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Joshua 20:7 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— And they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill-country of Naphtali, and Shechem in the hill-country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (the same is Hebron) in the hill-country of Judah.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— And they appointed Kedesh in Galilee in mount Naphtali, and Shechem in mount Ephraim, and Kirjatharba, which [is] Hebron, in the mountain of Judah.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— So they set apart Kedesh in Galilee in the hill country of Naphtali and Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (that is, Hebron) in the hill country of Judah.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— And they appointed Kedesh in Galilee in mount Naphtali, and Shechem in mount Ephraim, and Kirjath-arba, (which [is] Hebron) in the mountain of Judah.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— And they hallowed Kedesh in Galilee in the hill-country of Naphtali, and Shechem in the hill-country of Ephraim, and Kirjath-Arba, that is, Hebron, in the hill-country of Judah.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— So then they set apart Kadesh in Galilee, in the hill country of Naphtali, and Shechem, in the hill country of Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba, the same, is Hebron, in the hill country of Judah.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— And they sanctify Kedesh in Galilee, in the hill-country of Naphtali, and Shechem in the hill-country of Ephraim, and Kirjath-Arba (it [is] Hebron), in the hill-country of Judah;
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And they appointed Cedes in Galilee of mount Nephtali, and Sichem in mount Ephraim, and Cariath-Arbe, the same is Hebron in the mountain of Juda.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— And they appointed Kedesh in Galilee, in mount Naphtali, and Shechem in mount Ephraim, and Kiriath-arba (which is Hebron) in the mountaine of Iudah.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— And Joshua{gr.Jesus} separated Kadesh{gr.Cades} in Galilee in the mount Naphtali{gr.Nephthali}, and Shechem{gr.Sychem} in the mount Ephraim, and the city of Arboc; this is Hebron{gr.Chebron}, in the mountain of Judah{gr.Juda}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— And they appointed Qedesh in Galilah in mount Naftali, and Shekhem in mount Efrayim, and Qiryath Arba, which [is] Chevron, in the mountain of Yehudah.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
And they appointed 6942
{6942} Prime
קָדַשׁ
qadash
{kaw-dash'}
A primitive root; to be (causatively make, pronounce or observe as) clean (ceremonially or morally).
z8686
<8686> Grammar
Stem - Hiphil (See H8818)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 4046
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
Kee קֶדֶשׁ 6943
{6943} Prime
קֶדֶשׁ
Qedesh
{keh'-desh}
From H6942; a sanctum; Kedesh, the name of four places in Palestine.
in Gll גָּלִילָה 1551
{1551} Prime
גָּלִיל
Galiyl
{gaw-leel'}
The same as H1550; a circle (with the article); Galil (as a special circuit) in the North of Palestine.
in mount 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
Naftl נַפתָּלִי, 5321
{5321} Prime
נַפְתָּלִי
Naphtaliy
{naf-taw-lee'}
From H6617; my wrestling; Naphtali, a son of Jacob, with the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
and em שְׁכֶם 7927
{7927} Prime
שְׁכֶם
Sh@kem
{shek-em'}
The same as H7926; ridge; Shekem, a place in Palestine.
in mount 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
Efrayim אֶפרַיִם, 669
{0669} Prime
אֶפְרַיִם
'Ephrayim
{ef-rah'-yim}
Dual of a masculine form of H0672; double fruit; Ephrajim, a son of Joseph; also the tribe descended from him, and its territory.
and Kirya Arba` קִריַת־אַרבַּע, 7153
{7153} Prime
קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע
Qiryath `Arba`
{keer-yath' ar-bah'}
The second form, used in Nehemiah 11:25, has the article interposed; from H7151 and H0704 or H0702; city of Arba, or city of the four (giants); Kirjath-Arba or Kirjath-ha-Arba, a place in Palestine.
which x1931
(1931) Complement
הוּא
huw'
{hoo}
The second form is the feminine beyond the Pentateuch; a primitive word, the third person pronoun singular, he (she or it); only expressed when emphatic or without a verb; also (intensively) self, or (especially with the article) the same; sometimes (as demonstrative) this or that; occasionally (instead of copula) as or are.
[is] evrn חֶברוֹן, 2275
{2275} Prime
חֶבְרוֹן
Chebrown
{kheb-rone'}
From H2267; seat of association; Chebron, a place in Palestine, also the name of two Israelites.
in the mountain 2022
{2022} Prime
הַר
har
{har}
A shortened form of H2042; a mountain or range of hills (sometimes used figuratively).
of Yh יְהוּדָה. 3063
{3063} Prime
יְהוּדָה
Y@huwdah
{yeh-hoo-daw'}
From H3034; celebrated; Jehudah (or Judah), the name of five Israelites; also of the tribe descended from the first, and of its territory.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Joshua 20:7-9

