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Judges 18:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then the five men departed, and came to Laish, and saw the people that were therein, how they dwelt in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and secure; for there was none in the land, possessing authority, that might put [them] to shame in anything, and they were far from the Sidonians, and had no dealings with any man.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then the five men departed, and came to Laish, and saw the people that [were] therein, how they dwelt careless, after the manner of the Zidonians, quiet and secure; and [there was] no magistrate in the land, that might put [them] to shame in [any] thing; and they [were] far from the Zidonians, and had no business with [any] man.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then the five men departed and came to Laish and saw the people who were in it living in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and secure; for there was no ruler humiliating [them] for anything in the land, and they were far from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anyone.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then the five men departed, and came to Laish, and saw the people that [were] in it, how they dwelt careless, after the manner of the Zidonians, quiet and secure; and [there was] no magistrate in the land, that might put [them] to shame in [any] thing; and they [were] far from the Zidonians, and had no business with [any] man.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And the five men departed, and came to Laish; and they saw the people that were therein, dwelling securely, after the manner of the Zidonians, quiet and secure; and no one was in the land who possessed authority, that might put [them] to shame in anything; and they were far from the Zidonians, and had nothing to do with [any] man.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So the five men went their way, and entered Laish,—and saw the people who were therein, dwelling securely, after the manner of the Zidonians, quietly and securely, and there was no one to reproach them with anything in the land, none to possess himself of dominion, they being, far away, from the Zidonians, and having no dealings with any one.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And the five men go, and come in to Laish, and see the people which [is] in its midst, dwelling confidently, according to the custom of Zidonians, quiet and confident; and there is none putting to shame in the land in [any] thing, possessing restraint, and they [are] far off from the Zidonians, and have no word with [any] man.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— So the five men going on came to Lais: and they saw how the people dwelt therein without any fear, according to the custom of the Sidonians, secure and easy, having no man at all to oppose them, being very rich, and living separated, at a distance from Sidon and from all men.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then the fiue men departed, and came to Laish, and saw the people that were therein, how they dwelt carelesse, after the maner of the Zidonians, quiet and secure, and there was no magistrate in the land that might put them to shame in any thing, and they [were] farre from the Zidonians, and had no businesse with any man.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And the five men went on, and came to Laisa; and they saw the people in the midst of it dwelling securely, at ease as [is] the manner of the Zidonians{gr.Sidonians}, and there is no one perverting or shaming a matter in the land, no heir extorting treasures; and they are far from the Zidonians{gr.Sidonians}, and they have no intercourse with any one.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then the five men departed, and came to Layish, and saw the people that [were] therein, how they dwelt careless, after the manner of the Tzidonim, quiet and secure; and [there was] no magistrate in the land, that might put [them] to shame in [any] thing; and they [were] far from the Tzidonim, and had no business with [any] man.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then the five 2568
{2568} Prime
חָמֵשׁ
chamesh
{khaw-maysh'}
A primitive numeral; five.
men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
departed, y3212
[3212] Standard
יָלַך
yalak
{yaw-lak'}
A primitive root (compare H1980); to walk (literally or figuratively); causatively to carry (in various senses).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x1980
