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Judges 3:8 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Therefore the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Cushan-rishathaim eight years.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim eight years.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, so that He sold them into the hands of Cushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia; and the sons of Israel served Cushan-rishathaim eight years.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim eight years.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the anger of Jehovah was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushan-rishathaim king of Mesopotamia; and the children of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim eight years.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then kindled the anger of Yahweh upon Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia,—and the sons of Israel served Chushan-rishathaim, eight years.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the anger of Jehovah burneth against Israel, and He selleth them into the hand of Chushan-Rishathaim king of Aram-Naharaim, and the sons of Israel serve Chushan-Rishathaim eight years;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And the Lord being angry with Israel, delivered them into the hands of Chusan Rasathaim, king of Mesopotamia, and they served him eight years.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Therefore the anger of the LORD was hote against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushan-Rishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel serued Chushan-Rishathaim eight yeeres.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the Lord was very angry with Israel, and sold them into the hand of Chusarsathaim king of Syria of the rivers: and the children of Israel served Chusarsathaim eight years.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Therefore the anger of Yahweh was hot against Yisrael, and he sold them into the hand of Kushan Rishathayim king of Aram Naharayim: and the children of Yisrael served Kushan Rishathayim eight years.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Therefore the anger 639
{0639} Prime
אַף
'aph
{af}
From H0599; properly the nose or nostril; hence the face, and occasionally a person; also (from the rapid breathing in passion) ire.
of Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
was hot 2734
{2734} Prime
חָרָה
charah
{khaw-raw'}
A primitive root (compare H2787); to glow or grow warm; figuratively (usually) to blaze up, of anger, zeal, jealousy.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
against Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
and he sold 4376
{4376} Prime
מָכַר
makar
{maw-kar'}
A primitive root; to sell, literally (as merchandise, a daughter in marriage, into slavery), or figuratively (to surrender).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
them into the hand 3027
{3027} Prime
יָד
yad
{yawd}
A primitive word; a hand (the open one (indicating power, means, direction, etc.), in distinction from H3709, the closed one); used (as noun, adverb, etc.) in a great variety of applications, both literally and figuratively, both proximate and remote.
of Can Ri`ayim כּוּשַׁן־רִשׁעָתַיִם 3573
{3573} Prime
כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם
Kuwshan Rish`athayim
{koo-shan' rish-aw-thah'-yim}
Apparently from H3572 and the dual of H7564; Cushan of double wickedness; Cushan-Rishathajim, a Mesopotamian king.
king 4428
{4428} Prime
מֶּלֶךְ
melek
{meh'-lek}
From H4427; a king.
of ram Nahrayim אֲרַם־נַהֲרַיִם: 763
{0763} Prime
אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם
'Aram Naharayim
{ar-am' nah-har-ah'-yim}
From H0758 and the dual of H5104; Aram of (the) two rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) or Mesopotamia.
and the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
served 5647
{5647} Prime
עָבַד
`abad
{aw-bad'}
A primitive root; to work (in any sense); by implication to serve, till, (causatively) enslave, etc.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Can Ri`ayim כּוּשַׁן־רִשׁעָתַיִם 3573
{3573} Prime
כּוּשַׁן רִשְׁעָתַיִם
Kuwshan Rish`athayim
{koo-shan' rish-aw-thah'-yim}
Apparently from H3572 and the dual of H7564; Cushan of double wickedness; Cushan-Rishathajim, a Mesopotamian king.
eight 8083
{8083} Prime
שְׁמֹנֶה
sh@moneh
{shem-o-neh'}
Apparently from H8082 through the idea of plumpness; a cardinal number, eight (as if a surplus above the 'perfect' seven); also (as ordinal) eighth.
years. 8141
{8141} Prime
שָׁנֵה
shaneh
{shaw-neh'}
(The first form being in plural only, the second form being feminine); from H8138; a year (as a revolution of time).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Judges 3:8-11

_ _ Judges 3:8-11. Othniel delivers Israel.

_ _ sold them — that is, “delivered them”

_ _ into the hand of Chushan-rishathaim — or, Chushan, “the wicked.” This name had been probably given him from his cruel and impious character.

_ _ served Chushan-rishathaim eight years — by the payment of a stipulated tribute yearly, the raising of which must have caused a great amount of labor and privation.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Judges 3:8-11

_ _ We now come to the records of the government of the particular judges, the first of which was Othniel, in whom the story of this book is knit to that of Joshua, for even in Joshua's time Othniel began to be famous, by which it appears that it was not long after Israel's settlement in Canaan before their purity began to be corrupted and their peace (by consequence) disturbed. And those who have taken pains to enquire into the sacred chronology are generally agreed that the Danites' idolatry, and the war with the Benjamites for abusing the Levite's concubine, though related in the latter end of this book, happened about this time, under or before the government of Othniel, who, though a judge, was not such a king in Israel as would keep men from doing what was right in their own eyes. In this short narrative of Othniel's government we have,

_ _ I. The distress that Israel was brought into for their sin, Judges 3:8. God being justly displeased with them for plucking up the hedge of their peculiarity, and laying themselves in common with the nations, plucked up the hedge of their protection and laid them open to the nations, set them to sale as goods he would part with, and the first that laid hands on them was Chushan-rishathaim, king of that Syria which lay between the two great rivers of Tigris and Euphrates, thence called Mesopotamia, which signifies in the midst of rivers. It is probable that this was a warlike prince, and, aiming to enlarge his dominions, he invaded the two tribes first on the other side Jordan that lay next him, and afterwards, perhaps by degrees, penetrated into the heart of the country, and as far as he went put them under contribution, exacting it with rigour, and perhaps quartering soldiers upon them. Laban, who oppressed Jacob with a hard service, was of this country; but it lay at such a distance that one could not have thought Israel's trouble would come from such a far country, which shows so much the more of the hand of God in it.

