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Joshua 10:12 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— Then spake Joshua to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— Then Joshua spoke to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the sons of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, “O sun, stand still at Gibeon, And O moon in the valley of Aijalon.”
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— Then spoke Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon, and thou Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— Then spoke Joshua to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah gave up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand still upon Gibeon; And thou, moon, in the valley of Ajalon!
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Then, spake Joshua unto Yahweh, on the day when Yahweh delivered up the Amorites before the sons of Israel,—yea he said, in the presence of Israel—Thou Sun! in Gibeon, be still, and thou Moon! in the vale of Aijalon.
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— Then speaketh Joshua to Jehovah in the day of Jehovah's giving up the Amorites before the sons of Israel, and he saith, before the eyes of Israel, 'Sun—in Gibeon stand still; and moon—in the valley of Ajalon;'
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— Then Josue spoke to the Lord, in the day that he delivered the Amorrhite in the sight of the children of Israel, and he said before them: Move not, O sun, toward Gabaon, nor thou, O moon, toward the valley of Ajalon.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— Then spake Ioshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD deliuered vp the Amorites before the children of Israel, and hee said in the sight of Israel, Sunne, stand thou still vpon Gibeon, and thou Moone in the valley of Aialon.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— Then Joshua{gr.Jesus} spoke to the Lord, in the day in which the Lord delivered the Amorite into the power of Israel, when he destroyed them in Gibeon{gr.Gabaon}, and they were destroyed from before the children of Israel: and Joshua{gr.Jesus} said, Let the sun stand over against Gibeon{gr.Gabaon}, and the moon over against the valley of Aijalon{gr.Aelon}.
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— Then spake Yehoshua to Yahweh in the day when Yahweh delivered up the Emorim before the children of Yisrael, and he said in the sight of Yisrael, Sun, stand thou still upon Givon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ayyalon.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
Then x227
(0227) Complement
אָז
'az
{awz}
A demonstrative adverb; at that time or place; also as a conjugation, therefore.
spake 1696
{1696} Prime
דִּבֵּר
dabar
{daw-bar'}
A primitive root; perhaps properly to arrange; but used figuratively (of words) to speak; rarely (in a destructive sense) to subdue.
z8762
<8762> Grammar
Stem - Piel (See H8840)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 2447
Yhu` יְהוֹשֻׁעַ 3091
{3091} Prime
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ
Y@howshuwa`
{yeh-ho-shoo'-ah}
From H3068 and H3467; Jehovah-saved; Jehoshua (that is, Joshua), the Jewish leader.
to Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
in the day 3117
{3117} Prime
יוֹם
yowm
{yome}
From an unused root meaning to be hot; a day (as the warm hours), whether literally (from sunrise to sunset, or from one sunset to the next), or figuratively (a space of time defined by an associated term), (often used adverbially).
when Yhw יָהוֶה 3068
{3068} Prime
יְהֹוָה
Y@hovah
{yeh-ho-vaw'}
From H1961; (the) self Existent or eternal; Jehovah, Jewish national name of God.
delivered up 5414
{5414} Prime
נָתַן
nathan
{naw-than'}
A primitive root; to give, used with great latitude of application (put, make, etc.).
z8800
<8800> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Infinitive (See H8812)
Count - 4888
x853
(0853) Complement
אֵת
'eth
{ayth}
Apparently contracted from H0226 in the demonstrative sense of entity; properly self (but generally used to point out more definitely the object of a verb or preposition, even or namely).
the mrm אֱמֹרִים 567
{0567} Prime
אֱמֹרִי
'Emoriy
{em-o-ree'}
Probably a patronymic from an unused name derived from H0559 in the sense of publicity, that is, prominence; thus a mountaineer; an Emorite, one of the Canaanitish tribes.
before 6440
{6440} Prime
פָּנִים
paniym
{paw-neem'}
Plural (but always used as a singular) of an unused noun (פָּנֶה paneh, {paw-neh'}; from H6437); the face (as the part that turns); used in a great variety of applications (literally and figuratively); also (with prepositional prefix) as a preposition (before, etc.).
the children 1121
{1121} Prime
בֵּן
ben
{bane}
From H1129; a son (as a builder of the family name), in the widest sense (of literal and figurative relationship, including grandson, subject, nation, quality or condition, etc., (like H0001, H0251, etc.).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
and he said 559
{0559} Prime
אָמַר
'amar
{aw-mar'}
A primitive root; to say (used with great latitude).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
in the sight 5869
{5869} Prime
עַיִן
`ayin
{ah'-yin}
Probably a primitive word; an eye (literally or figuratively); by analogy a fountain (as the eye of the landscape).
of Yi$rl יִשׂרָאֵל, 3478
{3478} Prime
יִשְׂרָאֵל
Yisra'el
{yis-raw-ale'}
From H8280 and H0410; he will rule as God; Jisrael, a symbolical name of Jacob; also (typically) of his posterity.
Sun, 8121
{8121} Prime
שֶׁמֶשׁ
shemesh
{sheh'-mesh}
From an unused root meaning to be brilliant; the sun; by implication the east; figuratively a ray, that is, (architecturally) a notched battlement.
stand thou still 1826
{1826} Prime
דָּמַם
damam
{daw-man'}
A primitive root (compare H1724, H1820); to be dumb; by implication to be astonished, to stop; also to perish.
z8798
<8798> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperative (See H8810)
Count - 2847
upon Giv`n גִּבעוֹן; 1391
{1391} Prime
גִּבְעוֹן
Gib`own
{ghib-ohn'}
From the same as H1387; hilly; Gibon, a place in Palestine.
and thou, Moon, 3394
{3394} Prime
יָרֵחַ
yareach
{yaw-ray'-akh}
From the same as H3391; the moon.
in the valley 6010
{6010} Prime
עֵמֶק
`emeq
{ay'-mek}
From H6009; a vale (that is, broad depression).
of Ayyln אַיָּלוֹן. 357
{0357} Prime
אַיָּלוֹן
'Ayalown
{ah-yaw-lone'}
From H0354; deerfield; Ajalon, the name of five places in Palestine.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Joshua 10:12-15

