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Judges 3:31 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, who smote of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox-goad: and he also saved Israel.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox goad: and he also delivered Israel.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— After him came Shamgar the son of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad; and he also saved Israel.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, who slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox-goad; and he also delivered Israel.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath; and he smote the Philistines, six hundred men, with an ox-goad. And he also delivered Israel.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And, after him, was Shamgar, son of Anath, who smote of the Philistines, six hundred men, with an ox-goad,—and, he also, saved Israel.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And after him hath been Shamgar son of Anath, and he smiteth the Philistines—six hundred men—with an ox-goad, and he saveth—he also—Israel.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— After him was Samgar, the son of Anath, who slew of the Philistines six hundred men with a ploughshare: and he also defended Israel.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And after him was Shamgar the sonne of Anath, which slew of the Philistines sixe hundred men with an oxe goad, and he also deliuered Israel.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And after him rose up Samegar the son of Dinach, and smote the Philistines to the number of six hundred men with a ploughshare [such as is drawn by] oxen; and he too delivered Israel.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Pelishtim six hundred men with an ox goad: and he also delivered Yisrael.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And after 310
{0310} Prime
אַחַר
'achar
{akh-ar'}
From H0309; properly the hind part; generally used as an adverb or conjugation, after (in various senses).
him was x1961
(1961) Complement
הָיָה
hayah
{haw-yaw'}
A primitive root (compare H1933); to exist, that is, be or become, come to pass (always emphatic, and not a mere copula or auxiliary).
amgar שַׁמגַּר 8044
{8044} Prime
שַׁמְגַּר
Shamgar
{sham-gar'}
Of uncertain derivation; Shamgar, an Israelite judge.
the son 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of `n עֲנָת, 6067
{6067} Prime
עֲנָת
`Anath
{an-awth'}
From H6030; answer; Anath, an Israelite.
which slew 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
of x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the Plitm פְּלִשׁתִּים 6430
{6430} Prime
פְּלִשְׁתִּי
P@lishtiy
{pel-ish-tee'}
Patrial from H6429; a Pelishtite or inhabitant of Pelesheth.
six 8337
{8337} Prime
שֵׁשׁ
shesh
{shaysh}
(The second form is masculine); a primitive number; six (as an overplus (see H7797) beyond five or the fingers of the hand); as ordinal sixth.
hundred 3967
{3967} Prime
מֵאָה
me'ah
{may-aw'}
Probably a primitive numeral; a hundred; also as a multiplicative and a fraction.
men 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
with an ox 1241
{1241} Prime
בָּקָר
baqar
{baw-kawr'}
From H1239; a beeve or animal of the ox kind of either gender (as used for ploughing); collectively a herd.
goad: 4451
{4451} Prime
מַלְמַד
malmad
{mal-mawd'}
From H3925; a goad for oxen.
and he x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
also x1571
(1571) Complement
גַּם
gam
{gam}
By contraction from an unused root meaning to gather; properly assemblage; used only adverbially also, even, yea, though; often repeated as correlation both... and.
delivered 3467
{3467} Prime
יָשַׁע
yasha`
{yaw-shah'}
A primitive root; properly to be open, wide or free, that is, (by implication) to be safe; causatively to free or succor.
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל. 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Judges 3:31

_ _ after him was Shamgar — No notice is given of the tribe or family of this judge; and from the Philistines being the enemy that roused him into public service, the suffering seems to have been local — confined to some of the western tribes.

_ _ slew ... six hundred men with an oxgoad — This instrument is eight feet long and about six inches in circumference. It is armed at the lesser end with a sharp prong for driving the cattle, and on the other with a small iron paddle for removing the clay which encumbers the plough in working. Such an instrument, wielded by a strong arm, would do no mean execution. We may suppose, however, for the notice is very fragmentary, that Shamgar was only the leader of a band of peasants, who by means of such implements of labor as they could lay hold of at the moment, achieved the heroic exploit recorded.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Judges 3:31