(1980) Complement
הָלַךְ
halak
{haw-lak'}
Akin to H3212; a primitive root; to walk (in a great variety of applications, literally and figuratively).
and came 935
{0935} Prime
בּוֹא
bow'
{bo}
A primitive root; to go or come (in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
to Layi לַיִשׁ, 3919
{3919} Prime
לַיִשׁ
Layish
{lah'-yish}
The same as H3918; Laish, the name of two places in Palestine.
and saw 7200
{7200} Prime
רָאָה
ra'ah
{raw-aw'}
A primitive root; to see, literally or figuratively (in numerous applications, direct and implied, transitively, intransitively and causatively).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the people 5971
{5971} Prime
עַם
`am
{am}
From H6004; a people (as a congregated unit); specifically a tribe (as those of Israel); hence (collectively) troops or attendants; figuratively a flock.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[were] therein, 7130
{7130} Prime
קֶרֶב
qereb
{keh'-reb}
From H7126; properly the nearest part, that is, the centre, whether literally, figuratively or adverbially (especially with preposition).
how they dwelt 3427
{3427} Prime
יָשַׁב
yashab
{yaw-shab'}
A primitive root; properly to sit down (specifically as judge, in ambush, in quiet); by implication to dwell, to remain; causatively to settle, to marry.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
careless, 983
{0983} Prime
בֶּטַח
betach
{beh'-takh}
From H0982; properly a place of refuge; abstractly safety, both the fact (security) and the feeling (trust); often (adverbially with or without preposition) safely.
after the manner 4941
{4941} Prime
מִשְׁפָּט
mishpat
{mish-pawt'}
From H8199; properly a verdict (favorable or unfavorable) pronounced judicially, especially a sentence or formal decree (human or (particularly) divine law, individual or collectively), including the act, the place, the suit, the crime, and the penalty; abstractly justice, including a particular right, or privilege (statutory or customary), or even a style.
of the Xnm צִידוֹנִים, 6722
{6722} Prime
צִידוֹנִי
Tsiydoniy
{tsee-do-nee'}
Patrial from H6721; a Tsidonian or inhabitant of Tsidon.
quiet 8252
{8252} Prime
שָׁקַט
shaqat
{shaw-kat'}
A primitive root; to repose (usually figuratively).
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and secure; 982
{0982} Prime
בָּטַח
batach
{baw-takh'}
A primitive root; properly to hie for refuge (but not so precipitately as H2620); figuratively to trust, be confident or sure.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
and [there was] no x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
magistrate 3423
{3423} Prime
יָרַשׁ
yarash
{yaw-rash'}
A primitive root; to occupy (be driving out previous tenants, and possessing in their place); by implication to seize, to rob, to inherit; also to expel, to impoverish, to ruin.
6114
{6114} Prime
עֶצֶר
`etser
{eh'-tser}
From H6113; restraint.
z8802
<8802> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Participle Active (See H8814)
Count - 5386
in the land, 776
{0776} Prime
אֶרֶץ
'erets
{eh'-rets}
From an unused root probably meaning to be firm; the earth (at large, or partitively a land).
that might put [them] to shame 3637
{3637} Prime
כָּלָם
kalam
{kaw-lawm'}
A primitive root; properly to wound; but only figuratively, to taunt or insult.
z8688
<8688> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Participle (See H8813)
Count - 857
in [any] thing; 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
and they x1992
(1992) Complement
הֵם
hem
{haym}
Masculine plural from H1931; they (only used when emphatic).
[were] far 7350
{7350} Prime
רָחוֹק
rachowq
{raw-khoke'}
From H7368; remote, literally of figuratively, of place or time; specifically precious; often used adverbially (with preposition).
from the Xnm צִידוֹנִים, 6722
{6722} Prime
צִידוֹנִי
Tsiydoniy
{tsee-do-nee'}
Patrial from H6721; a Tsidonian or inhabitant of Tsidon.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
and had no x369
(0369) Complement
אַיִן
'ayin
{ah'-yin}
As if from a primitive root meaning to be nothing or not exist; a non-entity; generally used as a negative particle.
business 1697
{1697} Prime
דָּבָר
dabar
{daw-baw'}
From H1696; a word; by implication a matter (as spoken of) or thing; adverbially a cause.
with x5973
(5973) Complement
עִם
`im
{eem}
From H6004; adverb or preposition, with (that is, in conjunction with), in varied applications; specifically equally with; often with prepositional prefix (and then usually unrepresented in English).
[any] man. 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Judges 18:7-10

