely as demonstrative, lo!; interrogitive, whether?; or conditional, if, although; also Oh that!, when; hence as a negative, not.
female, 5347
{5347} Prime
נְקֵבָה
n@qebah
{nek-ay-baw'}
From H5344; female (from the sexual form).
he shall offer 7126
{7126} Prime
קָרַב
qarab
{kaw-rab'}
A primitive root; to approach (causatively bring near) for whatever purpose.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
it without blemish 8549
{8549} Prime
תָּמִים
tamiym
{taw-meem'}
From H8552; entire (literally, figuratively or morally); also (as noun) integrity, truth.
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
Yhw יָהוֶה. 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Leviticus 3:1

_ _ Leviticus 3:1-17. The peace offerings of the herd.

_ _ if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace offering — “Peace” being used in Scripture to denote prosperity and happiness generally, a peace offering was a voluntary tribute of gratitude for health or other benefits. In this view it was eucharistic, being a token of thanksgiving for benefits already received, or it was sometimes votive, presented in prayer for benefits wished for in the future.

_ _ of the herd — This kind of offering being of a festive character, either male or female, if without blemish, might be used, as both of them were equally good for food, and, if the circumstances of the offerer allowed it, it might be a calf.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Leviticus 3:1-5

_ _ The burnt-offerings had regard to God as in himself the best of beings, most perfect and excellent; they were purely expressive of adoration, and therefore were wholly burnt. But the peace-offerings had regard to God as a benefactor to his creatures, and the giver of all good things to us; and therefore these were divided between the altar, the priest, and the owner. Peace signifies, 1. Reconciliation, concord, and communion. And so these were called peace-offerings, because in them God and his people did, as it were, feast together, in token of friendship. The priest, who was ordained for men in things pertaining to God, gave part of this peace-offering to God (that part which he required, and it was fit he should be first served), burning it upon God's altar; part he gave to the offerer, to be eaten by him with his family and friends; and part he took to himself, as the days-man that laid his hand upon them both. They could not thus eat together unless they were agreed; so that it was a symbol of friendship and fellowship between God and man, and a confirmation of the covenant of peace. 2. It signifies prosperity and all happiness: Peace be to you was as much as, All good be to you; and so the peace-offerings were offered either, (1.) By way of supplication or request for some good that was wanted and desired. If a man was in the pursuit or expectation of any mercy, he would back his prayer for it with a peace-offering, and probably put up the prayer when he laid his hand upon the head of his offering. Christ is our peace, our peace-offering; for through him alone it is that we can expect to obtain mercy, and an answer of peace to our prayers; and in him an upright prayer shall be acceptable and successful, though we bring not a peace-offering. The less costly our devotions are the more lively and serious they should be. Or, (2.) By way of thanksgiving for some particular mercy received. It is called a peace-offering of thanksgiving, for so it was sometimes; as in other cases a vow, Leviticus 7:15, Leviticus 7:16. And some make the original word to signify retribution. When they had received any special mercy, and were enquiring what they should render, this they were directed to render to the God of their mercies as a grateful acknowledgment for the benefit done to them, Psalms 116:12. And we must offer to God the sacrifice of praise continually, by Christ our peace; and then this shall please the Lord better than an ox or bullock. Observe,

_ _ I. As to the matter of the peace-offering, suppose it was of the herd, it must be without blemish; and, if it was so, it was indifferent whether it was male or female, Leviticus 3:1. In our spiritual offerings, it is not the sex, but the heart, that God looks at, Galatians 3:28.

_ _ II. As to the management of it. 1. The offerer was, by a solemn manumission, to transfer his interest in it to God (Leviticus 3:2), and, with his hand on the head of the sacrifice, to acknowledge the particular mercies for which he designed this a thank-offering, or, if it was a vow, to make his prayer. 2. It must be killed; and, although this might be done in any part of the court, yet it is said to be at the door of the tabernacle, because the mercies received or expected were acknowledged to come from God, and the prayers or praises were directed to him, and both, as it were, through that door. Our Lord Jesus has said, I am the door, for he is indeed the door of the tabernacle. 3. The priest must sprinkle the blood upon the altar, for it was the blood that made atonement for the soul; and, though this was not a sin-offering, yet we must be taught that in all our offerings we must have an eye to Christ as the propitiation for sin, as those who know that the best of their services cannot be accepted unless through him their sins be pardoned. Penitent confessions must always go along with our thankful acknowledgments; and, whatever mercy we pray for, in order to it we must pray for the removal of guilt, as that which keeps good things from us. First take away all iniquity, and then receive us graciously, or give good, Hosea 14:2. 4. All the fat of the inwards, that which we call the tallow and suet, with the caul that encloses it and the kidneys in the midst of it, were to be taken away, and burnt upon the altar, as an offering made by fire, Leviticus 3:3-5. And this was all that was sacrificed to the Lord out of the peace-offering; how the rest was to be disposed of we shall find, Leviticus 7:11, etc. It is ordered to be burnt upon the burnt-sacrifice, that is, the daily burnt-offering, the lamb which was offered every morning before any other sacrifice was offered; so that the fat of the peace-offerings was an addition to that, and a continuation of it. The great sacrifice of peace, that of the Lamb of God which takes away the sins of the world, prepares the altar for our sacrifices of praise, which are not accepted till we are reconciled. Now the burning of this fat is supposed to signify, (1.) The offering up of our good affections to God in all our prayers and praises. God must have the inwards; for we must pour out our souls, and lift up our hearts, in prayer, and must bless his name with all that is within us. It is required that we be inward with God in every thing wherein we have to do with him. The fat denotes the best and choicest, which must always be devoted to God, who has made for us a feast of fat things. (2.) The mortifying of our corrupt affections and lusts, and the burning up of them by the fire of divine grace, Colossians 3:5. Then we are truly thankful for former mercies, and prepared to receive further mercy, when we part with our sins, and have our minds cleared from all sensuality by the spirit of judgment and the spirit of burning, Isaiah 4:4.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Leviticus 3:1

