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Jonah 3:8 [study!]

American Standard Version (ASV 1901) [2]
— but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in his hands.
King James Version (KJV 1769)
— But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.
New American Standard Bible (NASB ©1995)
— “But both man and beast must be covered with sackcloth; and let men call on God earnestly that each may turn from his wicked way and from the violence which is in his hands.
Webster's Revision of the KJB (WEB 1833)
— But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily to God: yes, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.
Darby's Translation (DBY 1890)
— and let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto God; and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.
Rotherham's Emphasized Bible (EBR 1902)
— Let both man and beast, cover themselves with sackcloth, and let them cry unto God, mightily,—Yea let them turn, every man from his wicked way, and from the violence which is in their hands:
Young's Literal Translation (YLT 1898)
— and cover themselves [with] sackcloth let man and beast, and let them call unto God mightily, and let them turn back each from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision (DR 1750)
— And let men and beasts be covered with sackcloth, and cry to the Lord with all their strength, and let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the iniquity that is in their hands.
Original King James Bible (AV 1611) [2]
— But let man and beast be couered with sackecloth, and cry mightily vnto God: yea, let them turne euery one from his euill way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.
Brenton Greek Septuagint (LXX, Restored Names)
— So men and cattle were clothed with sackcloths, and cried earnestly to God; and they turned every one from their evil way, and from the iniquity that was in their hands, saying,
Full Hebrew Names / Holy Name KJV (2008) [2] [3]
— But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and cry mightily unto Elohim: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.

Strong's Numbers & Hebrew NamesHebrew Old TestamentColor-Code/Key Word Studies
But let man 120
{0120} Prime
אָדָם
'adam
{aw-dawm'}
From H0119; ruddy, that is, a human being (an individual or the species, mankind, etc.).
and beast 929
{0929} Prime
בְּהֵמָה
b@hemah
{be-hay-maw'}
From an unused root (probably meaning to be mute); properly a dumb beast; especially any large quadruped or animal (often collectively).
be covered 3680
{3680} Prime
כָּסָה
kacah
{kaw-saw'}
A primitive root; properly to plump, that is, fill up hollows; by implication to cover (for clothing or secrecy).
z8691
<8691> Grammar
Stem - Hithpael (See H8819)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 533
with sackcloth, 8242
{8242} Prime
שַׂק
saq
{sak}
From H8264; properly a mesh (as allowing a liquid to run through), that is, coarse loose cloth or sacking (used in mourning and for bagging); hence a bag (for grain, etc.).
and cry 7121
{7121} Prime
קָרָא
qara'
{kaw-raw'}
A primitive root (rather identical with H7122 through the idea of accosting a person met); to call out to (that is, properly address by name, but used in a wide variety of applications).
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
mightily 2394
{2394} Prime
חָזְקָה
chozqah
{khoz-kaw'}
Feminine of H2392; vehemence (usually in a bad sense).
unto x413
(0413) Complement
אֵל
'el
{ale}
(Used only in the shortened constructive form (the second form)); a primitive particle, properly denoting motion towards, but occasionally used of a quiescent position, that is, near, with or among; often in general, to.
lhm אֱלֹהִים: 430
{0430} Prime
אֱלֹהִים
'elohiym
{el-o-heem'}
Plural of H0433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God; occasionally applied by way of deference to magistrates; and sometimes as a superlative.
yea, let them turn 7725
{7725} Prime
שׁוּב
shuwb
{shoob}
A primitive root; to turn back (hence, away) transitively or intransitively, literally or figuratively (not necessarily with the idea of return to the starting point); generally to retreat; often adverbially again.
z8799
<8799> Grammar
Stem - Qal (See H8851)
Mood - Imperfect (See H8811)
Count - 19885
every one 376
{0376} Prime
אִישׁ
'iysh
{eesh}
Contracted for H0582 (or perhaps rather from an unused root meaning to be extant); a man as an individual or a male person; often used as an adjunct to a more definite term (and in such cases frequently not expressed in translation.).
from his evil 7451
{7451} Prime
רָע
ra`
{rah}
From H7489; bad or (as noun) evil (naturally or morally). This includes the second (feminine) form; as adjective or noun.
way, 1870
{1870} Prime
דֶּרֶךְ
derek
{deh'-rek}
From H1869; a road (as trodden); figuratively a course of life or mode of action, often adverbially.
x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
and from x4480
(4480) Complement
מִן
min
{min}
For H4482; properly a part of; hence (prepositionally), from or out of in many senses.
the violence 2555
{2555} Prime
חָמָס
chamac
{khaw-mawce'}
From H2554; violence; by implication wrong; by metonymy unjust gain.
that x834
(0834) Complement
אֲשֶׁר
'asher
{ash-er'}
A primitive relative pronoun (of every gender and number); who, which, what, that; also (as adverb and conjunction) when, where, how, because, in order that, etc.
[is] in their hands. 3709
{3709} Prime
כַּף
kaph
{kaf}
From H3721; the hollow hand or palm (so of the paw of an animal, of the sole, and even of the bowl of a dish or sling, the handle of a bolt, the leaves of a palm tree); figuratively power.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Commentary

