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Judges 12:4 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye are fugitives of Ephraim, ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, [and] in the midst of Manasseh.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites [are] fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, [and] among the Manassites.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead and fought Ephraim; and the men of Gilead defeated Ephraim, because they said, “You are fugitives of Ephraim, O Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim [and] in the midst of Manasseh.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then Jephthah collected all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites [are] fugitives of Ephraim among the Ephraimites, [and] among the Manassites.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye, Gilead, ye are fugitives of Ephraim in the midst of Ephraim, [and] in the midst of Manasseh.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— And Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim,—and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said—Fugitives of Ephraim, are, ye, O ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim, in the midst of Manasseh.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And Jephthah gathered all the men of Gilead, and fighteth with Ephraim, and the men of Gilead smite Ephraim, because they said, 'Fugitives of Ephraim [are] ye Gileadites, in the midst of Ephraim—in the midst of Manasseh.'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Then calling to him all the men of Galaad, he fought against Ephraim: and the men of Galaad defeated Ephraim, because he had said: Galaad is a fugitive of Ephraim, and dwelleth in the midst of Ephraim and Manasses.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then Iephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Yee Gileadites are fugitiues of Ephraim, among the Ephraimites and among the Manassites.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Jephthah{gr.Jephthae} gathered all the men of Gilead{gr.Galaad}, and fought with Ephraim; and the men of Gilead{gr.Galaad} smote Ephraim, because they that were escaped of Ephraim said, Ye [are] of Gilead{gr.Galaad} in the midst of Ephraim and in the midst of Manasseh{gr.Manasse}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then Yiftach gathered together all the men of Gilad, and fought with Efrayim: and the men of Gilad smote Efrayim, because they said, Ye Giladim [are] fugitives of Efrayim among the Efrayim, [and] among the Menashshim.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then Yift יִפתָּח 3316
{3316} Prime
יִפְתָּח
Yiphtach
{yif-tawkh'}
From H6605; he will open; Jiphtach, an Israelite; also a place in Palestine.
gathered together 6908
{6908} Prime
קָבַץ
qabats
{kaw-bats'}
A primitive root; to grasp, that is, collect.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
all x3605
(3605) Complement
כֹּל
kol
{kole}
From H3634; properly the whole; hence all, any or every (in the singular only, but often in a plural sense).
the men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
of Gil` גִּלעָד, 1568
{1568} Prime
גִּלְעָד
Gil`ad
{ghil-awd'}
Probably from H1567; Gilad, a region East of the Jordan; also the name of three Israelites.
and fought 3898
{3898} Prime
לָחַם
lacham
{law-kham'}
A primitive root; to feed on; figuratively to consume; by implication to battle (as destruction).
z8735
<8735> Grammar
Stem - Niphal (See H8833)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 1602
with x854
(0854) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Probably from H0579; properly nearness (used only as a preposition or adverb), near; hence generally with, by, at, among, etc.
Efrayim אֶפרַיִם: 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
and the men y582
[0582] Standard
אֱנוֹשׁ
'enowsh
{en-oshe'}
From H0605; properly a mortal (and thus differeing from the more dignified H0120); hence a man in general (singly or collectively). It is often unexpressed in the English Version, especially when used in apposition with another word.
x376
(0376) Complement
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
of Gil` גִּלעָד 1568
{1568} Prime
גִּלְעָד
Gil`ad
{ghil-awd'}
Probably from H1567; Gilad, a region East of the Jordan; also the name of three Israelites.
smote 5221
{5221} Prime
נָכָה
nakah
{naw-kaw'}
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Efrayim אֶפרַיִם, 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
because x3588
(3588) Complement
כִּי
kiy
{kee}
A primitive particle (the full form of the prepositional prefix) indicating causal relations of all kinds, antecedent or consequent; (by implication) very widely used as a relative conjugation or adverb; often largely modified by other particles annexed.
they said, 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8804
<8804> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Perfect (See H8816)
Count - 12562
Ye x859
(0859) Complement
אַתָּה
'attah
{at-taw'}
A primitive pronoun of the second person; thou and thee, or (plural) ye and you.
Gil`m גִּלעָדִים 1568
{1568} Prime
גִּלְעָד
Gil`ad
{ghil-awd'}
Probably from H1567; Gilad, a region East of the Jordan; also the name of three Israelites.
[are] fugitives 6412
{6412} Prime
פָּלִיט
paliyt
{paw-leet'}
From H6403; a refugee.
of Efrayim אֶפרַיִם 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
among 8432
{8432} Prime
תָּוֶךְ
tavek
{taw'-vek}
From an unused root meaning to sever; a bisection, that is, (by implication) the centre.
the Efrayim אֶפרַיִם, 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
[and] among 8432
{8432} Prime
תָּוֶךְ
tavek
{taw'-vek}
From an unused root meaning to sever; a bisection, that is, (by implication) the centre.
the Mnam מְנַשִּׁים. 4519
{4519} Prime
מְנַשֶּׁה
M@nashsheh
{men-ash-sheh'}
From H5382; causing to forget; Menashsheh, a grandson of jacob, also the tribe descendant from him, and its territory.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Judges 12:4-6