_ _ II. Their return to God in this distress: When he slew them, then they sought him whom before they had slighted. The children of Israel, even the generality of them, cried unto the Lord, Judges 3:9. At first they made light of their trouble, and thought they could easily shake off the yoke of a prince at such a distance; but, when it continued eight years, they began to feel the smart of it, and then those cried under it who before had laughed at it. Those who in the day of their mirth had cried to Baalim and Ashtaroth now that they are in trouble cry to the Lord from whom they had revolted, whose justice brought them into this trouble, and whose power and favour could alone help them out of it. Affliction makes those cry to God with importunity who before would scarcely speak to him.

_ _ III. God's return in mercy to them for their deliverance. Though need drove them to him, he did not therefore reject their prayers, but graciously raised up a deliverer, or saviour, as the word is. Observe, 1. Who the deliverer was. It was Othniel, who married Caleb's daughter, one of the old stock that had seen the works of the Lord, and had himself, no question, kept his integrity, and secretly lamented the apostasy of his people, but waited for a divine call to appear publicly for the redress of their grievances. He was now, we may suppose, far advanced in years, when God raised him up to this honour, but the decays of age were no hindrance to his usefulness when God had work for him to do. 2. Whence he had his commission, not of man, nor by man; but the Spirit of the Lord came upon him (Judges 3:10), the spirit of wisdom and courage to qualify him for the service, and a spirit of power to excite him to it, so as to give him and others full satisfaction that it was the will of God he should engage in it. The Chaldee says, The spirit of prophecy remained on him. 3. What method he took. He first judged Israel, reproved them, called them to account for their sins, and reformed them, and then went out to war. This was the right method. Let sin at home be conquered, that worst of enemies, and then enemies abroad will be the more easily dealt with. Thus let Christ be our Judge and Law-giver, and then he will save us, and on no other terms, Isaiah 33:22. 4. What good success he had. He prevailed to break the yoke of the oppression, and, as it should seem, to break the neck of the oppressor; for it is said, The Lord delivered Chushan-rishathaim into his hand. Now was Judah, of which tribe Othniel was, as a lion's whelp gone up from the prey. 5. The happy consequence of Othniel's good services. The land, though not getting ground, yet had rest, and some fruits of the reformation, forty years; and the benefit would have been perpetual if they had kept close to God and their duty.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Judges 3:8

Served — That is, were made subject to him. Mesopotamia was that part of Syria which lay between the two great rivers, Tigris and Euphrates. This lay at such a distance, that one would not have thought Israel's trouble should have come from such a far country: which shews so much the more of the hand of God in it.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
am 2591, bc 1413, An, Ex, Is, 78

was hot:

Judges 2:14 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies.
Judges 2:20 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel; and he said, Because that this people hath transgressed my covenant which I commanded their fathers, and have not hearkened unto my voice;
Exodus 22:24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.
Deuteronomy 29:20 The LORD will not spare him, but then the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall smoke against that man, and all the curses that are written in this book shall lie upon him, and the LORD shall blot out his name from under heaven.
Psalms 6:1 [[To the chief Musician on Neginoth upon Sheminith, A Psalm of David.]] O LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chasten me in thy hot displeasure.
Psalms 85:3 Thou hast taken away all thy wrath: thou hast turned [thyself] from the fierceness of thine anger.

he sold:

Judges 2:14 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of spoilers that spoiled them, and he sold them into the hands of their enemies round about, so that they could not any longer stand before their enemies.
Judges 4:9 And she said, I will surely go with thee: notwithstanding the journey that thou takest shall not be for thine honour; for the LORD shall sell Sisera into the hand of a woman. And Deborah arose, and went with Barak to Kedesh.
Deuteronomy 32:30 How should one chase a thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight, except their Rock had sold them, and the LORD had shut them up?
1 Samuel 12:9 And when they forgat the LORD their God, he sold them into the hand of Sisera, captain of the host of Hazor, and into the hand of the Philistines, and into the hand of the king of Moab, and they fought against them.
Isaiah 50:1 Thus saith the LORD, Where [is] the bill of your mother's divorcement, whom I have put away? or which of my creditors [is it] to whom I have sold you? Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves, and for your transgressions is your mother put away.
Romans 7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.

Chushanrishathaim:

Habakkuk 3:7 I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction: [and] the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble.

Mesopotamia:
Heb. Aram-naharaim. Aram-naharayim, "Syria of the two rivers," or Mesopotamia, "between the rivers," is a famous province situated between the Tigris and Euphrates. It is called by Arabian geographers, Maverannaher, "the country beyond the river;" and is now called Diarbek.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ex 22:24. Dt 29:20; 32:30. Jg 2:14, 20; 4:9. 1S 12:9. Ps 6:1; 85:3. Is 50:1. Hab 3:7. Ro 7:14.

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