A peace — offering — This was an offering for peace and prosperity, and the blessing of God, either, obtained, and so it was a thank — offering, or, desired; and so it was a kind of supplication to God. A female — Which were allowed here, tho' not in burnt — offerings, because those principally respected the honour of God, who is to be served with the best; but the peace — offerings did primarily respect the benefit of the offerer, and therefore the choice was left to himself. Burnt — offerings had regard to God, as in himself the best of beings, and therefore were wholly burned. But peace — offerings had regard to God as a benefactor to his creatures, and therefore were divided between the altar, the priest, and the offerer.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Leviticus 3:1

And if his oblation [be] a sacrifice of (a) peace offering, if he offer [it] of the herd; whether [it be] a male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before the LORD.

(a) A sacrifice of thanksgiving offered for peace and prosperity, either generally or particularly.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
a sacrifice:

Leviticus 7:11-21 And this [is] the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the LORD. ... Moreover the soul that shall touch any unclean [thing, as] the uncleanness of man, or [any] unclean beast, or any abominable unclean [thing], and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which [pertain] unto the LORD, even that soul shall be cut off from his people.
Leviticus 7:29-34 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, He that offereth the sacrifice of his peace offerings unto the LORD shall bring his oblation unto the LORD of the sacrifice of his peace offerings. ... For the wave breast and the heave shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them unto Aaron the priest and unto his sons by a statute for ever from among the children of Israel.
Leviticus 22:19-21 [Ye shall offer] at your own will a male without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or of the goats. ... And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of peace offerings unto the LORD to accomplish [his] vow, or a freewill offering in beeves or sheep, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein.
Exodus 20:24 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.
Exodus 24:5 And he sent young men of the children of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the LORD.
Exodus 29:28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it [is] an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, [even] their heave offering unto the LORD.
Numbers 6:14 And he shall offer his offering unto the LORD, one he lamb of the first year without blemish for a burnt offering, and one ewe lamb of the first year without blemish for a sin offering, and one ram without blemish for peace offerings,
Numbers 7:17 And for a sacrifice of peace offerings, two oxen, five rams, five he goats, five lambs of the first year: this [was] the offering of Nahshon the son of Amminadab.
Judges 20:26 Then all the children of Israel, and all the people, went up, and came unto the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the LORD, and fasted that day until even, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD.
Judges 21:4 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the people rose early, and built there an altar, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings.
1 Chronicles 21:26 And David built there an altar unto the LORD, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings, and called upon the LORD; and he answered him from heaven by fire upon the altar of burnt offering.
Proverbs 7:14 [I have] peace offerings with me; this day have I payed my vows.
Ezekiel 45:15 And one lamb out of the flock, out of two hundred, out of the fat pastures of Israel; for a meat offering, and for a burnt offering, and for peace offerings, to make reconciliation for them, saith the Lord GOD.
Amos 5:22 Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, I will not accept [them]: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.
Romans 5:1-2 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: ... By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
Colossians 1:20 And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself; by him, [I say], whether [they be] things in earth, or things in heaven.
1 John 1:3 That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship [is] with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.

without:

Leviticus 1:3 If his offering [be] a burnt sacrifice of the herd, let him offer a male without blemish: he shall offer it of his own voluntary will at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation before the LORD.
Numbers 6:14 And he shall offer his offering unto the LORD, one he lamb of the first year without blemish for a burnt offering, and one ewe lamb of the first year without blemish for a sin offering, and one ram without blemish for peace offerings,
Malachi 1:8 And if ye offer the blind for sacrifice, [is it] not evil? and if ye offer the lame and sick, [is it] not evil? offer it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee, or accept thy person? saith the LORD of hosts.
Malachi 1:14 But cursed [be] the deceiver, which hath in his flock a male, and voweth, and sacrificeth unto the Lord a corrupt thing: for I [am] a great King, saith the LORD of hosts, and my name [is] dreadful among the heathen.
Hebrews 10:22 Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 20:24; 24:5; 29:28. Lv 1:3; 7:11, 29; 22:19. Nu 6:14; 7:17. Jg 20:26; 21:4. 1Ch 21:26. Pv 7:14. Ezk 45:15. Am 5:22. Mal 1:8, 14. Ro 5:1. Col 1:20. He 10:22. 1Jn 1:3.

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