_ _ Joshua 20:7-9. The Israelites appoint by name the cities of refuge.

_ _ they appointed ... cities — There were six; three on the west, and three on the east, of Jordan. In the first instance, they were a provision of the criminal law of the Hebrews, necessary in the circumstances of that people (see on Numbers 35:11; see on Deuteronomy 19:2). At the same time they were designed also typically to point out the sinner’s way to Christ (Hebrews 6:18).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

Joshua 20:7-9

_ _ We have here the nomination of the cities of refuge in the land of Canaan, which was made by the advice and authority of Joshua and the princes (Joshua 19:7); and upon occasion of the mention of this is repeated the nomination of the other three in the lot of the other two tribes and a half, which was made by Moses (Deuteronomy 4:43), but (as bishop Patrick thinks) they had not the privilege till now. 1. They are said to sanctify these cities, that is the original word for appointed, Joshua 19:7. Not that any ceremony was used to signify the consecration of them, only they did by a public act of court solemnly declare them cities of refuge, and as such sacred to the honour of God, as the protector of exposed innocency. If they were sanctuaries, it was proper to say they were sanctified. Christ, our refuge, was sanctified by his Father; nay, for our sakes he sanctified himself, John 17:19. 2. These cities (as those also on the other side Jordan) stood in the three several parts of the country, so conveniently that a man might (they say) in half a day reach some one of them from any corner of the country. Kedesh was in Naphtali, the most northern tribe, Hebron in Judah, the most southern, and Shechem in Ephraim, which lay in the middle, about equally distant from the other two. God is a refuge at hand. 3. They were all Levites' cities, which put an honour upon God's tribe, making them judges in those cases wherein divine Providence was so nearly concerned, and protectors to oppressed innocency. It was also a kindness to the poor refugee, that when he might not go up to the house of the Lord, nor tread his courts, yet he had the servants of God's house with him, to instruct him, and pray for him, and help to make up the want of public ordinances. If he must be confined, it shall be to a Levite-city, where he may, if he will, improve his time. 4. These cities were upon hills to be seen afar off, for a city on a hill cannot be hid; and this would both direct and encourage the poor distressed man that was making that way; and, though therefore his way at last was up-hill, yet this would comfort him, that he would be in his place of safety quickly, and if he could but get into the suburbs of the city he was well enough off. 5. Some observe a significancy in the names of these cities with application to Christ our refuge. I delight not in quibbling upon names, yet am willing to take notice of these. Kedesh signifies holy, and our refuge is the holy Jesus. Shechem, a shoulder, and the government is upon his shoulder. Hebron, fellowship, and believers are called into the fellowship of Christ Jesus our Lord. Bezer, a fortification, for he is a strong-hold to all those that trust in him. Ramoth, high or exalted, for him hath God exalted with his own right hand. Golan, joy or exultation, for in him all the saints are justified, and shall glory. Lastly, Besides all these, the horns of the altar, wherever it was, were a refuge to those who took hold of them, if the crime were such as that sanctuary allowed. This is implied in that law (Exodus 21:14), that a wilful murderer shall be taken from God's altar to be put to death. And we find the altar used for this purpose. 1 Kings 1:50; 1 Kings 2:28. Christ is our altar, who not only sanctifies the gift, but protects the giver.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Joshua 20:7