_ _ the five men departed, and came to Laish — or, “Leshem” (Joshua 19:47), supposed to have been peopled by a colony of Zidonians. The place was very secluded — the soil rich in the abundance and variety of its produce, and the inhabitants, following the peaceful pursuits of agriculture, lived in their fertile and sequestered valley, according to the Zidonian style of ease and security, happy among themselves, and maintaining little or no communication with the rest of the world. The discovery of this northern paradise seemed, to the delight of the Danite spies, an accomplishment of the priest’s prediction. They hastened back to inform their brethren in the south both of the value of their prize, and how easily it could be made their prey.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Judges 18:7-13

_ _ Here is, I. The observation which the spies made upon the city of Laish, and the posture of its inhabitants, Judges 18:7. Never was place so ill governed and so ill guarded, which would make it a very easy prey to the invader.

_ _ 1. It was ill governed, for every man might be as bad as he would, and there was no magistrate, no heir of restraint (as the word is), that might so much as put them to shame in any thing, much less put them to death, so that by the most impudent immoralities they provoked God's wrath, and by all manner of mutual mischiefs weakened and consumed one another. See here, (1.) What the office of magistrates is. They are to be heirs of restraint, that is, to preserve a constant entail of power, as heirs to an inheritance, in the places where they are, for the restraining of that which is evil. They are possessors of restraint, entrusted with their authority for this end, that they may check and suppress every thing that is vicious and be a terror to evil doers. It is only God's grace that can renew men's depraved minds and turn their hearts; but the magistrate's power may restrain their bad practices and tie their hands, so that the wickedness of the wicked may not be either so injurious or so infectious as otherwise it would be. Though the sword of justice cannot cut up the root of bitterness, it may cut off its branches and hinder its growth and spreading, that vice may not go without a check, for then it becomes daring and dangerous, and the community shares in the guilt. (2.) See what method must be used for the restraint of wickedness. Sinners must be put to shame, that those who will not be restrained by the shamefulness of the sin before God and their own consciences may be restrained by the shamefulness of the punishment before men. All ways must be tried to dash sin out of countenance and cover it with contempt, to make people ashamed of their idleness, drunkenness, cheating, lying, and other sins, by making reputation always appear on virtue's side. (3.) See how miserable, and how near to ruin, those places are that either have no magistrates or none that bear the sword to any purpose; the wicked then walk on every side, Psalms 12:8. And how happy we are in good laws and a good government.

_ _ 2. It was ill guarded. The people of Laish were careless, quiet, and secure, their gates left open, their walls out of repair, because under no apprehension of danger in any way, though their wickedness was so great that they had reason to fear divine vengeance every day. It was a sign that the Israelites, through their sloth and cowardice, were not now such a terror to the Canaanites as they were when they first came among them, else the city of Laish, which probably knew itself to be assigned to them, would not have been so very secure. Though they were an open and inland town, they lived secure, like the Zidonians (who were surrounded with the sea and were well fortified both by art and nature), but were far from the Zidonians, who therefore could not come in to their assistance, nor help to defend them from the danger which, by debauching their manners, they had helped to bring them into. And, lastly, they had no business with any man, which bespeaks either the idleness they affected (they followed no trade, and so grew lazy and luxurious, and utterly unable to defend themselves) or the independency they affected: they scorned to be either in subjection to or alliance with any of their neighbours, and so they had none to protect them nor bring in any aid to them. They cared for nobody and therefore nobody cared for them. Such as these were the men of Laish.

_ _ II. The encouragement which they consequently gave to their countrymen that sent them to prosecute their design upon this city, Judges 18:8-10. Probably the Danites had formed notions of the insuperable difficulties of the enterprise, thought it impossible ever to make themselves masters of Laish, and therefore had kept themselves so long out of the possession of it, perhaps suggesting likewise to one another, in their unbelief, that it was not a country worth going so far and running such a risk for, which jealousies the spies (and they were not, in this, evil spies) had an eye to in their report. 1. They represent the place as desirable: “If you will trust our judgments, we have seen the land, and we are agreed in our verdict upon the view, that, behold, it is very good (Judges 18:9), better than this mountainous country into which we are here crowded by the Philistines. You need not doubt of living comfortably in it, for it is a place where there is no want of any thing,Judges 18:10. See what a good land Canaan was, that this city which lay furthest of all northward, in the utmost corner of the country, stood on such a fruitful spot. 2. They represent it as attainable. They do not at all question but, with God's blessing, they may soon get possession of it; for the people are secure, Judges 18:10. And the more secure always the less safe. “God has given it into your hands, and you may have it for the taking.” They stir them up to the undertaking: “Arise, that we may go up against them, let us go about it speedily and resolutely.” They expostulate with them for their delays, and chide them out of their sluggishness: Are you still? Be not slothful to go. Men need to be thus stirred up to mind even their interest. Heaven is a very good land, where there is no want of any thing; our God has, by the promise, given it into our hands; let us not then be slothful in making it sure, and laying hold on eternal life, but strive to enter.