Jonah 3:8

_ _ cry ... turn — Prayer without reformation is a mockery of God (Psalms 66:18; Isaiah 58:6). Prayer, on the other hand, must precede true reformation, as we cannot turn to God from our evil way unless God first turns us (Jeremiah 31:18, Jeremiah 31:19).

Matthew Henry's Commentary

See commentary on Jonah 3:5-10.

John Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Jonah 3:8

And beast — Their horses and camels, both which they adorned with rich and costly clothing, they must now in testimony of an hearty repentance, clothe with sackcloth; the clothing of beasts must witness for men. The violence — Oppression and rapine. In their hands — Which are practised by them.

Geneva Bible Translation Notes

Jonah 3:8

But let man and beast be covered with sackcloth, and (f) cry mightily unto God: yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that [is] in their hands.

(f) He exhorted that the men should earnestly call to God for mercy.

Cross-Reference Topical ResearchStrong's Concordance
cry:

Jonah 1:6 So the shipmaster came to him, and said unto him, What meanest thou, O sleeper? arise, call upon thy God, if so be that God will think upon us, that we perish not.
Jonah 1:14 Wherefore they cried unto the LORD, and said, We beseech thee, O LORD, we beseech thee, let us not perish for this man's life, and lay not upon us innocent blood: for thou, O LORD, hast done as it pleased thee.
Psalms 130:1-2 [[A Song of degrees.]] Out of the depths have I cried unto thee, O LORD. ... Lord, hear my voice: let thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplications.

let:

Isaiah 1:16-19 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; ... If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land:
Isaiah 55:6-7 Seek ye the LORD while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near: ... Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.
Isaiah 58:6 [Is] not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?
Ezekiel 18:21-24 But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all my statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he shall not die. ... But when the righteous turneth away from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, [and] doeth according to all the abominations that the wicked [man] doeth, shall he live? All his righteousness that he hath done shall not be mentioned: in his trespass that he hath trespassed, and in his sin that he hath sinned, in them shall he die.
Ezekiel 18:27-28 Again, when the wicked [man] turneth away from his wickedness that he hath committed, and doeth that which is lawful and right, he shall save his soul alive. ... Because he considereth, and turneth away from all his transgressions that he hath committed, he shall surely live, he shall not die.
Ezekiel 18:30-32 Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways, saith the Lord GOD. Repent, and turn [yourselves] from all your transgressions; so iniquity shall not be your ruin. ... For I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord GOD: wherefore turn [yourselves], and live ye.
Ezekiel 33:11 Say unto them, [As] I live, saith the Lord GOD, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live: turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways; for why will ye die, O house of Israel?
Daniel 4:27 Wherefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable unto thee, and break off thy sins by righteousness, and thine iniquities by shewing mercy to the poor; if it may be a lengthening of thy tranquillity.
Matthew 3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:
Acts 3:19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord;
Acts 26:20 But shewed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coasts of Judaea, and [then] to the Gentiles, that they should repent and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.

the violence:

Isaiah 59:6 Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works: their works [are] works of iniquity, and the act of violence [is] in their hands.
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Chain-Reference Bible Search

Ps 130:1. Is 1:16; 55:6; 58:6; 59:6. Ezk 18:21, 27, 30; 33:11. Dn 4:27. Jna 1:6, 14. Mt 3:8. Ac 3:19; 26:20.

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