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Leviticus 11:13 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And these ye shall have in abomination among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the gier-eagle, and the ospray,
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And these [are they which] ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— ‘These, moreover, you shall detest among the birds; they are abhorrent, not to be eaten: the eagle and the vulture and the buzzard,
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And these [are they which] ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And these shall ye have in abomination of the fowls; they shall not be eaten; an abomination shall they be: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle,
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, these, shall ye abhor of birds, they shall not be eaten, an abomination, they are,—the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the osprey;
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— 'And these ye do abominate of the fowl; they are not eaten, an abomination they [are]: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Of birds these are they which you must not eat, and which are to be avoided by you: The eagle, and the griffon, and the osprey.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And these are they which ye shall haue in abomination among the foules, they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination: The Eagle, and the Ossifrage, and the Ospray,
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And these are the things which ye shall abhor of birds, and they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And these [are they which] ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they [are] an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And these x428
(0428) Complement
אֵלֶּה
'el-leh
{ale'-leh}
Prolonged from H0411; these or those.
[are they which] ye shall have in abomination 8262
{8262} Prime
שָׁקַץ
shaqats
{shaw-kats'}
A primitive root; to be filthy, that is, (intensively) to loathe, pollute.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
among 4480
{4480} Prime
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the fowls; 5775
{5775} Prime
עוֹף
`owph
{ofe}
From H5774; a bird (as covered with feathers, or rather as covering with wings), often collective.
they shall not x3808
(3808) Complement
לֹא
lo'
{lo}
lo; a primitive particle; not (the simple or abstract negation); by implication no; often used with other particles.
be eaten, 398
{0398} Prime
אָכַל
'akal
{aw-kal'}
A primitive root; to eat (literally or figuratively).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
they x1992
(1992) Complement
הֵם
hem
{haym}
Masculine plural from H1931; they (only used when emphatic).
[are] an abomination: 8263
{8263} Prime
שֶׁקֶץ
sheqets
{sheh'-kets}
From H8262; filth, that is, (figuratively and specifically) an idolatrous object.
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the eagle, 5404
{5404} Prime
נֶשֶׁר
nesher
{neh'-sher}
From an unused root meaning to lacerate; the eagle (or other large bird of prey).
and the ossifrage, 6538
{6538} Prime
פֶּרֶס
perec
{peh'-res}
From H6536; a claw; also a kind of eagle.
and the ospray, 5822
{5822} Prime
עָזְנִיָּה
`ozniyah
{oz-nee-yaw'}
Probably feminine of H5797; probably the sea eagle (from its strength).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Leviticus 11:13-19

_ _ these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls — All birds of prey are particularly ranked in the class unclean; all those which feed on flesh and carrion. No less than twenty species of birds, all probably then known, are mentioned under this category, and the inference follows that all which are not mentioned were allowed; that is, fowls which subsist on vegetable substances. From our imperfect knowledge of the natural history of Palestine, Arabia, and the contiguous countries at that time, it is not easy to determine exactly what some of the prohibited birds were; although they must have been all well known among the people to whom these laws were given.

_ _ the ossifrageHebrew, “bone-breaker,” rendered in the Septuagint “griffon,” supposed to be the Gypaetus barbatus, the lammer-geier of the Swiss — a bird of the eagle or vulture species, inhabiting the highest mountain ranges in Western Asia as well as Europe. It pursues as its prey the chamois, ibex, or marmot, among rugged cliffs, till it drives them over a precipice — thus obtaining the name of “bone-breaker.”

_ _ the ospray — the black eagle, among the smallest, but swiftest and strongest of its kind.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Leviticus 11:9-19.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Leviticus 11:13

Among the fowls — The true signification of the following Hebrew words is now lost, as the Jews at this day confess; which not falling out without God's singular providence may intimate the cessation of this law, the exact observation whereof since Christ came is become impossible. In general, this may be observed, that the fowls forbidden in diet, are all either ravenous and cruel, or such as delight in the night and darkness, or such as feed upon impure things; and so the signification of these prohibitions is manifest, to teach men to abominate all cruelty or oppression, and all works of darkness and filthiness. The ossifrage and the osprey — Two peculiar kinds of eagles, distinct from that which being the chief of its kind, is called by the name of the whole kind.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
the eagle:
In Hebrew, nesher, Chaldee, neshar, Syriac, neshro, and Arabic, nishr, the eagle, one of the largest, strongest, swiftest, fiercest, and most rapacious of the feathered race. His eye is large, dark, and piercing; his beak powerful and hooked; his legs strong and feathered; his feet yellow and armed with four very long and terrific claws; his wings very large and powerful; his body compact and robust; his bones hard; his flesh firm; his feathers coarse; his attitude fierce and erect; his motions lively; his flight extremely rapid and towering; and his cry the terror of every wing.
Deuteronomy 14:12-20 But these [are they] of which ye shall not eat: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray, ... [But of] all clean fowls ye may eat.
Job 28:7 [There is] a path which no fowl knoweth, and which the vulture's eye hath not seen:
Job 38:41 Who provideth for the raven his food? when his young ones cry unto God, they wander for lack of meat.
Job 39:27-30 Doth the eagle mount up at thy command, and make her nest on high? ... Her young ones also suck up blood: and where the slain [are], there [is] she.
Jeremiah 4:13 Behold, he shall come up as clouds, and his chariots [shall be] as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto us! for we are spoiled.
Jeremiah 4:22 For my people [is] foolish, they have not known me; they [are] sottish children, and they have none understanding: they [are] wise to do evil, but to do good they have no knowledge.
Jeremiah 48:40 For thus saith the LORD; Behold, he shall fly as an eagle, and shall spread his wings over Moab.
Lamentations 4:19 Our persecutors are swifter than the eagles of the heaven: they pursued us upon the mountains, they laid wait for us in the wilderness.
Hosea 8:1 [Set] the trumpet to thy mouth. [He shall come] as an eagle against the house of the LORD, because they have transgressed my covenant, and trespassed against my law.
Habakkuk 1:8 Their horses also are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle [that] hasteth to eat.
Matthew 24:28 For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together.
Romans 1:28-32 And even as they did not like to retain God in [their] knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; ... Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
Romans 3:13-17 Their throat [is] an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps [is] under their lips: ... And the way of peace have they not known:
Titus 3:3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, [and] hating one another.

the ossifrage:
Peres, from paras to break, probably the species of eagle anciently called ossifraga or bone-breaker (from os, a bone, and frango, to break), because it not only strips off the flesh, but breaks the bone, in order to extract the marrow.

the ospray:
Hebrew ozniyah, Arabic azan, and Chaldee azyah, (from azaz, to be strong), a species of eagle, probably the black eagle, so remarkable for its strength.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 14:12. Jb 28:7; 38:41; 39:27. Jr 4:13, 22; 48:40. Lm 4:19. Ho 8:1. Hab 1:8. Mt 24:28. Ro 1:28; 3:13. Tit 3:3.

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