_ _ When it is said the land had rest eighty years, some think it meant chiefly of that part of the land which lay eastward on the banks of Jordan, which had been oppressed by the Moabites; but it seems, by this passage here, that the other side of the country which lay south-west was in that time infested by the Philistines, against whom Shamgar made head. 1. It seems Israel needed deliverance, for he delivered Israel; how great the distress was Deborah afterwards related in her song (Judges 5:6), that in the days of Shamgar the highways were unoccupied, etc.; that part of the country which lay next to the Philistines was so infested with plunderers that people could not travel the roads in safety, but were in danger of being set upon and robbed, nor durst they dwell in the unguarded villages, but were forced to take shelter in the fortified cities. 2. God raised him up to deliver them, as it should seem, while Ehud was yet living, but superannuated. So inconsiderable were the enemies for number that it seems the killing of 600 of them amounted to a deliverance of Israel, and so many he slew with an ox-goad, or, as some read it, a plough-share. It is probable that he was himself following the plough when the Philistines made an inroad upon the country to ravage it, and God put it into his heart to oppose them; the impulse being sudden and strong, and having neither sword nor spear to do execution with, he took the instrument that was next at hand, some of the tools of his plough, and with that killed so many hundred men and came off unhurt. See here, (1.) That God can make those eminently serviceable to his glory and his church's good whose extraction, education, and employment, are very mean and obscure. He that has the residue of the Spirit could, when he pleased, make ploughmen judges and generals, and fishermen apostles. (2.) It is no matter how weak the weapon is if God direct and strengthen the arm. An ox-goad, when God pleases, shall do more than Goliath's sword. And sometimes he chooses to work by such unlikely means, that the excellency of the power may appear to be of God.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Judges 3:31

An ox goad — As Samson did a thousand with the jaw — bone of an ass; both being miraculous actions, and not at all incredible to him that believes a God, who could easily give strength to effect this. It is probable Shamgar was following the plough, when the Philistines made an inroad into the country. And having neither sword nor spear, when God put it into his heart to oppose them, he took the instrument that was next at hand. It is no matter how weak the weapon is, if God direct and strengthen the arm.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Judges 3:31

And after him was Shamgar the son of Anath, which slew of the Philistines six hundred men with an ox (l) goad: and he also delivered Israel.

(l) So that it is not the number, nor the means that God regards, when he will get the victory.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Shamgar:

Judges 5:6 In the days of Shamgar the son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways were unoccupied, and the travellers walked through byways.
Judges 5:8 They chose new gods; then [was] war in the gates: was there a shield or spear seen among forty thousand in Israel?

an ox goad:
This implement, Mr. Maundrell informs us, in Palestine and Syria is of an extraordinary size. He measured several, and "found them about eight feet long; and at the bigger end about six inches in circumference. They were armed at the lesser end with a sharp prickle for driving the oxen; and at the other end with a small paddle of iron, strong and massive, for cleansing the plough from the clay. In the hand of a powerful man such an instrument must be more dangerous and fatal than a sword."
Judges 15:15 And he found a new jawbone of an ass, and put forth his hand, and took it, and slew a thousand men therewith.
1 Samuel 13:19-22 Now there was no smith found throughout all the land of Israel: for the Philistines said, Lest the Hebrews make [them] swords or spears: ... So it came to pass in the day of battle, that there was neither sword nor spear found in the hand of any of the people that [were] with Saul and Jonathan: but with Saul and with Jonathan his son was there found.
1 Samuel 17:47 And all this assembly shall know that the LORD saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle [is] the LORD'S, and he will give you into our hands.
1 Samuel 17:50 So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but [there was] no sword in the hand of David.
1 Corinthians 1:17 For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect.

also:

Judges 2:16 Nevertheless the LORD raised up judges, which delivered them out of the hand of those that spoiled them.

Israel:
"So part is called Israel."
Judges 4:1 And the children of Israel again did evil in the sight of the LORD, when Ehud was dead.
Judges 4:3-24 And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and twenty years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel. ... And the hand of the children of Israel prospered, and prevailed against Jabin the king of Canaan, until they had destroyed Jabin king of Canaan.
Judges 10:7 And the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hands of the Philistines, and into the hands of the children of Ammon.
Judges 10:17 Then the children of Ammon were gathered together, and encamped in Gilead. And the children of Israel assembled themselves together, and encamped in Mizpeh.
Judges 11:4-33 And it came to pass in process of time, that the children of Ammon made war against Israel. ... And he smote them from Aroer, even till thou come to Minnith, [even] twenty cities, and unto the plain of the vineyards, with a very great slaughter. Thus the children of Ammon were subdued before the children of Israel.
1 Samuel 4:1 And the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out against the Philistines to battle, and pitched beside Ebenezer: and the Philistines pitched in Aphek.
"It seems to concern only the country next to the Philistines."
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Jg 2:16; 4:1, 3; 5:6, 8; 10:7, 17; 11:4; 15:15. 1S 4:1; 13:19; 17:47, 50. 1Co 1:17.

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