_ _ Judges 12:4-15. Discerned by the word Sibboleth, are slain by the Gileadites.

_ _ the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites are fugitives of Ephraim — The remonstrances of Jephthah, though reasonable and temperate, were not only ineffectual, but followed by insulting sneers that the Gileadites were reckoned both by the western Manassites and Ephraimites as outcasts — the scum and refuse of their common stock. This was addressed to a peculiarly sensitive people. A feud immediately ensued. The Gileadites, determined to chastise this public affront, gave them battle; and having defeated the Ephraimites, they chased their foul-mouthed but cowardly assailants out of the territory. Then rushing to the fords of the Jordan, they intercepted and slew every fugitive. The method adopted for discovering an Ephraimite was by the pronunciation of a word naturally suggested by the place where they stood. Shibboleth, means “a stream”; Sibboleth, “a burden.” The Eastern tribe had, it seems, a dialectical provincialism in the sound of Shibboleth; and the Ephraimites could not bring their organs to pronounce it.

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Judges 12:1-7.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Judges 12:4

Ye Gileadites — These words are a contemptuous expression of the Ephraimites concerning the Gileadites, whom they call fugitives of Ephraim; the word Ephraim being here taken largely, as it comprehends the other neighbouring tribes, of which Ephraim was the chief; and especially their brethren of Manasseh, who lived next to them, and were descended from the same father, Joseph. By Gileadites here they seem principally to mean the Manassites beyond Jordan, who dwelt in Gilead. And although other Gileadites were joined with them, yet they vent their passion against these; principally, because they envied them most; as having had a chief hand in the victory. These they opprobriously call fugitives, that is, such as had deserted their brethren of Ephraim and Manasseh, planted themselves beyond Jordan, at a distance from their brethren, and were alienated in affection from them.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Judges 12:4

Then Jephthah gathered together all the men of Gilead, and fought with Ephraim: and the men of Gilead smote Ephraim, because they said, Ye Gileadites [are] fugitives of Ephraim (d) among the Ephraimites, [and] among the Manassites.

(d) You ran from us, and chose Gilead, and now in respect to us you are nothing.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
and the men:

Judges 11:10 And the elders of Gilead said unto Jephthah, The LORD be witness between us, if we do not so according to thy words.
Numbers 32:39-40 And the children of Machir the son of Manasseh went to Gilead, and took it, and dispossessed the Amorite which [was] in it. ... And Moses gave Gilead unto Machir the son of Manasseh; and he dwelt therein.
Deuteronomy 3:12-17 And this land, [which] we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which [is] by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites. ... The plain also, and Jordan, and the coast [thereof], from Chinnereth even unto the sea of the plain, [even] the salt sea, under Ashdothpisgah eastward.

fugitives:

1 Samuel 25:10 And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who [is] David? and who [is] the son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away every man from his master.
Nehemiah 4:4 Hear, O our God; for we are despised: and turn their reproach upon their own head, and give them for a prey in the land of captivity:
Psalms 78:9 The children of Ephraim, [being] armed, [and] carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle.
Proverbs 12:13 The wicked is snared by the transgression of [his] lips: but the just shall come out of trouble.
Proverbs 15:1 A soft answer turneth away wrath: but grievous words stir up anger.
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Nu 32:39. Dt 3:12. Jg 11:10. 1S 25:10. Ne 4:4. Ps 78:9. Pv 12:13; 15:1.

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