_ _ Joshua 10:12-15. The Sun and Moon stand still at the word of Joshua.

_ _ Then spake Joshua to the Lord ... and ... he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still ... and thou, Moon — The inspired author here breaks off the thread of his history of this miraculous victory to introduce a quotation from an ancient poem, in which the mighty acts of that day were commemorated. The passage, which is parenthetical, contains a poetical description of the victory which was miraculously gained by the help of God, and forms an extract from “the book of Jasher,” that is, “the upright” — an anthology, or collection of national songs, in honor of renowned and eminently pious heroes. The language of a poem is not to be literally interpreted; and therefore, when the sun and moon are personified, addressed as intelligent beings, and represented as standing still, the explanation is that the light of the sun and moon was supernaturally prolonged by the same laws of refraction and reflection that ordinarily cause the sun to appear above the horizon, when it is in reality below it [Keil, Bush]. Gibeon (“a hill”) was now at the back of the Israelites, and the height would soon have intercepted the rays of the setting sun. The valley of Ajalon (“stags”) was before them, and so near that it was sometimes called “the valley of Gibeon” (Isaiah 28:21). It would seem, from Joshua 10:14, that the command of Joshua was in reality a prayer to God for the performance of this miracle; and that, although the prayers of eminently good men like Moses often prevailed with God, never was there on any other occasion so astonishing a display of divine power made in behalf of His people, as in answer to the prayer of Joshua. Joshua 10:15 is the end of the quotation from Jasher; and it is necessary to notice this, as the fact described in it is recorded in due course, and the same words, by the sacred historian (Joshua 10:43).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Joshua 10:7-14.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Joshua 10:12

