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Judges 4:10 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali together to Kedesh; and there went up ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali together to Kedesh, and ten thousand men went up with him; Deborah also went up with him.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Deborah went up with him.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Barak called together Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh; and there went up at his feet ten thousand men; and Deborah went up with him.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Barak called together Zebulun and Naphtali, towards Kadesh, and there went up at his feet—ten thousand men,—and Deborah, went up with him.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Barak calleth Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh, and he goeth up—at his feet [are] ten thousand men—and Deborah goeth up with him.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And he called unto him Zabulon and Nephthali, and went up with ten thousand fighting men, having Debbora in his company.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And Barak called Zebulun, and Naphtali to Kedesh, and he went vp with ten thousand men at his feete: and Deborah went vp with him.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Barak{gr.Barac} called Zebulun{gr.Zabulon} and Naphtali{gr.Nephthali} out of Kadesh{gr.Cades}, and there went up at his feet ten thousand men, and Deborah{gr.Debbora} went up with him.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And Baraq called Zevulun and Naftali to Qedesh; and he went up with ten thousand men at his feet: and Devorah went up with him.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And Brk בָּרָק 1301
{1301} Prime
The same as H1300; Barak, an Israelite.
called 2199
{2199} Prime
A primitive root; to shriek (from anguish or danger); by analogy (as a herald) to announce or convene publicly.
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
(0853) Complement
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Zvln זְבוּלוּן 2074
{2074} Prime
From H2082; habitation; Zebulon, a son of Jacob; also his territory and tribe.
and Naftl נַפתָּלִי 5321
{5321} Prime
From H6617; my wrestling; Naphtali, a son of Jacob, with the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
to Kee קֶדֶשׁ; 6943
{6943} Prime
From H6942; a sanctum; Kedesh, the name of four places in Palestine.
and he went up 5927
{5927} Prime
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
with ten 6235
{6235} Prime
From H6237; ten (as an accumulation to the extent of the digits).
thousand 505
{0505} Prime
Properly the same as H0504; hence (an ox's head being the first letter of the alphabet, and this eventually used as a numeral) a thousand.
men 376
{0376} Prime
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
at his feet: 7272
{7272} Prime
From H7270; a foot (as used in walking); by implication a step; by euphemism the pudenda.
and Dvr דְּבוֹרָה 1683
{1683} Prime
The same as H1682; Deborah, the name of two Hebrewesses.
went up 5927
{5927} Prime
A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively.
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
with x5973
(5973) Complement
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

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Matthew Henry's Commentary

Judges 4:10-16

_ _ Here, I. Barak beats up for volunteers, and soon has his quota of men ready, Judges 4:10. Deborah had appointed him to raise an army of 10,000 men (Judges 4:6), and so many he has presently at his feet, following him, and subject to his command. God is said to call us to his feet (Isaiah 41:2), that is, into obedience to him. Some think it intimates that they were all footmen, and so the armies of the Jews generally were, which made the disproportion of strength between them and the enemy (who had horses and chariots) very great, and the victory the more illustrious; but the presence of God and his prophetess was abundantly sufficient to balance that disproportion. Barak had his men at his feet, which intimates their cheerfulness and readiness to attend him whithersoever he went, Revelation 14:4. Though the tribes of Zebulun and Naphtali were chiefly depended on, yet it appears by Deborah's song that some had come in to him from other tribes (Manasseh and Issachar), and more were expected that came not, from Reuben, Dan, and Asher, Judges 5:14-17. But these are overlooked here; and we are only told that to make his 10,000 men effective indeed Deborah went up with him. The Judges 4:11, concerning the removal of Heber, one of the families of the Kenites, out of the wilderness of Judah, in the south, where those families had fixed themselves (Judges 1:16), into the northern country, comes in for the sake of what was to follow concerning the exploit of Jael, a wife of that family.

_ _ II. Sisera, upon notice of Barak's motions, takes the field with a very numerous and powerful army (Judges 4:12, Judges 4:13): They showed Sisera, that is, it was shown to him. Yet some think it refers to the Kenites, mentioned immediately before, Judges 4:11. They gave Sisera notice of Barak's rendezvous, there being peace at this time between Jabin and that family, Judges 4:17. Whether they intended it as a kindness to him or no, it served to accomplish what God had said by Deborah (Judges 4:7): I will draw unto thee Sisera. Sisera's confidence was chiefly in his chariots; therefore particular notice is taken of them, 900 chariots of iron, which, with the scythes fastened to their axle-trees, when they were driven into an army of footmen, did terrible execution. So ingenious have men been in inventing methods of destroying one another, to gratify those lusts from which come wars and fightings.

