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Leviticus 2:11 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— No meal-offering, which ye shall offer unto Jehovah, shall be made with leaven; for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, as an offering made by fire unto Jehovah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘No grain offering, which you bring to the LORD, shall be made with leaven, for you shall not offer up in smoke any leaven or any honey as an offering by fire to the LORD.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— No meat-offering which ye shall bring to the LORD shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— No oblation which ye shall present to Jehovah shall be made with leaven; for no leaven and no honey shall ye burn [in] any fire-offering to Jehovah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— None of the meal-offerings which ye bring near unto Yahweh, shall be made into anything leavened,—for, of no leaven and of no syrup, may ye make a perfume, as an altar-flame unto Yahweh.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— No present which ye bring near to Jehovah is made fermented, for with any leaven or any honey ye perfume no fire-offering to Jehovah.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Every oblation that is offered to the Lord shall be made without leaven: neither shall any leaven or honey be burnt in the sacrifice to the Lord.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— No meat offering, which ye shall bring vnto the LORD, shall be made with leauen: For ye shall burne no leauen, nor any hony, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Ye shall not leaven any sacrifice which ye shall bring to the Lord; for [as to] any leaven, or any honey, ye shall not bring of it to offer a gift to the Lord.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto Yahweh, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of Yahweh made by fire.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
No x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
meat offering, 4503
{4503} Prime
מִנְחָה
minchah
{min-khaw'}
From an unused root meaning to apportion, that is, bestow; a donation; euphemistically tribute; specifically a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary).
which x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
ye shall bring 7126
{7126} Prime
קָרַב
qarab
{kaw-rab'}
A primitive root; to approach (causatively bring near) for whatever purpose.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
unto Yhw יָהוֶה, 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
shall be made 6213
{6213} Prime
עָשָׂה
`asah
{aw-saw'}
A primitive root; to do or make, in the broadest sense and widest application.
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
with leaven: 2557
{2557} Prime
חָמֵץ
chametz
{khaw-mates'}
From H2556; ferment, (figuratively) extortion.
for x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
ye shall burn 6999
{6999} Prime
מֻקְטָר
qatar
{kaw-tar'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7000 through the idea of fumigation in a close place and perhaps thus driving out the occupants); to smoke, that is, turn into fragrance by fire (especially as an act of worship).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
no x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
leaven, 7603
{7603} Prime
שְׂאוֹר
s@'or
{seh-ore'}
From H7604; barm or yeast cake (as swelling by fermentation).
nor any x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
honey, 1706
{1706} Prime
דְּבַשׁ
d@bash
{deb-ash'}
From an unused root meaning to be gummy; honey (from its stickiness); by analogy syrup.
in any offering y801
[0801] Standard
אִשֶּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The same as H0800, but used in a liturgical sense; properly a burnt offering; but occasionally of any sacrifice.
z0
<0000> Grammar
The original word in the Greek or Hebrew is translated by more than one word in the English. The English translation is separated by one or more other words from the original.
of Yhw יָהוֶה y3068
[3068] Standard
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
made by fire. 801
{0801} Prime
אִשֶּׁה
'ishshah
{ish-shaw'}
The same as H0800, but used in a liturgical sense; properly a burnt offering; but occasionally of any sacrifice.
x3068
(3068) Complement
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Leviticus 2:11

_ _ ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the Lord — Nothing sweet or sour was to be offered. In the warm climates of the East leavened bread soon spoils, and hence it was regarded as the emblem of hypocrisy or corruption. Some, however, think that the prohibition was that leaven and honey were used in the idolatrous rites of the heathen.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Leviticus 2:11-16

_ _ Here, I. Leaven and honey are forbidden to be put in any of their meat-offerings: No leaven, nor any honey, in any offering made by fire, Leviticus 2:11. 1. The leaven was forbidden in remembrance of the unleavened bread they ate when they came out of Egypt. So much despatch was required in the offerings they made that it was not convenient they should stay for the leavening of them. The New Testament comparing pride and hypocrisy to leaven because they swell like leaven, comparing also malice and wickedness to leaven because they sour like leaven, we are to understand and improve this as a caution to take heed of those sins which will certainly spoil the acceptableness of our spiritual sacrifices. Pure hands must be lifted up without wrath, and all our gospel feasts kept with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 2. Honey was forbidden, though Canaan flowed with it, because to eat much honey is not good (Proverbs 25:16, Proverbs 25:27); it turns to choler and bitterness in the stomach, though luscious to the taste. Some think the chief reason why those two things, leaven and honey, were forbidden, was because the Gentiles used them very much in their sacrifices, and God's people must not learn or use the way of the heathen, but his services must be the reverse of their idolatrous services; see Deuteronomy 12:30, Deuteronomy 12:31. Some make this application of this double prohibition: leaven signifies grief and sadness of spirit (Psalms 73:21), My heart was leavened; honey signifies sensual pleasure and mirth. In our service of God both these must be avoided, and a mean observed between those extremes; for the sorrow of the world worketh death, and a love to the delights of sense is a great enemy to holy love.

_ _ II. Salt is required in all their offerings, Leviticus 2:13. The altar was the table of the Lord; and therefore, salt being always set on our tables, God would have it always used at his. It is called the salt of the covenant, because, as men confirmed their covenants with each other by eating and drinking together, at all which collations salt was used, so God, by accepting his people's gifts and feasting them upon his sacrifices, supping with them and they with him (Revelation 3:20), did confirm his covenant with them. Among the ancients salt was a symbol of friendship. The salt for the sacrifice was not brought by the offerers, but was provided at the public charge, as the wood was, Ezra 7:20-22. And there was a chamber in the court of the temple called the chamber of salt, in which they laid it up. Can that which is unsavoury be eaten without salt? God would hereby intimate to them that their sacrifices in themselves were unsavoury. The saints, who are living sacrifices to God, must have salt in themselves, for every sacrifice must be salted with salt (Mark 9:49, Mark 9:50), and our speech must be always with grace (Colossians 4:6), so must all our religious performances be seasoned with that salt. Christianity is the salt of the earth.