_ _ III. The Danites' expedition against Laish. This particular family of them, to whose lot that city fell, now at length make towards it, Judges 18:11-13. The military men were but 600 in all, not a hundredth part of that tribe, for when they entered Canaan the Danites were above 64,000, Numbers 26:43. It was strange that none of their brethren of their own tribe, much less of any other, came in to their assistance; but it was long after Israel came to Canaan before there appeared among them any thing of a public spirit, or concern for a common interest, which was the reason why they seldom united in a common head, and this kept them low and inconsiderable. It appears (by Judges 18:21) that these 600 were the whole number that went to settle there, for they had their families and effects with them, their little ones and cattle, so confident were they of success. The other tribes gave them a free passage through their country. Their first day's march brought them to Kirjath-jearim (Judges 18:12), and such rare things had military encampments now become in Israel that the place where they rested that night was thence called Mahaneh-dan, the camp of Dan, and probably the place whence they began their march between Zorah and Eshtaol was called by the same name, and is meant, Judges 13:25. The second day's march brought them to Mount Ephraim, near Micah's house (Judges 18:13), and there we must pause awhile.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Judges 18:7

Manner of the Zidonians — Who living in a very strong place, and abounding in wealth, and perceiving that the Israelites never attempted anything against them, were grown secure and careless. Put to shame — Or, that might rebuke or punish any thing, that is, any crime. Putting to shame seems to be used for inflicting civil punishment, because shame is generally the effect of it. Zidonians — Who otherwise could have succoured them, and would have been ready to do it. No business — No league or confederacy, nor much converse with other cities, it being in a pleasant and plentiful soil, between the two rivulets of Jor and Dan, not needing supplies from others, and therefore minding only their own ease and pleasure.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

[[no comment]]

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Laish:

Joshua 19:47 And the coast of the children of Dan went out [too little] for them: therefore the children of Dan went up to fight against Leshem, and took it, and smote it with the edge of the sword, and possessed it, and dwelt therein, and called Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their father.
, called Leshem

how they:

Judges 18:27-28 And they took [the things] which Micah had made, and the priest which he had, and came unto Laish, unto a people [that were] at quiet and secure: and they smote them with the edge of the sword, and burnt the city with fire. ... And [there was] no deliverer, because it [was] far from Zidon, and they had no business with [any] man; and it was in the valley that [lieth] by Bethrehob. And they built a city, and dwelt therein.
Revelation 18:7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

magistrate:
Heb. possessor, or, heir of restraint,
1 Samuel 3:13 For I have told him that I will judge his house for ever for the iniquity which he knoweth; because his sons made themselves vile, and he restrained them not.
1 Kings 1:6 And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also [was a] very goodly [man]; and [his mother] bare him after Absalom.
Romans 13:3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same:
1 Peter 2:14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evildoers, and for the praise of them that do well.

and had no:
In the most correct copies of the LXX this clause stands thus; και λογος ουκ ην αυτοις μετα Συριας; "and they had no transactions with Syria;" evidently reading instead of אדם [Strong's H0120], adam, man, ארם [Strong's H0758], aram, Syria; words so nearly similar that the only difference between them is in the ר, raish, and ד, daleth, which in both manuscripts and printed books is sometimes indiscernible. Laish was situated on the frontiers of Syria.
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Jsh 19:47. Jg 18:27. 1S 3:13. 1K 1:6. Ro 13:3. 1P 2:14. Rv 18:7.

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