_ _ III. Deborah gives orders to engage the enemy, Judges 4:14. Josephus says that when Barak saw Sisera's army drawn up, and attempting to surround the mountain on the top of which he and his forces lay encamped, his heart quite failed him, and he determined to retire to a place of greater safety; but Deborah animated him to make a descent upon Sisera, assuring him that this was the day marked out in the divine counsels for his defeat. “Now they appear most threatening they are ripe for ruin. The thing is as sure to be done as if it were done already: The Lord hath delivered Sisera into thy hand.” See how the work and honour of this great action are divided between Deborah and Barak; she, as the head, gives the word, he, as the hand, does the work. Thus does God dispense his gifts variously, 1 Corinthians 12:4, etc. But, though ordinarily the head of the woman is the man (1 Corinthians 11:3), he that has the residue of the Spirit was pleased to cross hands, and to put the head upon the woman's shoulders, choosing the weak things of the world to shame the mighty, that no flesh might glory in his presence. It was well for Barak that he had Deborah with him; for she made up what was defective, 1. In his conduct, by telling him, This is the day. 2. In his courage, by assuring him of God's presence: “Has not the Lord gone out before thee? Darest not thou follow when thou hast God himself for thy leader?” Note, (1.) In every undertaking it is good to be satisfied that God goes before us, that we are in the way of our duty and under his direction. (2.) If we have ground to hope that God goes before us, we ought to go on with courage and cheerfulness. Be not dismayed at the difficulties thou meetest with in resisting Satan, in serving God, or suffering for him; for has not the Lord gone out before thee? Follow him fully then.

_ _ IV. God himself routs the enemy's army, Judges 4:15. Barak, in obedience to Deborah's orders, went down into the valley, though there upon the plain the iron chariots would have so much the more advantage against him, quitting his fastnesses upon the mountain in dependence upon the divine power; for in vain is salvation hoped for from hills and mountains; in the Lord alone is the salvation of his people, Jeremiah 3:23. And he was not deceived in his confidence: The Lord discomfited Sisera. It was not so much the bold and surprising alarm which Barak gave their camp that dispirited and dispersed them, but God's terror seized their spirits and put them into an unaccountable confusion. The stars, it seems, fought against them, Judges 5:20. Josephus says that a violent storm of hail which beat in their faces gave them this rout, disabled them, and drove them back; so that they became a very easy prey to the army of Israel, and Deborah's words were made good: “The Lord has delivered them into thy hand; it is now in thy power to do what thou wilt with them.”

_ _ V. Barak bravely improves his advantage, follows the blow with undaunted resolution and unwearied diligence, prosecutes the victory, pursues the scattered forces, even to their general's head-quarters at Harosheth (Judges 4:16), and spares none whom God had delivered into his hand to be destroyed: There was not a man left. When God goes before us in our spiritual conflicts we must bestir ourselves; and, when by grace he gives us some success against the enemies of our souls, we must improve it by watchfulness and resolution, and carry on the holy war with vigour.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Judges 4:10

Ten thousand at his feet — That is, who followed him; possibly he intimates that they were all foot — men; and so this is emphatically added, to signify by what contemptible means God overthrew Sisera's great host.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance

Judges 4:6 And she sent and called Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedeshnaphtali, and said unto him, Hath not the LORD God of Israel commanded, [saying], Go and draw toward mount Tabor, and take with thee ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun?
Judges 5:18 Zebulun and Naphtali [were] a people [that] jeoparded their lives unto the death in the high places of the field.

at his:

Judges 5:15 And the princes of Issachar [were] with Deborah; even Issachar, and also Barak: he was sent on foot into the valley. For the divisions of Reuben [there were] great thoughts of heart.
Exodus 11:8 And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.
1 Samuel 25:27 And now this blessing which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord, let it even be given unto the young men that follow my lord.
1 Kings 20:11 And the king of Israel answered and said, Tell [him], Let not him that girdeth on [his harness] boast himself as he that putteth it off.
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Ex 11:8. Jg 4:6; 5:15, 18. 1S 25:27. 1K 20:11.

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