_ _ III. Directions are given about the first-fruits. 1. The oblation of their first-fruits at harvest, of which we read, Deuteronomy 26:2. These were offered to the Lord, not to be burnt upon the altar, but to be given to the priests as perquisites of their office, Leviticus 2:12. And you shall offer them (that is, leaven and honey) in the oblation of the first-fruits, though they were forbidden in other meat-offerings; for they were proper enough to be eaten by the priests, though not to be burnt upon the altar. The loaves of the first-fruits are particularly ordered to be baked with leaven, Leviticus 23:17. And we read of the first-fruits of honey brought to the house of God, 2 Chronicles 31:5. 2. A meat-offering of their first-fruits. The former was required by the law; this was a free-will offering, Leviticus 2:14-16. If a man, with a thankful sense of God's goodness to him in giving him hopes of a plentiful crop, was disposed to bring an offering in kind immediately out of his field, and present it to God, owning thereby his dependence upon God and obligations to him, (1.) Let him be sure to bring the first ripe and full ears, not such as were small and half-withered. Whatever was brought for an offering to God must be the best in its kind, though it were but green ears of corn. We mock God, and deceive ourselves, if we think to put him off with a corrupt thing while we have in our flock a male, Malachi 1:14. (2.) These green ears must be dried by the fire, that the corn, such as it was, might be beaten out of them. That is not expected from green ears which one may justly look for from those that have been left to grow fully ripe. If those that are young do God's work as well as they can, they shall be accepted, though they cannot do it so well as those that are aged and experienced. God makes the best of green ears of corn, and so must we. (3.) Oil and frankincense must be put upon it. Thus (as some allude to this) wisdom and humility must soften and sweeten the spirits and services of young people, and then their green ears of corn shall be acceptable. God takes a particular delight in the first ripe fruits of the Spirit and the expressions of early piety and devotion. Those that can but think and speak as children, yet, if they think and speak well, God will be well pleased with their buds and blossoms, and will never forget the kindness of their youth. (4.) It must be used as other meat-offerings, Leviticus 2:16, compare Leviticus 2:9. He shall offer all the frankincense; it is an offering made by fire. The fire and the frankincense seem to have had a special significancy. [1.] The fire denotes the fervency of spirit which ought to be in all our religious services. In every good thing we must be zealously affected. Holy love to God is the fire by which all our offerings must be made; else they are not of a sweet savour to God. [2.] The frankincense denotes the mediation and intercession of Christ, by which all our services are perfumed and recommended to God's gracious acceptance. Blessed be God that we have the substance of which all these observances were but shadows, the fruit that was hid under these leaves.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Leviticus 2:11

No leaven — Namely, in that which is offered of free — will; for in other offerings it might be used, Leviticus 7:13, Leviticus 23:17. This was forbidden, partly to mind them of their deliverance out of Egypt, when they were forced thro' haste to bring away their meal or dough (which was the matter of this oblation) unleavened; partly to signify what Christ would be, and what they should be, pure and free from all error in the faith and worship of God, and from all hypocrisy, and malice or wickedness, all which are signified by leaven. Nor any honey — Either, because it hath the same effect with leaven in paste or dough, making it sour, and swelling. Or, in opposition to the sacrifices of the Gentiles, in which the use of honey was most frequent. Or, to teach us, that God's worship is not to be governed by men's fancies and appetites but by God's will.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
no leaven:

Leviticus 6:17 It shall not be baken with leaven. I have given it [unto them for] their portion of my offerings made by fire; it [is] most holy, as [is] the sin offering, and as the trespass offering.
Exodus 12:19-20 Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses: for whosoever eateth that which is leavened, even that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. ... Ye shall eat nothing leavened; in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened bread.
Matthew 16:6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Matthew 16:11-12 How is it that ye do not understand that I spake [it] not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? ... Then understood they how that he bade [them] not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
Mark 8:15 And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and [of] the leaven of Herod.
Luke 12:1 In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
1 Corinthians 5:6-8 Your glorying [is] not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? ... Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened [bread] of sincerity and truth.
Galatians 5:9 A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.

honey:

Proverbs 24:13 My son, eat thou honey, because [it is] good; and the honeycomb, [which is] sweet to thy taste:
Proverbs 25:16 Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.
Proverbs 25:27 [It is] not good to eat much honey: so [for men] to search their own glory [is not] glory.
Luke 21:34 And take heed to yourselves, lest at any time your hearts be overcharged with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and cares of this life, and [so] that day come upon you unawares.
Acts 14:22 Confirming the souls of the disciples, [and] exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.
1 Peter 4:2 That he no longer should live the rest of [his] time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.
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Ex 12:19. Lv 6:17. Pv 24:13; 25:16, 27. Mt 16:6, 11. Mk 8:15. Lk 12:1; 21:34. Ac 14:22. 1Co 5:6. Ga 5:9. 1P 4:2.

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is footwashing part of the Passover as stated in matthew
- anthony (2/7/2015 8:51:28 PM)
Leviticus 2:12 I understand the leaven, but why couldn't honey be offered in the oblation. What was the significance?
- Rachel Hofer (2/7/2015 12:49:14 PM)
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