And they appointed — Concerning these cities note, That they were all upon mountains, that they might be seen at a great distance, and so direct those who fled thither. That they were seated at convenient distance one from another, for the benefit of the several tribes; for Kedesh was in the north, Hebron in the south, and Shechem between them. That they all belonged to the Levites; partly that these causes might be more impartially examined, and justly determined by them who are presumed best able to understand the law of God, and most obliged to follow it and not to be biass'd by any affection or corrupt interest, and partly, that their reputation with the people, and their good counsels, might lay a restraint upon revengeful persons, who might be inclined to follow the man — slayer thither, and endeavour to kill him there. It was likewise an advantage to the poor refugee, that when he might not go up to the house of the Lord, yet he had the servants of God's house with him, to instruct him, and pray for him, and help to make up the want of public ordinances.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
appointed:
Heb. sanctified

Kedesh:
Kedesh, called Cadesa, or Caidesa, by Josephus, was situated in Upper Galilee, twenty miles south-east from Tyre, according to Eusebius. The cities of refuge were distributed through the land at proper distances from each other, that they might be convenient to every part of the land; and it is said they were situated on eminences, that they might be easily seen at a distance; the roads leading to them being broad, even, and always kept in good repair. Kedesh and Hebron were at the two extremities of the land, the former being in Galilee, and the latter in Judah, both in mountainous districts, and Shechem was in mount Ephraim, nearly in the centre. Bezer was east of Jordan, in the eastern part of the plain opposite Jericho; Ramoth was about the midst of the country of the two tribes and a half, being about the middle of the mountains of Gilead; and Golan, the capital of Gaulonitis, was situated in the tribe of Manasseh, in the land of Bashan. As this institution is considered as a type of Christ, some expositors observe a significancy in the names of these cities with application to Him as Our Refuge. Kedesh signifies holy, and our refuge is the holy Jesus. Shechem, a shoulder, "and the government is upon his shoulder." Hebron, fellowship, and believers are called into the fellowship of Christ Jesus our Lord. Bezer, a fortification, for he is a strong hold to all them that trust in him. Ramoth, high, or exalted, for him hath God exalted with his own right hand. Golan, joy, or exultation, for in him all the saints are justified, and shall glory.
Joshua 21:32 And out of the tribe of Naphtali, Kedesh in Galilee with her suburbs, [to be] a city of refuge for the slayer; and Hammothdor with her suburbs, and Kartan with her suburbs; three cities.
1 Chronicles 6:76 And out of the tribe of Naphtali; Kedesh in Galilee with her suburbs, and Hammon with her suburbs, and Kirjathaim with her suburbs.

Shechem:

Joshua 21:21 For they gave them Shechem with her suburbs in mount Ephraim, [to be] a city of refuge for the slayer; and Gezer with her suburbs,
Genesis 33:18-19 And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which [is] in the land of Canaan, when he came from Padanaram; and pitched his tent before the city. ... And he bought a parcel of a field, where he had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of Hamor, Shechem's father, for an hundred pieces of money.
2 Chronicles 10:1 And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for to Shechem were all Israel come to make him king.

Kirjatharba:

Joshua 14:15 And the name of Hebron before [was] Kirjatharba; [which Arba was] a great man among the Anakims. And the land had rest from war.
Joshua 21:11 And they gave them the city of Arba the father of Anak, which [city is] Hebron, in the hill [country] of Judah, with the suburbs thereof round about it.
Joshua 21:13 Thus they gave to the children of Aaron the priest Hebron with her suburbs, [to be] a city of refuge for the slayer; and Libnah with her suburbs,

mountain:

Luke 1:39 And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Juda;
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Gn 33:18. Jsh 14:15; 21:11, 13, 21, 32. 1Ch 6:76. 2Ch 10:1. Lk 1:39.

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