Spoke Joshua — Being moved to beg it out of zeal to destroy God's enemies, and directed to it by the motion of God's spirit, and being filled with holy confidence of the success, he speaks the following words before the people, that that they might be witnesses. In the sight — That is, in the presence and audience of Israel. Over Gibeon — That is, in that place and posture in which now it stands towards, and looks upon Gibeon. Let it not go down lower, and by degrees, out of the sight of Gibeon. It may seem, that the sun, was declining, and Joshua perceiving that his work was great and long, and his time but short, begs of God the lengthening out of the day, and that the sun and moon might stop their course, He mentions two places, Gibeon and Ajalon, not as if the sun stood over the one and the moon over the other, which is absurd especially these places being so near the one to the other; but partly to vary the phrase, as is common in poetical passages; partly because he was in his march in the pursuit of his enemies, to pass from Gibeon to Ajalon; and he begs that he may have the help of longer light to pursue them, and to that end that the sun might stand still, and the moon also; not that he needed the moon's light, but because it was fit, either that both sun and moon should go, or that both should stand still to prevent disorder in the heavenly bodies. The prayer is thus exprest with authority, because it was not an ordinary prayer, but the prayer of a prophet, divinely inspired at this very time for this purpose. And yet it intimates to us the prevalency of prayer in general, and may mind us of that honour put upon prayer, concerning the work of my hands command you me.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

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Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
Sun:
Joshua doubtless acted, on this occasion, by an immediate impulse upon his mind from the Spirit of God. The terms here employed to record the miracle, agree with the accustomed manner in which the the motions of the earth and sun are described in our own day. The sun apparently moves, but really is stationary; while the diurnal movement of the earth on its axis is by us unnoticed, and would not have been known except by astronomical science. The sun appeared to the Israelites over Gibeon, and the moon over the valley of Ajalon, and there they stayed in their course for "a whole day." Many vain enquiries have been made concerning the way in which this miracle was wrought, and many difficulties and objections have been urged against understanding it literally. But the fact is authenticated by the Divine testimony; and the manner in which it was accomplished lies entirely out of our province, because beyond our comprehension.
Joshua 10:13 And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. [Is] not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.
Deuteronomy 4:19 And lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun, and the moon, and the stars, [even] all the host of heaven, shouldest be driven to worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath divided unto all nations under the whole heaven.
Deuteronomy 17:3 And hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have not commanded;
Job 9:7 Which commandeth the sun, and it riseth not; and sealeth up the stars.
Job 31:26-27 If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking [in] brightness; ... And my heart hath been secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand:
Psalms 19:4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
Psalms 74:16 The day [is] thine, the night also [is] thine: thou hast prepared the light and the sun.
Psalms 148:3 Praise ye him, sun and moon: praise him, all ye stars of light.
Isaiah 28:21 For the LORD shall rise up as [in] mount Perazim, he shall be wroth as [in] the valley of Gibeon, that he may do his work, his strange work; and bring to pass his act, his strange act.
Isaiah 38:8 Behold, I will bring again the shadow of the degrees, which is gone down in the sun dial of Ahaz, ten degrees backward. So the sun returned ten degrees, by which degrees it was gone down.
Isaiah 60:20 Thy sun shall no more go down; neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the LORD shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.
Amos 8:9 And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord GOD, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in the clear day:
Habakkuk 3:11 The sun [and] moon stood still in their habitation: at the light of thine arrows they went, [and] at the shining of thy glittering spear.

stand thou:
Heb. be silent,
Habakkuk 2:20 But the LORD [is] in his holy temple: let all the earth keep silence before him.
*marg.
Zechariah 2:13 Be silent, O all flesh, before the LORD: for he is raised up out of his holy habitation.

Ajalon:

Joshua 19:42 And Shaalabbin, and Ajalon, and Jethlah,
Judges 12:12 And Elon the Zebulonite died, and was buried in Aijalon in the country of Zebulun.
, Aijalon
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Dt 4:19; 17:3. Jsh 10:13; 19:42. Jg 12:12. Jb 9:7; 31:26. Ps 19:4; 74:16; 148:3. Is 28:21; 38:8; 60:20. Am 8:9. Hab 2:20; 3:11. Zc 2:13.

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